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1 vapier 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7 swift 1.11 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ia64-disk.xml,v 1.10 2011/09/04 14:34:01 swift Exp $ -->
8 vapier 1.1
9     <sections>
10    
11 swift 1.11 <version>7</version>
12     <date>2011-10-17</date>
13 vapier 1.1
14     <section>
15     <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16 nightmorph 1.7
17 vapier 1.1 <subsection>
18 nightmorph 1.7 <include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
19     </subsection>
20 vapier 1.1
21     <subsection>
22     <title>Partitions</title>
23     <body>
24    
25     <p>
26     Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
27     system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
28     are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On <keyval id="arch"/>
29     systems, these are called <e>partitions</e>.
30     </p>
31    
32     <p>
33     Itanium systems use EFI, the Extensible Firmware Interface, for booting. The
34     partition table format that EFI understands is called GPT, or GUID Partition
35     Table. The partitioning program that understands GPT is called "parted", so
36     that is the tool we will use below. Additionally, EFI can only read FAT
37     filesystems, so that is the format to use for the EFI boot partition, where the
38     kernel will be installed by "elilo".
39     </p>
40    
41     </body>
42     </subsection>
43     <subsection>
44     <title>Advanced Storage</title>
45     <body>
46    
47     <p>
48 swift 1.11 The <keyval id="arch"/> Installation CDs provide support for LVM2.
49     LVM2 increases the flexibility offered by your partitioning setup.
50 vapier 1.1 During the installation instructions, we will focus on "regular" partitions,
51 swift 1.11 but it is still good to know LVM2 is supported as well.
52 vapier 1.1 </p>
53    
54     </body>
55     </subsection>
56     </section>
57     <section>
58     <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
59     <subsection>
60     <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
61     <body>
62    
63     <p>
64     If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system,
65     you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book:
66     </p>
67    
68     <table>
69     <tr>
70     <th>Partition</th>
71     <th>Filesystem</th>
72     <th>Size</th>
73     <th>Description</th>
74     </tr>
75     <tr>
76     <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
77     <ti>vfat</ti>
78     <ti>32M</ti>
79     <ti>EFI Boot partition</ti>
80     </tr>
81     <tr>
82     <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
83     <ti>(swap)</ti>
84     <ti>512M</ti>
85     <ti>Swap partition</ti>
86     </tr>
87     <tr>
88     <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
89     <ti>ext3</ti>
90     <ti>Rest of the disk</ti>
91     <ti>Root partition</ti>
92     </tr>
93     </table>
94    
95     <p>
96     If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how
97     many partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with partitioning
98     your disk by reading <uri link="#parted">Using parted to Partition your
99     Disk</uri>.
100     </p>
101    
102     </body>
103     </subsection>
104     <subsection>
105     <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
106     <body>
107    
108     <p>
109     The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
110     if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
111     <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
112     If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your
113     <path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside
114     <path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your
115     performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming
116     servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>:
117     security and backups. You will definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big:
118     not only will it contain the majority of applications, the Portage tree alone
119     takes around 500 Mbyte excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
120     </p>
121    
122     <p>
123     As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
124     partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
125     </p>
126    
127     <ul>
128     <li>
129     You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
130     </li>
131     <li>
132     Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
133     continuously writing files to a partition or volume
134     </li>
135     <li>
136     If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
137     be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
138     it is with multiple partitions)
139     </li>
140     <li>
141     Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
142     nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
143     </li>
144     </ul>
145    
146     <p>
147     However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
148     properly, you might result in having a system with lots of free space on one
149     partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and
150     SATA.
151     </p>
152    
153     <p>
154     As an example partitioning, we show you one for a 20GB disk, used as a
155     demonstration laptop (containing webserver, mailserver, gnome, ...):
156     </p>
157    
158     <pre caption="Filesystem usage example">
159     $ <i>df -h</i>
160     Filesystem Type Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
161 nightmorph 1.7 /dev/sda5 ext3 509M 132M 351M 28% /
162     /dev/sda2 ext3 5.0G 3.0G 1.8G 63% /home
163     /dev/sda7 ext3 7.9G 6.2G 1.3G 83% /usr
164     /dev/sda8 ext3 1011M 483M 477M 51% /opt
165     /dev/sda9 ext3 2.0G 607M 1.3G 32% /var
166     /dev/sda1 ext2 51M 17M 31M 36% /boot
167     /dev/sda6 swap 516M 12M 504M 2% &lt;not mounted&gt;
168 vapier 1.1 <comment>(Unpartitioned space for future usage: 2 GB)</comment>
169     </pre>
170    
171     <p>
172     <path>/usr</path> is rather full (83% used) here, but once
173     all software is installed, <path>/usr</path> doesn't tend to grow that much.
174     Although allocating a few gigabytes of disk space for <path>/var</path> may
175     seem excessive, remember that Portage uses this partition by default for
176     compiling packages. If you want to keep <path>/var</path> at a more reasonable
177     size, such as 1GB, you will need to alter your <c>PORTAGE_TMPDIR</c> variable
178     in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to point to the partition with enough free space
179     for compiling extremely large packages such as OpenOffice.
180     </p>
181    
182     </body>
183     </subsection>
184     </section>
185     <section id="parted">
186     <title>Using parted to Partition your Disk</title>
187     <subsection>
188     <body>
189    
190     <p>
191     The following parts explain how to create the example partition layout
192     described previously, namely:
193     </p>
194    
195     <table>
196     <tr>
197     <th>Partition</th>
198     <th>Description</th>
199     </tr>
200     <tr>
201     <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
202     <ti>EFI Boot partition</ti>
203     </tr>
204     <tr>
205     <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
206     <ti>Swap partition</ti>
207     </tr>
208     <tr>
209     <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
210     <ti>Root partition</ti>
211     </tr>
212     </table>
213    
214     <p>
215     Change your partition layout according to your own preference.
216     </p>
217    
218     </body>
219     </subsection>
220     <subsection>
221     <title>Viewing the Current Partition Layout</title>
222     <body>
223    
224     <p>
225     <c>parted</c> is the GNU partition editor.
226     Fire up <c>parted</c> on your disk (in our example, we use
227     <path>/dev/sda</path>):
228     </p>
229    
230     <pre caption="Starting parted">
231     # <i>parted /dev/sda</i>
232     </pre>
233    
234     <p>
235     Once in <c>parted</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
236     </p>
237    
238     <pre caption="parted prompt">
239     GNU Parted 1.6.22
240     Copyright (C) 1998 - 2005 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
241     This program is free software, covered by the GNU General Public License.
242    
243     This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without
244     even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
245     General Public License for more details.
246    
247     Using /dev/sda
248     (parted)
249     </pre>
250    
251     <p>
252     At this point one of the available commands is <c>help</c>, which you should use
253     if you want to see the other available commands. Another command is
254     <c>print</c> which you should type next to display your disk's current partition
255     configuration:
256     </p>
257    
258     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
259     (parted) <i>print</i>
260     Disk geometry for /dev/sda: 0.000-34732.890 megabytes
261     Disk label type: gpt
262     Minor Start End Filesystem Name Flags
263     1 0.017 203.938 fat32 boot
264     2 203.938 4243.468 linux-swap
265     3 4243.469 34724.281 ext3
266     </pre>
267    
268     <p>
269     This particular configuration is very similar to the one that we recommend
270     above. Note on the second line that the partition table is type is GPT. If it
271     is different, then the ia64 system will not be able to boot from this disk.
272     For the sake of this guide we'll remove the partitions and create them anew.
273     </p>
274    
275     </body>
276     </subsection>
277     <subsection>
278     <title>Removing all Partitions</title>
279     <body>
280    
281     <note>
282     Unlike fdisk and some other partitioning programs which postpone committing
283     changes until you give the write instruction, parted commands take effect
284     immediately. So once you start adding and removing partitions, you can't
285     simply quit without writing them... they've already been written.
286     </note>
287    
288     <p>
289     The easy way to remove all partitions and start fresh, which guarantees that we
290     are using the correct partition type, is to make a new partition table using the
291     <c>mklabel</c> command. After you do this, you will have an empty GPT partition
292     table.
293     </p>
294    
295     <pre caption="Creating a new partition table">
296     (parted) <i>mklabel gpt</i>
297     (parted) <i>print</i>
298     Disk geometry for /dev/sda: 0.000-34732.890 megabytes
299     Disk label type: gpt
300     Minor Start End Filesystem Name Flags
301     </pre>
302    
303     <p>
304     Now that the partition table is empty, we're ready to create the
305     partitions. We will use a default partitioning scheme as discussed previously.
306     Of course, don't follow these instructions to the letter if you don't want the
307     same partitioning scheme!
308     </p>
309    
310     </body>
311     </subsection>
312     <subsection>
313     <title>Creating the EFI Boot Partition</title>
314     <body>
315    
316     <p>
317     We first create a small EFI boot partition. This is required to be a FAT
318 nightmorph 1.9 filesystem in order for the <keyval id="arch"/> firmware to read it. Our
319     example makes this 32 MB, which is appropriate for storing kernels and
320     <c>elilo</c> configuration. You can expect each <keyval id="arch"/> kernel to
321     be around 5 MB, so this configuration leaves you some room to grow and
322     experiment.
323 vapier 1.1 </p>
324    
325     <pre caption="Creating the boot partition">
326     (parted) <i>mkpart primary fat32 0 32</i>
327     (parted) <i>print</i>
328     Disk geometry for /dev/sda: 0.000-34732.890 megabytes
329     Disk label type: gpt
330     Minor Start End Filesystem Name Flags
331     1 0.017 32.000 fat32
332     </pre>
333    
334     </body>
335     </subsection>
336     <subsection>
337     <title>Creating the Swap Partition</title>
338     <body>
339    
340     <p>
341     Let's now create the swap partition. The classic size to make the swap
342     partition was twice the amount of RAM in the system. In modern systems with
343     lots of RAM, this is no longer necessary. For most desktop systems, a 512
344     megabyte swap partition is sufficient. For a server, you should consider
345     something larger to reflect the anticipated needs of the server.
346     </p>
347    
348     <pre caption="Creating the swap partition">
349     (parted) <i>mkpart primary linux-swap 32 544</i>
350     (parted) <i>print</i>
351     Disk geometry for /dev/sda: 0.000-34732.890 megabytes
352     Disk label type: gpt
353     Minor Start End Filesystem Name Flags
354     1 0.017 32.000 fat32
355     2 32.000 544.000
356     </pre>
357    
358     </body>
359     </subsection>
360     <subsection>
361     <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
362     <body>
363    
364     <p>
365     Finally, let's create the root partition. Our configuration will make the root
366     partition to occupy the rest of the disk. We default to ext3, but you can use
367     ext2, jfs, reiserfs or xfs if you prefer. The actual filesystem is not created
368     in this step, but the partition table contains an indication of what kind of
369     filesystem is stored on each partition, and it's a good idea to make the table
370     match your intentions.
371     </p>
372    
373     <pre caption="Creating the root partition">
374     (parted) <i>mkpart primary ext3 544 34732.890</i>
375     (parted) <i>print</i>
376     Disk geometry for /dev/sda: 0.000-34732.890 megabytes
377     Disk label type: gpt
378     Minor Start End Filesystem Name Flags
379     1 0.017 32.000 fat32
380     2 32.000 544.000
381     3 544.000 34732.874
382     </pre>
383    
384     </body>
385     </subsection>
386     <subsection>
387     <title>Exiting parted</title>
388     <body>
389    
390     <p>
391     To quit from parted, type <c>quit</c>. There's no need to take a separate step
392     to save your partition layout since parted has been saving it all along. As you
393     leave, parted gives you reminder to update your <c>/etc/fstab</c>, which we'll
394     do later in this guide.
395     </p>
396    
397     <pre caption="Quit from parted">
398     (parted) <i>quit</i>
399     Information: Don't forget to update /etc/fstab, if necessary.
400     </pre>
401    
402     <p>
403 nightmorph 1.8 Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
404 vapier 1.1 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
405     </p>
406    
407     </body>
408     </subsection>
409     </section>
410     <section id="filesystems">
411     <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
412     <subsection>
413     <title>Introduction</title>
414     <body>
415    
416     <p>
417     Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
418     If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
419     as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
420     link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
421     Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
422     </p>
423    
424     </body>
425     </subsection>
426 nightmorph 1.7
427 vapier 1.1 <subsection>
428 nightmorph 1.7 <include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
429     </subsection>
430 vapier 1.1
431     <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
432     <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
433     <body>
434    
435     <p>
436     To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
437     each possible filesystem:
438     </p>
439    
440     <table>
441     <tr>
442     <th>Filesystem</th>
443     <th>Creation Command</th>
444     </tr>
445     <tr>
446     <ti>vfat</ti>
447     <ti><c>mkdosfs</c></ti>
448     </tr>
449     <tr>
450     <ti>ext2</ti>
451 swift 1.10 <ti><c>mkfs.ext2</c></ti>
452 vapier 1.1 </tr>
453     <tr>
454     <ti>ext3</ti>
455 swift 1.10 <ti><c>mkfs.ext3</c></ti>
456     </tr>
457     <tr>
458     <ti>ext4</ti>
459     <ti><c>mkfs.ext4</c></ti>
460 vapier 1.1 </tr>
461     <tr>
462     <ti>reiserfs</ti>
463     <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
464     </tr>
465     <tr>
466     <ti>xfs</ti>
467     <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
468     </tr>
469     <tr>
470     <ti>jfs</ti>
471     <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
472     </tr>
473     </table>
474    
475     <p>
476     For instance, to have the boot partition (<path>/dev/sda1</path> in our
477     example) as vfat and the root partition (<path>/dev/sda3</path> in our example)
478     as ext3, you would run the following commands:
479     </p>
480    
481     <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
482     # <i>mkdosfs /dev/sda1</i>
483 swift 1.10 # <i>mkfs.ext3 /dev/sda3</i>
484 vapier 1.1 </pre>
485    
486     </body>
487     </subsection>
488     <subsection>
489     <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
490     <body>
491    
492     <p>
493     <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
494     </p>
495    
496     <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
497     # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2</i>
498     </pre>
499    
500     <p>
501     To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
502     </p>
503    
504     <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
505     # <i>swapon /dev/sda2</i>
506     </pre>
507    
508     <p>
509     Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
510     </p>
511    
512     </body>
513     </subsection>
514     </section>
515     <section>
516     <title>Mounting</title>
517     <body>
518    
519     <p>
520     Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
521     time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
522     create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
523     example we mount the root and boot partition:
524     </p>
525    
526     <pre caption="Mounting the root partition">
527     # <i>mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
528     </pre>
529    
530     <note>
531     Unlike some of the other architectures supported by Gentoo, <path>/boot</path>
532 nightmorph 1.9 is not mounted on ia64. The reason for this is that the EFI boot partition will
533     be automatically mounted and written by the <c>elilo</c> command each time that
534     you run it. Because of this, <path>/boot</path> resides on the root filesystem
535     and is the storage place for the kernels referenced by your <c>elilo</c>
536     configuration.
537 vapier 1.1 </note>
538    
539     <note>
540     If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
541     change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
542     also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
543     </note>
544    
545     <p>
546     We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
547     kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
548     </p>
549    
550     <p>
551     Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
552     Installation Files</uri>.
553     </p>
554    
555     </body>
556     </section>
557     </sections>

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