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Fix bug #405271 (thanks to Ogelpre) to update /etc/timezone wherever we say to update /etc/localtime as it is /etc/timezone that is the master, read by timezone-data to update localtime

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-hppa-kernel.xml,v 1.49 2011/08/12 19:05:02 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>12</version>
12 <date>2012-02-22</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Timezone</title>
16 <body>
17
18 <p>
19 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
21 it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
22 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
24 GMT+8.
25 </p>
26
27 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
28 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
29 <comment>(Suppose you want to use Europe/Brussels)</comment>
30 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Brussels /etc/localtime</i>
31 <comment>(Next set the timezone)</comment>
32 # <i>echo "Europe/Brussels" &gt; /etc/timezone</i>
33 </pre>
34
35 </body>
36 </section>
37 <section>
38 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
39 <subsection>
40 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
41 <body>
42
43 <p>
44 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
45 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
46 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
47 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
48 Guide</uri>.
49 </p>
50
51 <p>
52 For <keyval id="arch"/>-based systems we have <c>gentoo-sources</c>
53 (kernel source patched for extra features).
54 </p>
55
56 <p>
57 Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
58 </p>
59
60 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
61 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
62 </pre>
63
64 <p>
65 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
66 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
67 kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
68 Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
69 </p>
70
71 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
72 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
73 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
74 </pre>
75
76 <p>
77 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. All architectures
78 can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
79 by the Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as
80 it is the best way to optimize your environment.
81 </p>
82
83 <p>
84 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
85 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
86 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
87 genkernel</uri> instead.
88 </p>
89
90 </body>
91 </subsection>
92 </section>
93 <section id="manual">
94 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
95 <subsection>
96 <title>Introduction</title>
97 <body>
98
99 <p>
100 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
101 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
102 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
103 </p>
104
105 <p>
106 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
107 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
108 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
109 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
110 ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
111 /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
112 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
113 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
114 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
115 </p>
116
117 <p>
118 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
119 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
120 </p>
121
122 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
123 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
124 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
125 </pre>
126
127 <p>
128 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
129 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
130 properly without additional tweaks).
131 </p>
132
133 </body>
134 </subsection>
135 <subsection>
136 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
137 <body>
138
139 <p>
140 First go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
141 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
142 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
143 file system</c>:
144 </p>
145
146 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
147 File systems ---&gt;
148 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
149 [*] /proc file system support
150 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
151
152 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
153 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
154 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
155 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
156 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
157 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
158 </pre>
159
160 <p>
161 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
162 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
163 </p>
164
165 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
166 Device Drivers ---&gt;
167 Networking support ---&gt;
168 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
169 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
170 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
171 </pre>
172
173 <p>
174 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
175 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by <c>ppp</c>
176 when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
177 </p>
178
179 <p>
180 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
181 ethernet card.
182 </p>
183
184 <p>
185 If you have a HIL mouse or keyboard, do not forget to compile in support for
186 them.
187 </p>
188
189 <pre caption="Activating HIL support">
190 Input core support ---&gt;
191 [*] Keyboard support
192 [*] Mouse support
193 [*] Event interface support
194 </pre>
195
196 <p>
197 If you have no mouse on your HIL port, only use the basic support:
198 </p>
199
200 <pre caption="Basic HIL support">
201 HIL support ---&gt;
202 [*] HIL Keyboard (basic) support
203 </pre>
204
205 <p>
206 If you however want <e>full</e> HIL support, select the following options:
207 </p>
208
209 <pre caption="Full HIL support">
210 HIL support ---&gt;
211 [*] HP System Device Controller i8042 Support
212 [*] HIL MLC Support
213 [*] HIL Keyboard (full) support
214 [*] HIL Mouse &amp; Pointer support
215 </pre>
216
217 <p>
218 Also include display driver support:
219 </p>
220
221 <pre caption="Display Driver support">
222 Graphics support ---&gt;
223 [*] Support for frame buffer devices
224 [*] HP STI frame buffer device support
225 Console display driver support ---&gt;
226 [*] STI text console
227 </pre>
228
229 <p>
230 When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
231 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
232 </p>
233
234 </body>
235 </subsection>
236 <subsection id="compiling">
237 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
238 <body>
239
240 <impo>
241 If you want to compile a 64-bit kernel, you'll need to first emerge
242 <c>kgcc64</c>. However, running a 64-bit kernel is discouraged. You should only
243 run a 64-bit kernel if you have more than 4GB of RAM or if your server requires
244 it, i.e. on the A500.
245 </impo>
246
247 <p>
248 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
249 the configuration and start the compilation process:
250 </p>
251
252 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
253 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
254 </pre>
255
256 <p>
257 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
258 <path>/boot</path>. Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel
259 choice and remember it as you will need it later on when you configure your
260 bootloader. Remember to replace <c><keyval id="kernel-name"/></c> with the
261 name and version of your kernel.
262 </p>
263
264 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
265 # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
266 </pre>
267
268 <p>
269 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
270 </p>
271
272 </body>
273 </subsection>
274 </section>
275 <section id="genkernel">
276 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
277 <body>
278
279 <p>
280 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
281 script to configure your kernel for you.
282 </p>
283
284 <p>
285 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
286 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
287 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
288 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
289 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
290 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
291 genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
292 solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own
293 kernels.
294 </p>
295
296 <p>
297 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
298 </p>
299
300 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
301 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
302 </pre>
303
304 <p>
305 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>.
306 Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
307 hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
308 </p>
309
310 <p>
311 Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
312 need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c>
313 and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a
314 module).
315 </p>
316
317 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
318 # <i>genkernel all</i>
319 </pre>
320
321 <p>
322 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
323 <e>initial ram disk</e> (initramfs) will be created. We will use the kernel
324 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
325 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
326 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
327 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
328 before your "real" system starts up.
329 </p>
330
331 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
332 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs*</i>
333 </pre>
334
335 </body>
336 </section>
337 <section id="kernel_modules">
338 <title>Kernel Modules</title>
339
340 <subsection>
341 <include href="hb-install-kernelmodules.xml"/>
342 </subsection>
343
344 </section>
345 </sections>

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