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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.40 2004/08/02 19:29:14 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.92 2007/05/20 04:16:25 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed.
15</abstract>
16
17<version>8.2</version>
18<date>2007-05-19</date>
19
10<section> 20<section>
11<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
12<subsection> 22<subsection>
13<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
14<body> 24<body>
15 25
16<p> 26<p>
17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 27Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 28<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 29(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 30and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
21etc.). 31them or not, etc.)
22</p> 32</p>
23 33
24</body> 34</body>
25</subsection> 35</subsection>
26<subsection> 36<subsection>
37<li> 47<li>
38 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device 48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
39 file) 49 file)
40</li> 50</li>
41<li> 51<li>
42 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be 52 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
43 mounted 53 mounted
44</li> 54</li>
45<li> 55<li>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47</li> 57</li>
48<li> 58<li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 59 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 61 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 62 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
53</li> 63</li>
54<li> 64<li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57</li> 67</li>
58<li> 68<li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which 69 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. 70 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 71 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary). 72 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63</li> 73</li>
64</ul> 74</ul>
65 75
66<p> 76<impo>
67So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
68<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
69</p> 79</impo>
70 80
71<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
73</pre> 83</pre>
74 84
85</body>
86<body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
87
75<p> 88<p>
76Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
77partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
78<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim. 91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
79</p>
80
81<p> 92</p>
93
94<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/hd')">
82In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
83<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition (or
97<path>/dev/sda*</path> if you use SCSI or SATA drives), with <c>ext2</c> as
84It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 98filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
99</p>
100
101<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/sd')">
102In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
103usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
104filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
85</p> 105</p>
86 106
87<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 107<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
88/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 108<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
89</pre> 109</pre>
90 110
91<p> 111<p>
92Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 112Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
93automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should 113automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
94substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to 114substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
95manually mount this partition every time you want to use it. 115manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
96</p> 116</p>
97 117
118</body>
119<body>
120
121<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')">
122Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
123<path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>, for your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if
124you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
98<p> 125</p>
99Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
100option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
101aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
102</p>
103 126
104<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 127<p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
105/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 128Add the rules that match your partitioning schema and append rules for
106</pre> 129<path>/proc/openprom</path>, <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> , for your CD-ROM
107 130drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
108<p> 131</p>
109If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 132
110<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
111</p> 133<p>
134Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
135</p>
112 136
113<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 137<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
114/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 138<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
115/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 139/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
116/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 140/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
117</pre>
118 141
119<p> 142proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
120To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> 143shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
121(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other 144
122partitions or drives, for those too): 145/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
123</p> 146</pre>
124 147
125<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 148<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
126/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 149<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
150/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
151/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
152
153proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
154shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
155
156/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
157</pre>
158
159<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'">
160<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
127/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 161/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
128/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 162/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
129 163
130none /proc proc defaults 0 0 164proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
131none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 165shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
132 166
167/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
168</pre>
169
170<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
171/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
172/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
173/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
174/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
175/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
176
177openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
178proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
179shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
180
133/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 181/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
182</pre>
183
184<note test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
185There are important variations between PPC machine types. Please make sure you
186adapt the following example to your system.
187</note>
188
189<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
190/dev/hda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
191/dev/hda3 none swap sw 0 0
192
193proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
194shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
195
196/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
197</pre>
198
199<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
200/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
201/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
202
203proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
204shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
205
206/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
134</pre> 207</pre>
135 208
136<p> 209<p>
137<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 210<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
138removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 211removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
139<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 212<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
140</p> 213</p>
141 214
142<p> 215<p>
143Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 216To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
144<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your 217mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
145<path>/etc/fstab</path> 218aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway).
146too:
147</p>
148
149<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
150none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
151</pre>
152
153<p> 219</p>
154If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
155</p>
156
157<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
158none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
159</pre>
160 220
161<p> 221<p>
162Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 222Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
163</p> 223</p>
164 224
166</subsection> 226</subsection>
167</section> 227</section>
168<section> 228<section>
169<title>Networking Information</title> 229<title>Networking Information</title>
170<subsection> 230<subsection>
171<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 231<title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
172<body> 232<body>
173 233
174<p> 234<p>
175One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be 235One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
176quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the 236quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
177appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you 237appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
178choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 238choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
179<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 239<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
180</p> 240</p>
181 241
182<p>
183We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
184</p>
185
186<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 242<pre caption="Setting the host name">
187# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i> 243# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
188</pre>
189 244
245<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment>
246HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
247</pre>
248
190<p> 249<p>
191Second we set the domainname: 250Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
251You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
252have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
253domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
192</p> 254</p>
193 255
194<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 256<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
195# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i> 257# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
258
259<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
260dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
196</pre> 261</pre>
262
263<note>
264If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
265hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
266<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
267</note>
197 268
198<p> 269<p>
199If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 270If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
200one), you need to define that one too: 271one), you need to define that one too:
201</p> 272</p>
202 273
203<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 274<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
204# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 275# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
205</pre>
206 276
207<p> 277<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
208Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel: 278nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
209</p> 279</pre>
210 280
211<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel"> 281<note>
212# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i> 282For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
213</pre> 283provided in <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. Also, you may want to emerge
284<c>resolvconf-gentoo</c> to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
285</note>
214 286
215</body> 287</body>
216</subsection> 288</subsection>
217<subsection> 289<subsection>
218<title>Configuring your Network</title> 290<title>Configuring your Network</title>
219<body> 291<body>
220 292
221<p> 293<p>
222Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember 294Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
223that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was 295that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
224just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for 296just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
225your Gentoo system permanently. 297your Gentoo system permanently.
226</p> 298</p>
227 299
300<note>
301More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
302bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
303link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
304</note>
305
228<p> 306<p>
229All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 307All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
230a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 308a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
231networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 309networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
232</p> 310commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
233 311<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
234<p> 312</p>
313
314<p>
315DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
316client. This is described later in <uri
317link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
318Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
319</p>
320
321<p>
322If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
323specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
235First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 324<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
236is used in this example): 325this example):
237</p> 326</p>
238 327
239<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 328<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
240# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 329# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
241</pre> 330</pre>
242 331
243<p> 332<p>
244The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 333You will see the following file:
245syntax:
246</p>
247
248<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
249iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
250</pre>
251
252<p> 334</p>
253If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 335
254to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>. 336<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
255If you need to setup your network manually and you're 337# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
256not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 338# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
257link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 339# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
258Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 340# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
341</pre>
342
259</p> 343<p>
260 344To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
345to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
261<p> 346</p>
262So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static 347
263IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and 348<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
264gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for 349config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" )
265rp-pppoe usage: 350routes_eth0=( "default via 192.168.0.1" )
351</pre>
352
266</p> 353<p>
267 354To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and
268<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 355<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
269<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
270iface_eth0="dhcp"
271<comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
272<comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
273<comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
274<comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
275dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
276<comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
277<comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
278dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
279
280<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
281iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
282gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
283
284<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
285iface_eth0="up"
286</pre>
287
288<p> 356</p>
289If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 357
290like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 358<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
291shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer. 359config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
360dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
361</pre>
362
363<p>
364Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available
365options.
366</p>
367
368<p>
369If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
370<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
292</p> 371</p>
293 372
294<p> 373<p>
295Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 374Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
296</p> 375</p>
300<subsection> 379<subsection>
301<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 380<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
302<body> 381<body>
303 382
304<p> 383<p>
305To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 384To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
306default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 385default runlevel.
307the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
308</p> 386</p>
309 387
310<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 388<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
311# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 389# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
312</pre> 390</pre>
317use <c>ln</c> to do this: 395use <c>ln</c> to do this:
318</p> 396</p>
319 397
320<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts"> 398<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
321# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i> 399# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
322# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i> 400# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth1</i>
323# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i> 401# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
324</pre> 402</pre>
325 403
326</body> 404</body>
327</subsection> 405</subsection>
329<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 407<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
330<body> 408<body>
331 409
332<p> 410<p>
333You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 411You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
334<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 412<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
335for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 413hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
336internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 414You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
337<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would 415set up your own internal DNS system.
338open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
339</p> 416</p>
340 417
341<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 418<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
342# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 419# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
343</pre> 420</pre>
344 421
345<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 422<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
346127.0.0.1 localhost 423<comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
424127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
425
426<comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
427they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
347192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny 428192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
348192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny 429192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
349192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
350</pre>
351
352<p>
353If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
354resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
355system <c>tux.homenetwork</c>:
356</p>
357
358<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
359127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
360</pre> 430</pre>
361 431
362<p> 432<p>
363Save and exit the editor to continue. 433Save and exit the editor to continue.
364</p> 434</p>
365 435
366<p> 436<p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
367If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 437If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
368link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 438link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
369following topic on PCMCIA. 439following topic on PCMCIA.
370</p> 440</p>
371 441
372</body> 442</body>
373</subsection> 443</subsection>
374<subsection> 444<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
375<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 445<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
376<body> 446<body>
377 447
378<note>
379pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
380</note>
381
382<p> 448<p>
383PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The 449PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
384<c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
385</p> 450</p>
386 451
387<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 452<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
388# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 453# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
389</pre>
390
391<p>
392When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
393runlevel:
394</p>
395
396<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
397# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
398</pre> 454</pre>
399 455
400</body> 456</body>
401</subsection> 457</subsection>
402</section> 458</section>
459
460<section id="sysinfo">
461<title>System Information</title>
403<section> 462<subsection>
463<title>Root Password</title>
464<body>
465
466<p>
467First we set the root password by typing:
468</p>
469
470<pre caption="Setting the root password">
471# <i>passwd</i>
472</pre>
473
474<p>
475If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
476<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
477</p>
478
479<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
480# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
481</pre>
482
483</body>
484</subsection>
485<subsection>
404<title>System Information</title> 486<title>System Information</title>
405<body> 487<body>
406 488
407<p> 489<p>
408Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 490Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
412<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 494<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
413# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 495# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
414</pre> 496</pre>
415 497
416<p> 498<p>
499When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
500</p>
501
502<p>
417As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 503As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
418configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if 504configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
419you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on 505define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
420your keyboard. 506</p>
507
421</p> 508<p>
509Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
510Edit it to configure your keyboard.
511</p>
422 512
423<note> 513<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
424Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to 514# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
425select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". 515</pre>
516
517<p>
518Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
519<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
520</p>
521
522<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
523PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB
524keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
525set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
426</note> 526</note>
427 527
428<p> 528<p>
429<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use 529When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
430ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have 530exit.
431to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
432</p>
433
434<p> 531</p>
435When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 532
436continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
437</p> 533<p>
534Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
535according to your needs.
536</p>
438 537
538<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
539# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
540</pre>
541
542<p>
543If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c>
544to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
545</p>
546
547<p>
548When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
549exit.
550</p>
551
552<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
553Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
554Tools</uri>.
555</p>
556
557</body>
558</subsection>
559<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
560<title>Configuring the Console</title>
439</body> 561<body>
562
563<p>
564If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
565<path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
566</p>
567
568<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
569hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
570hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
571</pre>
572
573<p>
574You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
575listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
576</p>
577
578<p>
579You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
580System Tools</uri>.
581</p>
582
583</body>
584</subsection>
440</section> 585</section>
441</sections> 586</sections>

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