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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-finalise.xml,v 1.33 2004/11/02 11:44:39 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>1.33</version>
12 <date>November 2, 2004</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>User Administration</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Adding a User for Daily Use</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Working as root on a Unix/Linux system is <e>dangerous</e> and should be avoided
22 as much as possible. Therefore it is <e>strongly</e> recommended to add a user
23 for day-to-day use.
24 </p>
25
26 <p>
27 The groups the user is member of define what activities the user can perform.
28 The following table lists a number of important groups you might wish to use:
29 </p>
30
31 <table>
32 <tr>
33 <th>Group</th>
34 <th>Description</th>
35 </tr>
36 <tr>
37 <ti>audio</ti>
38 <ti>be able to access the audio devices</ti>
39 </tr>
40 <tr>
41 <ti>cdrom</ti>
42 <ti>be able to access cdrom devices</ti>
43 </tr>
44 <tr>
45 <ti>floppy</ti>
46 <ti>be able to access floppy devices</ti>
47 </tr>
48 <tr>
49 <ti>games</ti>
50 <ti>be able to play games</ti>
51 </tr>
52 <tr>
53 <ti>usb</ti>
54 <ti>be able to access USB devices</ti>
55 </tr>
56 <tr>
57 <ti>video</ti>
58 <ti>
59 be able to access video capturing hardware and doing hardware
60 acceleration
61 </ti>
62 </tr>
63 <tr>
64 <ti>wheel</ti>
65 <ti>be able to use <c>su</c></ti>
66 </tr>
67 </table>
68
69 <p>
70 For instance, to create a user called <c>john</c> who is member of the
71 <c>wheel</c>, <c>users</c> and <c>audio</c> groups, log in as root first
72 (only root can create users) and run <c>useradd</c>:
73 </p>
74
75 <pre caption="Adding a user for day-to-day use">
76 Login: <i>root</i>
77 Password: <comment>(Your root password)</comment>
78
79 # <i>useradd -m -G users,wheel,audio,tty -s /bin/bash john</i>
80 # <i>passwd john</i>
81 Password: <comment>(Enter the password for john)</comment>
82 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter the password to verify)</comment>
83 </pre>
84
85 <p>
86 If a user ever needs to perform some task as root, they can use <c>su -</c>
87 to temporarily receive root privileges. Another way is to use the <c>sudo</c>
88 package which is, if correctly configured, very secure.
89 </p>
90
91 </body>
92 </subsection>
93 </section>
94 <section>
95 <title>Optional: Install GRP Packages</title>
96 <body>
97
98 <impo>
99 This part is for GRP users only. Other users should skip this part and continue
100 with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=12">Where to go from here?</uri>.
101 </impo>
102
103 <p>
104 Now that your system is booted, log on as the user you created (for instance,
105 <c>john</c>) and use <c>su -</c> to gain root privileges:
106 </p>
107
108 <pre caption="Gaining root privileges">
109 $ <i>su -</i>
110 Password: <comment>(Enter your root password)</comment>
111 </pre>
112
113 <p>
114 Now we need to change the Portage configuration to look for the prebuilt
115 binaries from the second CD (Gentoo Packages CD). First mount this CD:
116 </p>
117
118 <pre caption="Mount the Packages CD">
119 <comment>(Put the Gentoo Packages CD in the CD tray)</comment>
120 # <i>mount /mnt/cdrom</i>
121 </pre>
122
123 <p>
124 Now configure Portage to use <path>/mnt/cdrom</path> for its prebuilt packages:
125 </p>
126
127 <pre caption="Configuring Portage to use /mnt/cdrom">
128 # <i>ls /mnt/cdrom</i>
129
130 <comment>(If there is a /mnt/cdrom/packages directory:)</comment>
131 # <i>export PKGDIR="/mnt/cdrom/packages"</i>
132
133 <comment>(Otherwise:)</comment>
134 # <i>export PKGDIR="/mnt/cdrom"</i>
135 </pre>
136
137 <p>
138 Now install the packages you want. The Packages CD contains several prebuilt
139 binaries, for instance KDE:
140 </p>
141
142 <pre caption="Installing KDE">
143 # <i>emerge --usepkg kde</i>
144 </pre>
145
146 <p>
147 Be sure to install the binaries now. When you do an <c>emerge --sync</c> to
148 update Portage (as you will learn later), the prebuilt binaries might not match
149 against the ebuilds in your updated Portage. You can try to circumvent this by
150 using <c>emerge --usepkgonly</c> instead of <c>emerge --usepkg</c>.
151 </p>
152
153 <p>
154 Congratulations, your system is now fully equiped! Continue with <uri
155 link="?part=1&amp;chap=12">Where to go from here?</uri> to learn more about
156 Gentoo.
157 </p>
158
159 </body>
160 </section>
161 </sections>

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