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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 swift 1.16 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 neysx 1.18 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-hppa-disk.xml,v 1.17 2005/08/02 08:03:53 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.10
11 swift 1.17 <version>1.12</version>
12     <date>2005-08-02</date>
13 swift 1.10
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16     <subsection>
17     <title>Block Devices</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21 neysx 1.18 We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in
22     general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. Then, once
23     you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems, you'll be
24     guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems for your
25     Gentoo Linux installation.
26 swift 1.1 </p>
27    
28     <p>
29     To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is
30     probably the one that represents the first SCSI HD in a Linux system, namely
31     <path>/dev/sda</path>.
32     </p>
33    
34     <p>
35     The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
36 neysx 1.18 programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
37     worrying about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program
38     can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
39 swift 1.1 randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
40     </p>
41    
42     </body>
43     </subsection>
44     <subsection>
45     <title>Partitions and Slices</title>
46     <body>
47    
48     <p>
49     Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
50     system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
51 neysx 1.18 are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems, these
52     are called <e>partitions</e>. Other architectures use a similar technique,
53 swift 1.1 called <e>slices</e>.
54     </p>
55    
56     </body>
57     </subsection>
58     </section>
59     <section>
60     <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
61     <subsection>
62     <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
63     <body>
64    
65     <p>
66     The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
67     if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
68     <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
69 neysx 1.18 If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
70     should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good
71     choice of filesystem will then maximise your performance. Gameservers will have
72     a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The
73     reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. You will
74     definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big: not only will it contain the
75     majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes around 500 Mbyte
76     excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
77 swift 1.1 </p>
78    
79     <p>
80     As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
81     partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
82     </p>
83    
84     <ul>
85     <li>
86 neysx 1.3 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
87 swift 1.1 </li>
88     <li>
89     Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
90     continuously writing files to a partition or volume
91     </li>
92     <li>
93     If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
94     be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
95     it is with multiple partitions)
96     </li>
97     <li>
98     Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
99     nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
100     </li>
101     </ul>
102    
103     <p>
104 neysx 1.18 However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
105     properly, you might result in having a system with lots of free space on one
106     partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and
107     SATA.
108 swift 1.1 </p>
109    
110     </body>
111     </subsection>
112     </section>
113     <section>
114     <title>Using fdisk on HPPA to Partition your Disk</title>
115     <body>
116    
117     <p>
118     Use <c>fdisk</c> to create the partitions you want:
119     </p>
120    
121     <pre caption="Partitioning the disk">
122     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
123     </pre>
124    
125     <p>
126 vapier 1.9 HPPA machines use the PC standard DOS partition tables. To create a new
127     DOS partition table, simply use the <c>o</c> command.
128     </p>
129    
130     <pre caption="Creating a DOS partition table">
131     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
132    
133     Command (m for help): <i>o</i>
134     Building a new DOS disklabel.
135     </pre>
136    
137     <p>
138     PALO (the HPPA bootloader) needs a special partition to work. You have
139 swift 1.13 to create a partition of at least 16MB at the beginning of your disk.
140 vapier 1.9 The partition type must be of type <e>f0</e> (Linux/PA-RISC boot).
141 swift 1.1 </p>
142    
143     <impo>
144     If you ignore this and continue without a special PALO partition, your system
145 swift 1.13 will stop loving you and fail to start. Also, if your disk is larger than 2GB,
146     make sure that the boot partition is in the first 2GB of your disk. PALO is
147     unable to read a kernel after the 2GB limit.
148 swift 1.1 </impo>
149    
150 vapier 1.9 <pre caption="A simple default partition schema">
151     # <i>cat /etc/fstab</i>
152     /dev/sda2 /boot ext3 noauto,noatime 1 1
153     /dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
154     /dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 0
155    
156     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
157    
158     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
159    
160     Disk /dev/sda: 4294 MB, 4294816768 bytes
161     133 heads, 62 sectors/track, 1017 cylinders
162     Units = cylinders of 8246 * 512 = 4221952 bytes
163    
164     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
165     /dev/sda1 1 8 32953 f0 Linux/PA-RISC boot
166     /dev/sda2 9 20 49476 83 Linux
167     /dev/sda3 21 70 206150 82 Linux swap
168     /dev/sda4 71 1017 3904481 83 Linux
169     </pre>
170    
171 swift 1.1 <p>
172     Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
173     link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
174     </p>
175    
176     </body>
177     </section>
178     <section id="filesystems">
179     <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
180     <subsection>
181     <title>Introduction</title>
182     <body>
183    
184     <p>
185     Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
186     If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
187     as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
188     link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
189     Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
190     </p>
191    
192     </body>
193     </subsection>
194     <subsection>
195     <title>Filesystems?</title>
196     <body>
197    
198     <p>
199 neysx 1.18 Several filesystems are available. Ext2, ext3, XFS and reiserfs are found
200     stable on the HPPA architecture. The others are very experimental.
201 swift 1.1 </p>
202    
203     <p>
204     <b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
205     journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
206     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
207     journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are
208     thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled
209     filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
210     happens to be in an inconsistent state.
211     </p>
212    
213     <p>
214     <b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
215     journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like
216     full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
217     filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables
218 swift 1.17 high performance in almost all situations. You can enable this indexing by
219     adding <c>-O dir_index</c> to the <c>mke2fs</c> command. In short, ext3 is an
220     excellent filesystem.
221 swift 1.1 </p>
222    
223     <p>
224     <b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
225     performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
226     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
227     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
228     solid and usable as both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such
229     as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large
230     files and directories containing tens of thousands of files.
231     </p>
232    
233     <p>
234 neysx 1.4 <b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling which comes with a robust
235     feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
236     filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
237     an uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
238     in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
239     when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
240     deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
241 swift 1.1 </p>
242    
243     <p>
244     <b>JFS</b> is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
245     become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
246     comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this point.
247     </p>
248    
249     </body>
250     </subsection>
251     <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
252     <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
253     <body>
254    
255     <p>
256     To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
257     each possible filesystem:
258     </p>
259    
260     <table>
261     <tr>
262     <th>Filesystem</th>
263     <th>Creation Command</th>
264     </tr>
265     <tr>
266     <ti>ext2</ti>
267     <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
268     </tr>
269     <tr>
270     <ti>ext3</ti>
271     <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
272     </tr>
273     <tr>
274     <ti>reiserfs</ti>
275     <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
276     </tr>
277     <tr>
278     <ti>xfs</ti>
279     <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
280     </tr>
281     <tr>
282     <ti>jfs</ti>
283     <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
284     </tr>
285     </table>
286    
287     <p>
288 dertobi123 1.2 For instance, to have the boot partition (<path>/dev/sda2</path> in our
289     example) in ext2 and the root partition (<path>/dev/sda4</path> in our example)
290 swift 1.1 in ext3 (as in our example), you would use:
291     </p>
292    
293     <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
294 dertobi123 1.2 # <i>mke2fs /dev/sda2</i>
295     # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda4</i>
296 swift 1.1 </pre>
297    
298     <p>
299     Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
300     volumes).
301     </p>
302    
303     </body>
304     </subsection>
305     <subsection>
306     <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
307     <body>
308    
309     <p>
310     <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
311     </p>
312    
313     <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
314 dertobi123 1.2 # <i>mkswap /dev/sda3</i>
315 swift 1.1 </pre>
316    
317     <p>
318     To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
319     </p>
320    
321     <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
322 dertobi123 1.2 # <i>swapon /dev/sda3</i>
323 swift 1.1 </pre>
324    
325     <p>
326 swift 1.15 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
327 swift 1.1 </p>
328    
329     </body>
330     </subsection>
331     </section>
332     <section>
333     <title>Mounting</title>
334     <body>
335    
336     <p>
337     Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
338     time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
339     create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
340     example we mount the root and boot partition:
341     </p>
342    
343     <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
344 dertobi123 1.2 # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
345 swift 1.1 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
346 dertobi123 1.2 # <i>mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
347 swift 1.1 </pre>
348    
349     <note>
350 neysx 1.18 If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure
351     to change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>.
352     This also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
353 swift 1.1 </note>
354    
355     <p>
356 neysx 1.18 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
357     kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the
358     partitions.
359 swift 1.1 </p>
360    
361     <p>
362 swift 1.6 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
363 swift 1.1 Installation Files</uri>.
364     </p>
365    
366     </body>
367     </section>
368     </sections>

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