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1 vapier 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7 swift 1.13 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ia64-disk.xml,v 1.12 2011/10/17 19:51:45 swift Exp $ -->
8 vapier 1.1
9     <sections>
10    
11 swift 1.13 <version>8</version>
12     <date>2012-07-24</date>
13 vapier 1.1
14     <section>
15     <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16 nightmorph 1.7
17 vapier 1.1 <subsection>
18 nightmorph 1.7 <include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
19     </subsection>
20 vapier 1.1
21     <subsection>
22     <title>Partitions</title>
23     <body>
24    
25     <p>
26     Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
27     system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
28     are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On <keyval id="arch"/>
29     systems, these are called <e>partitions</e>.
30     </p>
31    
32     <p>
33     Itanium systems use EFI, the Extensible Firmware Interface, for booting. The
34     partition table format that EFI understands is called GPT, or GUID Partition
35     Table. The partitioning program that understands GPT is called "parted", so
36     that is the tool we will use below. Additionally, EFI can only read FAT
37     filesystems, so that is the format to use for the EFI boot partition, where the
38     kernel will be installed by "elilo".
39     </p>
40    
41     </body>
42     </subsection>
43     <subsection>
44     <title>Advanced Storage</title>
45     <body>
46    
47     <p>
48 swift 1.11 The <keyval id="arch"/> Installation CDs provide support for LVM2.
49     LVM2 increases the flexibility offered by your partitioning setup.
50 vapier 1.1 During the installation instructions, we will focus on "regular" partitions,
51 swift 1.11 but it is still good to know LVM2 is supported as well.
52 vapier 1.1 </p>
53    
54     </body>
55     </subsection>
56     </section>
57     <section>
58     <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
59     <subsection>
60     <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
61     <body>
62    
63     <p>
64     If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system,
65     you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book:
66     </p>
67    
68     <table>
69     <tr>
70     <th>Partition</th>
71     <th>Filesystem</th>
72     <th>Size</th>
73     <th>Description</th>
74     </tr>
75     <tr>
76     <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
77     <ti>vfat</ti>
78     <ti>32M</ti>
79     <ti>EFI Boot partition</ti>
80     </tr>
81     <tr>
82     <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
83     <ti>(swap)</ti>
84     <ti>512M</ti>
85     <ti>Swap partition</ti>
86     </tr>
87     <tr>
88     <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
89     <ti>ext3</ti>
90     <ti>Rest of the disk</ti>
91     <ti>Root partition</ti>
92     </tr>
93     </table>
94    
95     <p>
96     If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how
97     many partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with partitioning
98     your disk by reading <uri link="#parted">Using parted to Partition your
99     Disk</uri>.
100     </p>
101    
102     </body>
103     </subsection>
104     <subsection>
105     <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
106     <body>
107    
108     <p>
109     The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
110     if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
111     <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
112     If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your
113     <path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside
114     <path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your
115     performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming
116     servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>:
117     security and backups. You will definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big:
118     not only will it contain the majority of applications, the Portage tree alone
119     takes around 500 Mbyte excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
120     </p>
121    
122     <p>
123     As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
124     partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
125     </p>
126    
127     <ul>
128     <li>
129     You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
130     </li>
131     <li>
132     Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
133     continuously writing files to a partition or volume
134     </li>
135     <li>
136     If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
137     be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
138     it is with multiple partitions)
139     </li>
140     <li>
141     Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
142     nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
143     </li>
144     </ul>
145    
146     <p>
147 swift 1.12 However, multiple partitions have disadvantages as well. If not configured
148     properly, you will have a system with lots of free space on one partition and
149     none on another. Another nuisance is that separate partitions - especially
150     for important mountpoints like <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> - often
151     require the administrator to boot with an initramfs to mount the partition
152     before other boot scripts start. This isn't always the case though, so YMMV.
153     </p>
154    
155     <p>
156     There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and SATA, unless you use GPT
157     labels.
158 vapier 1.1 </p>
159    
160     <p>
161     As an example partitioning, we show you one for a 20GB disk, used as a
162     demonstration laptop (containing webserver, mailserver, gnome, ...):
163     </p>
164    
165     <pre caption="Filesystem usage example">
166     $ <i>df -h</i>
167     Filesystem Type Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
168 nightmorph 1.7 /dev/sda5 ext3 509M 132M 351M 28% /
169     /dev/sda2 ext3 5.0G 3.0G 1.8G 63% /home
170     /dev/sda7 ext3 7.9G 6.2G 1.3G 83% /usr
171     /dev/sda8 ext3 1011M 483M 477M 51% /opt
172     /dev/sda9 ext3 2.0G 607M 1.3G 32% /var
173     /dev/sda1 ext2 51M 17M 31M 36% /boot
174     /dev/sda6 swap 516M 12M 504M 2% &lt;not mounted&gt;
175 vapier 1.1 <comment>(Unpartitioned space for future usage: 2 GB)</comment>
176     </pre>
177    
178     <p>
179     <path>/usr</path> is rather full (83% used) here, but once
180     all software is installed, <path>/usr</path> doesn't tend to grow that much.
181     Although allocating a few gigabytes of disk space for <path>/var</path> may
182     seem excessive, remember that Portage uses this partition by default for
183     compiling packages. If you want to keep <path>/var</path> at a more reasonable
184     size, such as 1GB, you will need to alter your <c>PORTAGE_TMPDIR</c> variable
185 swift 1.13 in <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path> to point to the partition with enough
186     free space for compiling extremely large packages such as OpenOffice.
187 vapier 1.1 </p>
188    
189     </body>
190     </subsection>
191     </section>
192     <section id="parted">
193     <title>Using parted to Partition your Disk</title>
194     <subsection>
195     <body>
196    
197     <p>
198     The following parts explain how to create the example partition layout
199     described previously, namely:
200     </p>
201    
202     <table>
203     <tr>
204     <th>Partition</th>
205     <th>Description</th>
206     </tr>
207     <tr>
208     <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
209     <ti>EFI Boot partition</ti>
210     </tr>
211     <tr>
212     <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
213     <ti>Swap partition</ti>
214     </tr>
215     <tr>
216     <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
217     <ti>Root partition</ti>
218     </tr>
219     </table>
220    
221     <p>
222     Change your partition layout according to your own preference.
223     </p>
224    
225     </body>
226     </subsection>
227     <subsection>
228     <title>Viewing the Current Partition Layout</title>
229     <body>
230    
231     <p>
232     <c>parted</c> is the GNU partition editor.
233     Fire up <c>parted</c> on your disk (in our example, we use
234     <path>/dev/sda</path>):
235     </p>
236    
237     <pre caption="Starting parted">
238     # <i>parted /dev/sda</i>
239     </pre>
240    
241     <p>
242     Once in <c>parted</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
243     </p>
244    
245     <pre caption="parted prompt">
246     GNU Parted 1.6.22
247     Copyright (C) 1998 - 2005 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
248     This program is free software, covered by the GNU General Public License.
249    
250     This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without
251     even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
252     General Public License for more details.
253    
254     Using /dev/sda
255     (parted)
256     </pre>
257    
258     <p>
259     At this point one of the available commands is <c>help</c>, which you should use
260     if you want to see the other available commands. Another command is
261     <c>print</c> which you should type next to display your disk's current partition
262     configuration:
263     </p>
264    
265     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
266     (parted) <i>print</i>
267     Disk geometry for /dev/sda: 0.000-34732.890 megabytes
268     Disk label type: gpt
269     Minor Start End Filesystem Name Flags
270     1 0.017 203.938 fat32 boot
271     2 203.938 4243.468 linux-swap
272     3 4243.469 34724.281 ext3
273     </pre>
274    
275     <p>
276     This particular configuration is very similar to the one that we recommend
277     above. Note on the second line that the partition table is type is GPT. If it
278     is different, then the ia64 system will not be able to boot from this disk.
279     For the sake of this guide we'll remove the partitions and create them anew.
280     </p>
281    
282     </body>
283     </subsection>
284     <subsection>
285     <title>Removing all Partitions</title>
286     <body>
287    
288     <note>
289     Unlike fdisk and some other partitioning programs which postpone committing
290     changes until you give the write instruction, parted commands take effect
291     immediately. So once you start adding and removing partitions, you can't
292     simply quit without writing them... they've already been written.
293     </note>
294    
295     <p>
296     The easy way to remove all partitions and start fresh, which guarantees that we
297     are using the correct partition type, is to make a new partition table using the
298     <c>mklabel</c> command. After you do this, you will have an empty GPT partition
299     table.
300     </p>
301    
302     <pre caption="Creating a new partition table">
303     (parted) <i>mklabel gpt</i>
304     (parted) <i>print</i>
305     Disk geometry for /dev/sda: 0.000-34732.890 megabytes
306     Disk label type: gpt
307     Minor Start End Filesystem Name Flags
308     </pre>
309    
310     <p>
311     Now that the partition table is empty, we're ready to create the
312     partitions. We will use a default partitioning scheme as discussed previously.
313     Of course, don't follow these instructions to the letter if you don't want the
314     same partitioning scheme!
315     </p>
316    
317     </body>
318     </subsection>
319     <subsection>
320     <title>Creating the EFI Boot Partition</title>
321     <body>
322    
323     <p>
324     We first create a small EFI boot partition. This is required to be a FAT
325 nightmorph 1.9 filesystem in order for the <keyval id="arch"/> firmware to read it. Our
326     example makes this 32 MB, which is appropriate for storing kernels and
327     <c>elilo</c> configuration. You can expect each <keyval id="arch"/> kernel to
328     be around 5 MB, so this configuration leaves you some room to grow and
329     experiment.
330 vapier 1.1 </p>
331    
332     <pre caption="Creating the boot partition">
333     (parted) <i>mkpart primary fat32 0 32</i>
334     (parted) <i>print</i>
335     Disk geometry for /dev/sda: 0.000-34732.890 megabytes
336     Disk label type: gpt
337     Minor Start End Filesystem Name Flags
338     1 0.017 32.000 fat32
339     </pre>
340    
341     </body>
342     </subsection>
343     <subsection>
344     <title>Creating the Swap Partition</title>
345     <body>
346    
347     <p>
348     Let's now create the swap partition. The classic size to make the swap
349     partition was twice the amount of RAM in the system. In modern systems with
350     lots of RAM, this is no longer necessary. For most desktop systems, a 512
351     megabyte swap partition is sufficient. For a server, you should consider
352     something larger to reflect the anticipated needs of the server.
353     </p>
354    
355     <pre caption="Creating the swap partition">
356     (parted) <i>mkpart primary linux-swap 32 544</i>
357     (parted) <i>print</i>
358     Disk geometry for /dev/sda: 0.000-34732.890 megabytes
359     Disk label type: gpt
360     Minor Start End Filesystem Name Flags
361     1 0.017 32.000 fat32
362     2 32.000 544.000
363     </pre>
364    
365     </body>
366     </subsection>
367     <subsection>
368     <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
369     <body>
370    
371     <p>
372     Finally, let's create the root partition. Our configuration will make the root
373     partition to occupy the rest of the disk. We default to ext3, but you can use
374     ext2, jfs, reiserfs or xfs if you prefer. The actual filesystem is not created
375     in this step, but the partition table contains an indication of what kind of
376     filesystem is stored on each partition, and it's a good idea to make the table
377     match your intentions.
378     </p>
379    
380     <pre caption="Creating the root partition">
381     (parted) <i>mkpart primary ext3 544 34732.890</i>
382     (parted) <i>print</i>
383     Disk geometry for /dev/sda: 0.000-34732.890 megabytes
384     Disk label type: gpt
385     Minor Start End Filesystem Name Flags
386     1 0.017 32.000 fat32
387     2 32.000 544.000
388     3 544.000 34732.874
389     </pre>
390    
391     </body>
392     </subsection>
393     <subsection>
394     <title>Exiting parted</title>
395     <body>
396    
397     <p>
398     To quit from parted, type <c>quit</c>. There's no need to take a separate step
399     to save your partition layout since parted has been saving it all along. As you
400     leave, parted gives you reminder to update your <c>/etc/fstab</c>, which we'll
401     do later in this guide.
402     </p>
403    
404     <pre caption="Quit from parted">
405     (parted) <i>quit</i>
406     Information: Don't forget to update /etc/fstab, if necessary.
407     </pre>
408    
409     <p>
410 nightmorph 1.8 Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
411 vapier 1.1 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
412     </p>
413    
414     </body>
415     </subsection>
416     </section>
417     <section id="filesystems">
418     <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
419     <subsection>
420     <title>Introduction</title>
421     <body>
422    
423     <p>
424     Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
425     If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
426     as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
427     link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
428     Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
429     </p>
430    
431     </body>
432     </subsection>
433 nightmorph 1.7
434 vapier 1.1 <subsection>
435 nightmorph 1.7 <include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
436     </subsection>
437 vapier 1.1
438     <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
439     <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
440     <body>
441    
442     <p>
443     To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
444     each possible filesystem:
445     </p>
446    
447     <table>
448     <tr>
449     <th>Filesystem</th>
450     <th>Creation Command</th>
451     </tr>
452     <tr>
453     <ti>vfat</ti>
454     <ti><c>mkdosfs</c></ti>
455     </tr>
456     <tr>
457     <ti>ext2</ti>
458 swift 1.10 <ti><c>mkfs.ext2</c></ti>
459 vapier 1.1 </tr>
460     <tr>
461     <ti>ext3</ti>
462 swift 1.10 <ti><c>mkfs.ext3</c></ti>
463     </tr>
464     <tr>
465     <ti>ext4</ti>
466     <ti><c>mkfs.ext4</c></ti>
467 vapier 1.1 </tr>
468     <tr>
469     <ti>reiserfs</ti>
470     <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
471     </tr>
472     <tr>
473     <ti>xfs</ti>
474     <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
475     </tr>
476     <tr>
477     <ti>jfs</ti>
478     <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
479     </tr>
480     </table>
481    
482     <p>
483     For instance, to have the boot partition (<path>/dev/sda1</path> in our
484     example) as vfat and the root partition (<path>/dev/sda3</path> in our example)
485     as ext3, you would run the following commands:
486     </p>
487    
488     <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
489     # <i>mkdosfs /dev/sda1</i>
490 swift 1.10 # <i>mkfs.ext3 /dev/sda3</i>
491 vapier 1.1 </pre>
492    
493     </body>
494     </subsection>
495     <subsection>
496     <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
497     <body>
498    
499     <p>
500     <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
501     </p>
502    
503     <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
504     # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2</i>
505     </pre>
506    
507     <p>
508     To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
509     </p>
510    
511     <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
512     # <i>swapon /dev/sda2</i>
513     </pre>
514    
515     <p>
516     Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
517     </p>
518    
519     </body>
520     </subsection>
521     </section>
522     <section>
523     <title>Mounting</title>
524     <body>
525    
526     <p>
527     Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
528     time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
529     create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
530     example we mount the root and boot partition:
531     </p>
532    
533     <pre caption="Mounting the root partition">
534     # <i>mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
535     </pre>
536    
537     <note>
538     Unlike some of the other architectures supported by Gentoo, <path>/boot</path>
539 nightmorph 1.9 is not mounted on ia64. The reason for this is that the EFI boot partition will
540     be automatically mounted and written by the <c>elilo</c> command each time that
541     you run it. Because of this, <path>/boot</path> resides on the root filesystem
542     and is the storage place for the kernels referenced by your <c>elilo</c>
543     configuration.
544 vapier 1.1 </note>
545    
546     <note>
547     If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
548     change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
549     also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
550     </note>
551    
552     <p>
553     We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
554     kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
555     </p>
556    
557     <p>
558     Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
559     Installation Files</uri>.
560     </p>
561    
562     </body>
563     </section>
564     </sections>

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