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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
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6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.85 2006/10/21 01:13:51 nightmorph Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.99 2008/05/02 08:04:23 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed.
15</abstract>
16
11<version>7.4</version> 17<version>9.2</version>
12<date>2006-10-20</date> 18<date>2008-05-02</date>
13 19
14<section> 20<section>
15<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
16<subsection> 22<subsection>
17<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
67</li> 73</li>
68</ul> 74</ul>
69 75
70<impo> 76<impo>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid 77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
72fstab file</e>, You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>. 78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
73</impo> 79</impo>
74 80
75<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
76# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
77</pre> 83</pre>
83Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
84partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a 90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
85<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it. 91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
86</p> 92</p>
87 93
88<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/hd')">
89In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
90usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition (or
91<path>/dev/sda*</path> if you use SCSI or SATA drives), with <c>ext2</c> as
92filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
93</p> 94<p>
94
95<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/sd')">
96In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is 95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
97usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
98filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
99</p> 98</p>
100 99
110</p> 109</p>
111 110
112</body> 111</body>
113<body> 112<body>
114 113
115<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')"> 114<p>
116Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for 115Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
117<path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>, for your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if
118you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
119</p>
120
121<p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
122Add the rules that match your partitioning schema and append rules for
123<path>/proc/openprom</path>, <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> , for your CD-ROM
124drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives, for those too. 116your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
117for those too.
125</p> 118</p>
126 119
127<p> 120<p>
128Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
129</p> 122</p>
130
131<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
132<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
133/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
134/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
135
136none /proc proc defaults 0 0
137none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
138
139/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
140</pre>
141 123
142<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'"> 124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
143<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
144/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
145/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 127/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
146 128
147none /proc proc defaults 0 0
148none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
149
150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151</pre> 130</pre>
152 131
153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'"> 132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
154<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 133<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
155/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 134/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
156/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 135/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
157
158none /proc proc defaults 0 0
159none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
160 136
161/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 137/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
162</pre> 138</pre>
163 139
164<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'"> 140<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
166/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 142/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
167/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2 143/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
168/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2 144/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
169/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2 145/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
170 146
147<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
171none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 148openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
172none /proc proc defaults 0 0
173none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
174 149
175/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
176</pre> 151</pre>
177 152
178<note test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
179There are important variations between PPC machine types. Please make sure you
180adapt the following example to your system.
181</note>
182
183<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'"> 153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
184/dev/hda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 154func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
185/dev/hda3 none swap sw 0 0
186
187none /proc proc defaults 0 0
188none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
189
190/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
191</pre>
192
193<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
194/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 155/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
195/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 156/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
196
197none /proc proc defaults 0 0
198none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
199 157
200/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 158/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
201</pre> 159</pre>
202 160
203<p> 161<p>
239<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment> 197<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment>
240HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>" 198HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
241</pre> 199</pre>
242 200
243<p> 201<p>
244Second we set the domainname in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>: 202Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
203You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
204have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
205domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
245</p> 206</p>
246 207
247<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 208<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
248# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 209# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
249 210
250<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment> 211<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
251dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>" 212dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
252</pre> 213</pre>
253 214
215<note>
216If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
217hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
218<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
219</note>
220
254<p> 221<p>
255If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 222If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
256one), you need to define that one too: 223one), you need to define that one too:
257</p> 224</p>
258 225
263nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>" 230nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
264</pre> 231</pre>
265 232
266<note> 233<note>
267For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples 234For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
268provided in <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 235provided in <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. Also, you may want to emerge
236<c>openresolv</c> to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
269</note> 237</note>
270 238
271</body> 239</body>
272</subsection> 240</subsection>
273<subsection> 241<subsection>
329to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>: 297to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
330</p> 298</p>
331 299
332<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0"> 300<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
333config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" ) 301config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" )
334routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" ) 302routes_eth0=( "default via 192.168.0.1" )
335</pre> 303</pre>
336 304
337<p> 305<p>
338To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and 306To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and
339<c>dhcp_eth0</c>: 307<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
364<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 332<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
365<body> 333<body>
366 334
367<p> 335<p>
368To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the 336To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
369default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 337default runlevel.
370the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
371</p> 338</p>
372 339
373<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 340<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
374# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 341# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
375</pre> 342</pre>
429<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'"> 396<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
430<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 397<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
431<body> 398<body>
432 399
433<p> 400<p>
434PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also 401PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
435includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
436using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
437to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
438</p> 402</p>
439 403
440<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 404<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
441# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 405# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
442</pre>
443
444<p>
445When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
446runlevel:
447</p>
448
449<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
450# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
451</pre> 406</pre>
452 407
453</body> 408</body>
454</subsection> 409</subsection>
455</section> 410</section>
464First we set the root password by typing: 419First we set the root password by typing:
465</p> 420</p>
466 421
467<pre caption="Setting the root password"> 422<pre caption="Setting the root password">
468# <i>passwd</i> 423# <i>passwd</i>
469</pre>
470
471<p>
472If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
473<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
474</p>
475
476<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
477# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
478</pre> 424</pre>
479 425
480</body> 426</body>
481</subsection> 427</subsection>
482<subsection> 428<subsection>
513 459
514<p> 460<p>
515Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong 461Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
516<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard. 462<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
517</p> 463</p>
518
519<note test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
520Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386
521keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
522</note>
523 464
524<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'"> 465<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
525PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB 466PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB
526keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to 467keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
527set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. 468set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
545If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> 486If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c>
546to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. 487to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
547</p> 488</p>
548 489
549<p> 490<p>
491You should define the timezone that you previously copied to
492<path>/etc/localtime</path> so that further upgrades of the
493<c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update <path>/etc/localtime</path>
494automatically. For instance, if you used the GMT timezone, you would add
495<c>TIMEZONE="GMT"</c>
496</p>
497
498<p>
550When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and 499When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
551exit. 500exit.
552</p> 501</p>
553 502
554<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')"> 503<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">

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