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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.92 2007/05/20 04:16:25 nightmorph Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.116 2012/10/06 20:16:10 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract> 11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter 12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to 13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed. 14proceed.
15</abstract> 15</abstract>
16 16
17<version>8.2</version> 17<version>22</version>
18<date>2007-05-19</date> 18<date>2012-10-06</date>
19 19
20<section> 20<section>
21<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
22<subsection> 22<subsection>
23<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a 90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it. 91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
92</p> 92</p>
93 93
94<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/hd')">
95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition (or
97<path>/dev/sda*</path> if you use SCSI or SATA drives), with <c>ext2</c> as
98filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
99</p> 94<p>
100
101<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/sd')">
102In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is 95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
103usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
104filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
105</p> 98</p>
106 99
107<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
108<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
109</pre> 102</pre>
110 103
111<p> 104<p>
112Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
113automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should 106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
116</p> 109</p>
117 110
118</body> 111</body>
119<body> 112<body>
120 113
121<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')"> 114<p>
122Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for 115Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
123<path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>, for your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if
124you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
125</p>
126
127<p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
128Add the rules that match your partitioning schema and append rules for
129<path>/proc/openprom</path>, <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> , for your CD-ROM
130drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives, for those too. 116your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
117for those too.
131</p> 118</p>
132 119
133<p> 120<p>
134Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
135</p> 122</p>
136 123
137<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
138<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
139/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
140/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
141
142proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
143shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
144
145/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
146</pre>
147
148<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'"> 124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
149<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
150/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
151/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 127/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
152 128
153proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
154shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
155
156/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
157</pre> 130</pre>
158 131
159<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'"> 132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
160<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 133<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
161/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 134/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
162/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 135/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
163
164proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
165shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
166 136
167/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 137/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
168</pre> 138</pre>
169 139
170<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'"> 140<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
172/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 142/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
173/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2 143/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
174/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2 144/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
175/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2 145/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
176 146
147<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
177openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 148openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
178proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
179shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
180 149
181/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
182</pre> 151</pre>
183 152
184<note test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
185There are important variations between PPC machine types. Please make sure you
186adapt the following example to your system.
187</note>
188
189<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'"> 153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
190/dev/hda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 154func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
191/dev/hda3 none swap sw 0 0
192
193proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
194shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
195
196/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
197</pre>
198
199<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
200/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 155/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
201/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 156/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
202
203proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
204shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
205 157
206/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 158/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
207</pre> 159</pre>
208 160
209<p> 161<p>
240</p> 192</p>
241 193
242<pre caption="Setting the host name"> 194<pre caption="Setting the host name">
243# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i> 195# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
244 196
245<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment> 197<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
246HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>" 198hostname="<i>tux</i>"
247</pre> 199</pre>
248 200
249<p> 201<p>
250Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. 202Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
251You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you 203You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
278nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>" 230nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
279</pre> 231</pre>
280 232
281<note> 233<note>
282For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples 234For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
283provided in <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. Also, you may want to emerge 235provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
284<c>resolvconf-gentoo</c> to help manage your DNS/NIS setup. 236can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
237to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
285</note> 238</note>
286 239
287</body> 240</body>
288</subsection> 241</subsection>
289<subsection> 242<subsection>
306<p> 259<p>
307All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 260All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
308a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 261a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
309networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully 262networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
310commented example that covers many different configurations is available in 263commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
311<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 264<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
312</p> 265</p>
313 266
314<p> 267<p>
315DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP 268DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
316client. This is described later in <uri 269client. This is described later in <uri
334</p> 287</p>
335 288
336<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net"> 289<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
337# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.* 290# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
338# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration, 291# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
339# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration 292# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
340# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!). 293# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
341</pre> 294</pre>
342 295
343<p> 296<p>
344To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need 297To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
345to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>: 298to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
346</p> 299</p>
347 300
348<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0"> 301<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
349config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" ) 302config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
350routes_eth0=( "default via 192.168.0.1" ) 303routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
351</pre> 304</pre>
352 305
353<p> 306<p>
354To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and 307To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
355<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
356</p> 308</p>
357 309
358<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0"> 310<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
359config_eth0=( "dhcp" ) 311config_eth0="dhcp"
360dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
361</pre> 312</pre>
362 313
363<p> 314<p>
364Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available 315Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
365options. 316list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
317you need to set specific DHCP options.
366</p> 318</p>
367 319
368<p> 320<p>
369If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for 321If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
370<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc. 322<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
384To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the 336To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
385default runlevel. 337default runlevel.
386</p> 338</p>
387 339
388<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 340<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
341# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
342# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
389# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 343# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
390</pre> 344</pre>
391 345
392<p> 346<p>
393If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 347If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
394<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 348<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. just like you did with
395use <c>ln</c> to do this: 349<path>net.eth0</path>.
396</p>
397
398<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
399# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
400# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth1</i>
401# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
402</pre> 350</p>
403 351
404</body> 352</body>
405</subsection> 353</subsection>
406<subsection> 354<subsection>
407<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 355<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
469 417
470<pre caption="Setting the root password"> 418<pre caption="Setting the root password">
471# <i>passwd</i> 419# <i>passwd</i>
472</pre> 420</pre>
473 421
474<p>
475If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
476<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
477</p>
478
479<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
480# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
481</pre>
482
483</body> 422</body>
484</subsection> 423</subsection>
485<subsection> 424<subsection>
486<title>System Information</title> 425<title>System Information</title>
487<body> 426<body>
488 427
489<p> 428<p>
490Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 429Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
491Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 430and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
431the comments in the file.
492</p> 432</p>
493 433
494<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 434<pre caption="Configuring services">
495# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 435# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
496</pre> 436</pre>
497 437
498<p> 438<p>
499When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit. 439When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
500</p>
501
502<p>
503As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
504configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
505define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
506</p> 440</p>
507 441
508<p> 442<p>
509Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration. 443Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
510Edit it to configure your keyboard. 444Edit it to configure your keyboard.
513<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps"> 447<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
514# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i> 448# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
515</pre> 449</pre>
516 450
517<p> 451<p>
518Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong 452Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
519<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard. 453<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
520</p> 454</p>
521 455
522<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'"> 456<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
523PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB 457PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
524keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
525set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
526</note> 458</note>
527 459
528<p> 460<p>
529When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and 461When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
530exit. 462exit.
531</p> 463</p>
532 464
533<p> 465<p>
534Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it 466Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
535according to your needs. 467according to your needs.
536</p> 468</p>
537 469
538<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock"> 470<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
539# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i> 471# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
540</pre> 472</pre>
541 473
542<p> 474<p>
543If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> 475If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
544to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. 476to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
545</p> 477</p>
546 478
547<p> 479<p>
548When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and 480When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
549exit. 481exit.
482</p>
483
484<p>
485You should define the timezone that you previously copied to
486<path>/etc/localtime</path> in the <path>/etc/timezone</path> file so that
487further upgrades of the <c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update
488<path>/etc/localtime</path> automatically. For instance, if you used the
489Europe/Brussels timezone, you would write <c>Europe/Brussels</c> in the
490<path>/etc/timezone</path> file.
491</p>
492
493</body>
494</subsection>
495
496<subsection>
497<title>Configure locales</title>
498<body>
499
500<p>
501You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
502specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
503</p>
504
505<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
506# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
507</pre>
508
509<p>
510The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
511German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
512</p>
513
514<pre caption="Specify your locales">
515en_US ISO-8859-1
516en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
517de_DE ISO-8859-1
518de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
519</pre>
520
521<note>
522You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
523</note>
524
525<warn>
526We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
527applications may require it.
528</warn>
529
530<p>
531The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
532have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
533</p>
534
535<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
536# <i>locale-gen</i>
537</pre>
538
539<p>
540Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings
541in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
542</p>
543
544<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
545LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
546LC_COLLATE="C"
547</pre>
548
549<p>
550And reload your environment:
551</p>
552
553<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
554# env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile
555</pre>
556
557<p>
558We made a full <uri link="../guide-localization.xml#doc_chap3">Localization
559Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read our detailed
560<uri link="../utf-8.xml#doc_chap2">UTF-8 Guide</uri> for very specific
561informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
550</p> 562</p>
551 563
552<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')"> 564<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
553Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System 565Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
554Tools</uri>. 566Tools</uri>.

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