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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 swift 1.16 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 swift 1.30 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-hppa-disk.xml,v 1.29 2011/10/17 19:51:45 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.10
11 swift 1.30 <version>13</version>
12     <date>2012-10-06</date>
13 swift 1.10
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16 nightmorph 1.24
17 swift 1.1 <subsection>
18 rane 1.25 <include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
19 nightmorph 1.24 </subsection>
20 swift 1.1
21     <subsection>
22     <title>Partitions and Slices</title>
23     <body>
24    
25     <p>
26     Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
27     system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
28 neysx 1.18 are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems, these
29     are called <e>partitions</e>. Other architectures use a similar technique,
30 swift 1.1 called <e>slices</e>.
31     </p>
32    
33     </body>
34     </subsection>
35     </section>
36     <section>
37     <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
38     <subsection>
39     <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
40     <body>
41    
42     <p>
43     The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
44     if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
45     <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
46 neysx 1.18 If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
47     should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good
48     choice of filesystem will then maximise your performance. Gameservers will have
49     a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The
50     reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. You will
51     definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big: not only will it contain the
52     majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes around 500 Mbyte
53     excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
54 swift 1.1 </p>
55    
56     <p>
57     As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
58     partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
59     </p>
60    
61     <ul>
62     <li>
63 neysx 1.3 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
64 swift 1.1 </li>
65     <li>
66     Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
67     continuously writing files to a partition or volume
68     </li>
69     <li>
70     If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
71     be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
72     it is with multiple partitions)
73     </li>
74     <li>
75     Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
76     nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
77     </li>
78     </ul>
79    
80     <p>
81 swift 1.29 However, multiple partitions have disadvantages as well. If not configured
82     properly, you will have a system with lots of free space on one partition and
83     none on another. Another nuisance is that separate partitions - especially
84     for important mountpoints like <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> - often
85     require the administrator to boot with an initramfs to mount the partition
86 swift 1.30 before other boot scripts start. This isn't always the case though, so your
87     results may vary.
88 swift 1.29 </p>
89    
90     <p>
91     There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and SATA.
92 swift 1.1 </p>
93    
94     </body>
95     </subsection>
96     </section>
97     <section>
98     <title>Using fdisk on HPPA to Partition your Disk</title>
99     <body>
100    
101     <p>
102     Use <c>fdisk</c> to create the partitions you want:
103     </p>
104    
105     <pre caption="Partitioning the disk">
106     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
107     </pre>
108    
109     <p>
110 vapier 1.9 HPPA machines use the PC standard DOS partition tables. To create a new
111     DOS partition table, simply use the <c>o</c> command.
112     </p>
113    
114     <pre caption="Creating a DOS partition table">
115     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
116    
117     Command (m for help): <i>o</i>
118     Building a new DOS disklabel.
119     </pre>
120    
121     <p>
122     PALO (the HPPA bootloader) needs a special partition to work. You have
123 swift 1.13 to create a partition of at least 16MB at the beginning of your disk.
124 vapier 1.9 The partition type must be of type <e>f0</e> (Linux/PA-RISC boot).
125 swift 1.1 </p>
126    
127     <impo>
128     If you ignore this and continue without a special PALO partition, your system
129 swift 1.13 will stop loving you and fail to start. Also, if your disk is larger than 2GB,
130     make sure that the boot partition is in the first 2GB of your disk. PALO is
131     unable to read a kernel after the 2GB limit.
132 swift 1.1 </impo>
133    
134 nightmorph 1.27 <pre caption="A simple default partition scheme">
135 vapier 1.9 # <i>cat /etc/fstab</i>
136     /dev/sda2 /boot ext3 noauto,noatime 1 1
137     /dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
138     /dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 0
139    
140     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
141    
142     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
143    
144     Disk /dev/sda: 4294 MB, 4294816768 bytes
145     133 heads, 62 sectors/track, 1017 cylinders
146     Units = cylinders of 8246 * 512 = 4221952 bytes
147    
148     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
149     /dev/sda1 1 8 32953 f0 Linux/PA-RISC boot
150     /dev/sda2 9 20 49476 83 Linux
151     /dev/sda3 21 70 206150 82 Linux swap
152     /dev/sda4 71 1017 3904481 83 Linux
153     </pre>
154    
155 swift 1.1 <p>
156 nightmorph 1.26 Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
157 swift 1.1 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
158     </p>
159    
160     </body>
161     </section>
162     <section id="filesystems">
163     <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
164     <subsection>
165     <title>Introduction</title>
166     <body>
167    
168     <p>
169     Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
170     If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
171     as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
172     link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
173     Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
174     </p>
175    
176     </body>
177     </subsection>
178 nightmorph 1.24
179 swift 1.1 <subsection>
180 nightmorph 1.24 <include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
181     </subsection>
182 swift 1.1
183     <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
184     <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
185     <body>
186    
187     <p>
188     To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
189     each possible filesystem:
190     </p>
191    
192     <table>
193     <tr>
194     <th>Filesystem</th>
195     <th>Creation Command</th>
196     </tr>
197     <tr>
198     <ti>ext2</ti>
199 swift 1.28 <ti><c>mkfs.ext2</c></ti>
200 swift 1.1 </tr>
201     <tr>
202     <ti>ext3</ti>
203 swift 1.28 <ti><c>mkfs.ext3</c></ti>
204     </tr>
205     <tr>
206     <ti>ext4</ti>
207     <ti><c>mkfs.ext4</c></ti>
208 swift 1.1 </tr>
209     <tr>
210     <ti>reiserfs</ti>
211     <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
212     </tr>
213     <tr>
214     <ti>xfs</ti>
215     <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
216     </tr>
217     <tr>
218     <ti>jfs</ti>
219     <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
220     </tr>
221     </table>
222    
223     <p>
224 dertobi123 1.2 For instance, to have the boot partition (<path>/dev/sda2</path> in our
225     example) in ext2 and the root partition (<path>/dev/sda4</path> in our example)
226 swift 1.1 in ext3 (as in our example), you would use:
227     </p>
228    
229     <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
230 swift 1.28 # <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda2</i>
231     # <i>mkfs.ext3 /dev/sda4</i>
232 swift 1.1 </pre>
233    
234     <p>
235     Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
236     volumes).
237     </p>
238    
239     </body>
240     </subsection>
241     <subsection>
242     <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
243     <body>
244    
245     <p>
246     <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
247     </p>
248    
249     <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
250 dertobi123 1.2 # <i>mkswap /dev/sda3</i>
251 swift 1.1 </pre>
252    
253     <p>
254     To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
255     </p>
256    
257     <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
258 dertobi123 1.2 # <i>swapon /dev/sda3</i>
259 swift 1.1 </pre>
260    
261     <p>
262 swift 1.15 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
263 swift 1.1 </p>
264    
265     </body>
266     </subsection>
267     </section>
268     <section>
269     <title>Mounting</title>
270     <body>
271    
272     <p>
273     Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
274     time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
275     create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
276     example we mount the root and boot partition:
277     </p>
278    
279     <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
280 dertobi123 1.2 # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
281 swift 1.1 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
282 dertobi123 1.2 # <i>mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
283 swift 1.1 </pre>
284    
285     <note>
286 neysx 1.18 If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure
287     to change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>.
288     This also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
289 swift 1.1 </note>
290    
291     <p>
292 neysx 1.18 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
293     kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the
294     partitions.
295 swift 1.1 </p>
296    
297     <p>
298 swift 1.6 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
299 swift 1.1 Installation Files</uri>.
300     </p>
301    
302     </body>
303     </section>
304     </sections>

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