/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-hppa-disk.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-hppa-disk.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.26 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Mon Jan 26 08:04:26 2009 UTC (5 years, 7 months ago) by nightmorph
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.25: +2 -2 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
Engrish fixes, bug 253374

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-hppa-disk.xml,v 1.25 2008/04/01 16:44:56 rane Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>9.1</version>
12 <date>2008-04-01</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16
17 <subsection>
18 <include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
19 </subsection>
20
21 <subsection>
22 <title>Partitions and Slices</title>
23 <body>
24
25 <p>
26 Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
27 system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
28 are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems, these
29 are called <e>partitions</e>. Other architectures use a similar technique,
30 called <e>slices</e>.
31 </p>
32
33 </body>
34 </subsection>
35 </section>
36 <section>
37 <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
38 <subsection>
39 <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
40 <body>
41
42 <p>
43 The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
44 if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
45 <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
46 If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
47 should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good
48 choice of filesystem will then maximise your performance. Gameservers will have
49 a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The
50 reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. You will
51 definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big: not only will it contain the
52 majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes around 500 Mbyte
53 excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
54 </p>
55
56 <p>
57 As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
58 partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
59 </p>
60
61 <ul>
62 <li>
63 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
64 </li>
65 <li>
66 Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
67 continuously writing files to a partition or volume
68 </li>
69 <li>
70 If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
71 be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
72 it is with multiple partitions)
73 </li>
74 <li>
75 Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
76 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
77 </li>
78 </ul>
79
80 <p>
81 However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
82 properly, you might result in having a system with lots of free space on one
83 partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and
84 SATA.
85 </p>
86
87 </body>
88 </subsection>
89 </section>
90 <section>
91 <title>Using fdisk on HPPA to Partition your Disk</title>
92 <body>
93
94 <p>
95 Use <c>fdisk</c> to create the partitions you want:
96 </p>
97
98 <pre caption="Partitioning the disk">
99 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
100 </pre>
101
102 <p>
103 HPPA machines use the PC standard DOS partition tables. To create a new
104 DOS partition table, simply use the <c>o</c> command.
105 </p>
106
107 <pre caption="Creating a DOS partition table">
108 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
109
110 Command (m for help): <i>o</i>
111 Building a new DOS disklabel.
112 </pre>
113
114 <p>
115 PALO (the HPPA bootloader) needs a special partition to work. You have
116 to create a partition of at least 16MB at the beginning of your disk.
117 The partition type must be of type <e>f0</e> (Linux/PA-RISC boot).
118 </p>
119
120 <impo>
121 If you ignore this and continue without a special PALO partition, your system
122 will stop loving you and fail to start. Also, if your disk is larger than 2GB,
123 make sure that the boot partition is in the first 2GB of your disk. PALO is
124 unable to read a kernel after the 2GB limit.
125 </impo>
126
127 <pre caption="A simple default partition schema">
128 # <i>cat /etc/fstab</i>
129 /dev/sda2 /boot ext3 noauto,noatime 1 1
130 /dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
131 /dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 0
132
133 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
134
135 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
136
137 Disk /dev/sda: 4294 MB, 4294816768 bytes
138 133 heads, 62 sectors/track, 1017 cylinders
139 Units = cylinders of 8246 * 512 = 4221952 bytes
140
141 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
142 /dev/sda1 1 8 32953 f0 Linux/PA-RISC boot
143 /dev/sda2 9 20 49476 83 Linux
144 /dev/sda3 21 70 206150 82 Linux swap
145 /dev/sda4 71 1017 3904481 83 Linux
146 </pre>
147
148 <p>
149 Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
150 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
151 </p>
152
153 </body>
154 </section>
155 <section id="filesystems">
156 <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
157 <subsection>
158 <title>Introduction</title>
159 <body>
160
161 <p>
162 Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
163 If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
164 as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
165 link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
166 Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
167 </p>
168
169 </body>
170 </subsection>
171
172 <subsection>
173 <include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
174 </subsection>
175
176 <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
177 <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
178 <body>
179
180 <p>
181 To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
182 each possible filesystem:
183 </p>
184
185 <table>
186 <tr>
187 <th>Filesystem</th>
188 <th>Creation Command</th>
189 </tr>
190 <tr>
191 <ti>ext2</ti>
192 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
193 </tr>
194 <tr>
195 <ti>ext3</ti>
196 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
197 </tr>
198 <tr>
199 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
200 <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
201 </tr>
202 <tr>
203 <ti>xfs</ti>
204 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
205 </tr>
206 <tr>
207 <ti>jfs</ti>
208 <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
209 </tr>
210 </table>
211
212 <p>
213 For instance, to have the boot partition (<path>/dev/sda2</path> in our
214 example) in ext2 and the root partition (<path>/dev/sda4</path> in our example)
215 in ext3 (as in our example), you would use:
216 </p>
217
218 <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
219 # <i>mke2fs /dev/sda2</i>
220 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda4</i>
221 </pre>
222
223 <p>
224 Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
225 volumes).
226 </p>
227
228 </body>
229 </subsection>
230 <subsection>
231 <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
232 <body>
233
234 <p>
235 <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
236 </p>
237
238 <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
239 # <i>mkswap /dev/sda3</i>
240 </pre>
241
242 <p>
243 To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
244 </p>
245
246 <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
247 # <i>swapon /dev/sda3</i>
248 </pre>
249
250 <p>
251 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
252 </p>
253
254 </body>
255 </subsection>
256 </section>
257 <section>
258 <title>Mounting</title>
259 <body>
260
261 <p>
262 Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
263 time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
264 create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
265 example we mount the root and boot partition:
266 </p>
267
268 <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
269 # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
270 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
271 # <i>mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
272 </pre>
273
274 <note>
275 If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure
276 to change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>.
277 This also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
278 </note>
279
280 <p>
281 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
282 kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the
283 partitions.
284 </p>
285
286 <p>
287 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
288 Installation Files</uri>.
289 </p>
290
291 </body>
292 </section>
293 </sections>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20