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Enhancing information on downsides wrt multiple partitions.

This hopefully also clears up some of the confusion that is surrounding
separate /usr partitions. Yes, it now mentions that an initramfs might be
needed in that case.

And no, we do not "recommend" a separate /usr partition, nor do we
"not recommend" it.

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 swift 1.16 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 swift 1.29 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-hppa-disk.xml,v 1.28 2011/09/17 12:16:09 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.10
11 swift 1.29 <version>12</version>
12     <date>2011-10-17</date>
13 swift 1.10
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16 nightmorph 1.24
17 swift 1.1 <subsection>
18 rane 1.25 <include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
19 nightmorph 1.24 </subsection>
20 swift 1.1
21     <subsection>
22     <title>Partitions and Slices</title>
23     <body>
24    
25     <p>
26     Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
27     system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
28 neysx 1.18 are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems, these
29     are called <e>partitions</e>. Other architectures use a similar technique,
30 swift 1.1 called <e>slices</e>.
31     </p>
32    
33     </body>
34     </subsection>
35     </section>
36     <section>
37     <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
38     <subsection>
39     <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
40     <body>
41    
42     <p>
43     The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
44     if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
45     <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
46 neysx 1.18 If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
47     should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good
48     choice of filesystem will then maximise your performance. Gameservers will have
49     a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The
50     reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. You will
51     definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big: not only will it contain the
52     majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes around 500 Mbyte
53     excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
54 swift 1.1 </p>
55    
56     <p>
57     As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
58     partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
59     </p>
60    
61     <ul>
62     <li>
63 neysx 1.3 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
64 swift 1.1 </li>
65     <li>
66     Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
67     continuously writing files to a partition or volume
68     </li>
69     <li>
70     If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
71     be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
72     it is with multiple partitions)
73     </li>
74     <li>
75     Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
76     nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
77     </li>
78     </ul>
79    
80     <p>
81 swift 1.29 However, multiple partitions have disadvantages as well. If not configured
82     properly, you will have a system with lots of free space on one partition and
83     none on another. Another nuisance is that separate partitions - especially
84     for important mountpoints like <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> - often
85     require the administrator to boot with an initramfs to mount the partition
86     before other boot scripts start. This isn't always the case though, so YMMV.
87     </p>
88    
89     <p>
90     There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and SATA.
91 swift 1.1 </p>
92    
93     </body>
94     </subsection>
95     </section>
96     <section>
97     <title>Using fdisk on HPPA to Partition your Disk</title>
98     <body>
99    
100     <p>
101     Use <c>fdisk</c> to create the partitions you want:
102     </p>
103    
104     <pre caption="Partitioning the disk">
105     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
106     </pre>
107    
108     <p>
109 vapier 1.9 HPPA machines use the PC standard DOS partition tables. To create a new
110     DOS partition table, simply use the <c>o</c> command.
111     </p>
112    
113     <pre caption="Creating a DOS partition table">
114     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
115    
116     Command (m for help): <i>o</i>
117     Building a new DOS disklabel.
118     </pre>
119    
120     <p>
121     PALO (the HPPA bootloader) needs a special partition to work. You have
122 swift 1.13 to create a partition of at least 16MB at the beginning of your disk.
123 vapier 1.9 The partition type must be of type <e>f0</e> (Linux/PA-RISC boot).
124 swift 1.1 </p>
125    
126     <impo>
127     If you ignore this and continue without a special PALO partition, your system
128 swift 1.13 will stop loving you and fail to start. Also, if your disk is larger than 2GB,
129     make sure that the boot partition is in the first 2GB of your disk. PALO is
130     unable to read a kernel after the 2GB limit.
131 swift 1.1 </impo>
132    
133 nightmorph 1.27 <pre caption="A simple default partition scheme">
134 vapier 1.9 # <i>cat /etc/fstab</i>
135     /dev/sda2 /boot ext3 noauto,noatime 1 1
136     /dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
137     /dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 0
138    
139     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
140    
141     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
142    
143     Disk /dev/sda: 4294 MB, 4294816768 bytes
144     133 heads, 62 sectors/track, 1017 cylinders
145     Units = cylinders of 8246 * 512 = 4221952 bytes
146    
147     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
148     /dev/sda1 1 8 32953 f0 Linux/PA-RISC boot
149     /dev/sda2 9 20 49476 83 Linux
150     /dev/sda3 21 70 206150 82 Linux swap
151     /dev/sda4 71 1017 3904481 83 Linux
152     </pre>
153    
154 swift 1.1 <p>
155 nightmorph 1.26 Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
156 swift 1.1 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
157     </p>
158    
159     </body>
160     </section>
161     <section id="filesystems">
162     <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
163     <subsection>
164     <title>Introduction</title>
165     <body>
166    
167     <p>
168     Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
169     If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
170     as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
171     link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
172     Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
173     </p>
174    
175     </body>
176     </subsection>
177 nightmorph 1.24
178 swift 1.1 <subsection>
179 nightmorph 1.24 <include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
180     </subsection>
181 swift 1.1
182     <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
183     <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
184     <body>
185    
186     <p>
187     To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
188     each possible filesystem:
189     </p>
190    
191     <table>
192     <tr>
193     <th>Filesystem</th>
194     <th>Creation Command</th>
195     </tr>
196     <tr>
197     <ti>ext2</ti>
198 swift 1.28 <ti><c>mkfs.ext2</c></ti>
199 swift 1.1 </tr>
200     <tr>
201     <ti>ext3</ti>
202 swift 1.28 <ti><c>mkfs.ext3</c></ti>
203     </tr>
204     <tr>
205     <ti>ext4</ti>
206     <ti><c>mkfs.ext4</c></ti>
207 swift 1.1 </tr>
208     <tr>
209     <ti>reiserfs</ti>
210     <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
211     </tr>
212     <tr>
213     <ti>xfs</ti>
214     <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
215     </tr>
216     <tr>
217     <ti>jfs</ti>
218     <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
219     </tr>
220     </table>
221    
222     <p>
223 dertobi123 1.2 For instance, to have the boot partition (<path>/dev/sda2</path> in our
224     example) in ext2 and the root partition (<path>/dev/sda4</path> in our example)
225 swift 1.1 in ext3 (as in our example), you would use:
226     </p>
227    
228     <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
229 swift 1.28 # <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda2</i>
230     # <i>mkfs.ext3 /dev/sda4</i>
231 swift 1.1 </pre>
232    
233     <p>
234     Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
235     volumes).
236     </p>
237    
238     </body>
239     </subsection>
240     <subsection>
241     <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
242     <body>
243    
244     <p>
245     <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
246     </p>
247    
248     <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
249 dertobi123 1.2 # <i>mkswap /dev/sda3</i>
250 swift 1.1 </pre>
251    
252     <p>
253     To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
254     </p>
255    
256     <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
257 dertobi123 1.2 # <i>swapon /dev/sda3</i>
258 swift 1.1 </pre>
259    
260     <p>
261 swift 1.15 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
262 swift 1.1 </p>
263    
264     </body>
265     </subsection>
266     </section>
267     <section>
268     <title>Mounting</title>
269     <body>
270    
271     <p>
272     Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
273     time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
274     create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
275     example we mount the root and boot partition:
276     </p>
277    
278     <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
279 dertobi123 1.2 # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
280 swift 1.1 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
281 dertobi123 1.2 # <i>mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
282 swift 1.1 </pre>
283    
284     <note>
285 neysx 1.18 If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure
286     to change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>.
287     This also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
288 swift 1.1 </note>
289    
290     <p>
291 neysx 1.18 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
292     kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the
293     partitions.
294 swift 1.1 </p>
295    
296     <p>
297 swift 1.6 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
298 swift 1.1 Installation Files</uri>.
299     </p>
300    
301     </body>
302     </section>
303     </sections>

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