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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.99 2008/05/02 08:04:23 nightmorph Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.116 2012/10/06 20:16:10 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract> 11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter 12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to 13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed. 14proceed.
15</abstract> 15</abstract>
16 16
17<version>9.2</version> 17<version>22</version>
18<date>2008-05-02</date> 18<date>2012-10-06</date>
19 19
20<section> 20<section>
21<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
22<subsection> 22<subsection>
23<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
98</p> 98</p>
99 99
100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
102</pre> 102</pre>
103 103
104<p> 104<p>
105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should 106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
120<p> 120<p>
121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
122</p> 122</p>
123 123
124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'"> 124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
127/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 127/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
128 128
129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
130</pre> 130</pre>
131 131
132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'"> 132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
133<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 133<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
134/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 134/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
135/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 135/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
136 136
137/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 137/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
138</pre> 138</pre>
192</p> 192</p>
193 193
194<pre caption="Setting the host name"> 194<pre caption="Setting the host name">
195# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i> 195# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
196 196
197<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment> 197<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
198HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>" 198hostname="<i>tux</i>"
199</pre> 199</pre>
200 200
201<p> 201<p>
202Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. 202Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
203You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you 203You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
230nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>" 230nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
231</pre> 231</pre>
232 232
233<note> 233<note>
234For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples 234For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
235provided in <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. Also, you may want to emerge 235provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
236can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
236<c>openresolv</c> to help manage your DNS/NIS setup. 237to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
237</note> 238</note>
238 239
239</body> 240</body>
240</subsection> 241</subsection>
241<subsection> 242<subsection>
258<p> 259<p>
259All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 260All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
260a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 261a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
261networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully 262networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
262commented example that covers many different configurations is available in 263commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
263<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 264<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
264</p> 265</p>
265 266
266<p> 267<p>
267DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP 268DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
268client. This is described later in <uri 269client. This is described later in <uri
286</p> 287</p>
287 288
288<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net"> 289<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
289# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.* 290# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
290# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration, 291# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
291# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration 292# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
292# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!). 293# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
293</pre> 294</pre>
294 295
295<p> 296<p>
296To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need 297To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
297to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>: 298to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
298</p> 299</p>
299 300
300<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0"> 301<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
301config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" ) 302config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
302routes_eth0=( "default via 192.168.0.1" ) 303routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
303</pre> 304</pre>
304 305
305<p> 306<p>
306To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and 307To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
307<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
308</p> 308</p>
309 309
310<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0"> 310<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
311config_eth0=( "dhcp" ) 311config_eth0="dhcp"
312dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
313</pre> 312</pre>
314 313
315<p> 314<p>
316Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available 315Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
317options. 316list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
317you need to set specific DHCP options.
318</p> 318</p>
319 319
320<p> 320<p>
321If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for 321If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
322<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc. 322<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
336To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the 336To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
337default runlevel. 337default runlevel.
338</p> 338</p>
339 339
340<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 340<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
341# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
342# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
341# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 343# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
342</pre> 344</pre>
343 345
344<p> 346<p>
345If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 347If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
346<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 348<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. just like you did with
347use <c>ln</c> to do this: 349<path>net.eth0</path>.
348</p>
349
350<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
351# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
352# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth1</i>
353# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
354</pre> 350</p>
355 351
356</body> 352</body>
357</subsection> 353</subsection>
358<subsection> 354<subsection>
359<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 355<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
428<subsection> 424<subsection>
429<title>System Information</title> 425<title>System Information</title>
430<body> 426<body>
431 427
432<p> 428<p>
433Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 429Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
434Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 430and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
431the comments in the file.
435</p> 432</p>
436 433
437<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 434<pre caption="Configuring services">
438# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 435# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
439</pre> 436</pre>
440 437
441<p> 438<p>
442When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit. 439When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
443</p>
444
445<p>
446As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
447configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
448define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
449</p> 440</p>
450 441
451<p> 442<p>
452Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration. 443Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
453Edit it to configure your keyboard. 444Edit it to configure your keyboard.
456<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps"> 447<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
457# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i> 448# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
458</pre> 449</pre>
459 450
460<p> 451<p>
461Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong 452Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
462<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard. 453<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
463</p> 454</p>
464 455
465<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'"> 456<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
466PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB 457PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
467keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
468set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
469</note> 458</note>
470 459
471<p> 460<p>
472When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and 461When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
473exit. 462exit.
474</p> 463</p>
475 464
476<p> 465<p>
477Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it 466Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
478according to your needs. 467according to your needs.
479</p> 468</p>
480 469
481<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock"> 470<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
482# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i> 471# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
483</pre> 472</pre>
484 473
485<p> 474<p>
486If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> 475If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
487to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. 476to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
488</p> 477</p>
489 478
490<p> 479<p>
480When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
481exit.
482</p>
483
484<p>
491You should define the timezone that you previously copied to 485You should define the timezone that you previously copied to
492<path>/etc/localtime</path> so that further upgrades of the 486<path>/etc/localtime</path> in the <path>/etc/timezone</path> file so that
493<c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update <path>/etc/localtime</path> 487further upgrades of the <c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update
494automatically. For instance, if you used the GMT timezone, you would add 488<path>/etc/localtime</path> automatically. For instance, if you used the
495<c>TIMEZONE="GMT"</c> 489Europe/Brussels timezone, you would write <c>Europe/Brussels</c> in the
496</p> 490<path>/etc/timezone</path> file.
497
498<p> 491</p>
499When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and 492
500exit. 493</body>
494</subsection>
495
496<subsection>
497<title>Configure locales</title>
498<body>
499
500<p>
501You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
502specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
503</p>
504
505<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
506# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
507</pre>
508
509<p>
510The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
511German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
512</p>
513
514<pre caption="Specify your locales">
515en_US ISO-8859-1
516en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
517de_DE ISO-8859-1
518de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
519</pre>
520
521<note>
522You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
523</note>
524
525<warn>
526We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
527applications may require it.
528</warn>
529
530<p>
531The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
532have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
533</p>
534
535<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
536# <i>locale-gen</i>
537</pre>
538
539<p>
540Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings
541in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
542</p>
543
544<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
545LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
546LC_COLLATE="C"
547</pre>
548
549<p>
550And reload your environment:
551</p>
552
553<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
554# env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile
555</pre>
556
557<p>
558We made a full <uri link="../guide-localization.xml#doc_chap3">Localization
559Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read our detailed
560<uri link="../utf-8.xml#doc_chap2">UTF-8 Guide</uri> for very specific
561informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
501</p> 562</p>
502 563
503<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')"> 564<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
504Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System 565Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
505Tools</uri>. 566Tools</uri>.

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