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1 vapier 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7 swift 1.14 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ia64-disk.xml,v 1.13 2012/07/24 12:12:52 swift Exp $ -->
8 vapier 1.1
9     <sections>
10    
11 swift 1.14 <version>9</version>
12     <date>2012-10-06</date>
13 vapier 1.1
14     <section>
15     <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16 nightmorph 1.7
17 vapier 1.1 <subsection>
18 nightmorph 1.7 <include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
19     </subsection>
20 vapier 1.1
21     <subsection>
22     <title>Partitions</title>
23     <body>
24    
25     <p>
26     Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
27     system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
28     are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On <keyval id="arch"/>
29     systems, these are called <e>partitions</e>.
30     </p>
31    
32     <p>
33     Itanium systems use EFI, the Extensible Firmware Interface, for booting. The
34     partition table format that EFI understands is called GPT, or GUID Partition
35     Table. The partitioning program that understands GPT is called "parted", so
36     that is the tool we will use below. Additionally, EFI can only read FAT
37     filesystems, so that is the format to use for the EFI boot partition, where the
38     kernel will be installed by "elilo".
39     </p>
40    
41     </body>
42     </subsection>
43     <subsection>
44     <title>Advanced Storage</title>
45     <body>
46    
47     <p>
48 swift 1.11 The <keyval id="arch"/> Installation CDs provide support for LVM2.
49     LVM2 increases the flexibility offered by your partitioning setup.
50 vapier 1.1 During the installation instructions, we will focus on "regular" partitions,
51 swift 1.11 but it is still good to know LVM2 is supported as well.
52 vapier 1.1 </p>
53    
54     </body>
55     </subsection>
56     </section>
57     <section>
58     <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
59     <subsection>
60     <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
61     <body>
62    
63     <p>
64     If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system,
65     you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book:
66     </p>
67    
68     <table>
69     <tr>
70     <th>Partition</th>
71     <th>Filesystem</th>
72     <th>Size</th>
73     <th>Description</th>
74     </tr>
75     <tr>
76     <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
77     <ti>vfat</ti>
78     <ti>32M</ti>
79     <ti>EFI Boot partition</ti>
80     </tr>
81     <tr>
82     <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
83     <ti>(swap)</ti>
84     <ti>512M</ti>
85     <ti>Swap partition</ti>
86     </tr>
87     <tr>
88     <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
89     <ti>ext3</ti>
90     <ti>Rest of the disk</ti>
91     <ti>Root partition</ti>
92     </tr>
93     </table>
94    
95     <p>
96     If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how
97     many partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with partitioning
98     your disk by reading <uri link="#parted">Using parted to Partition your
99     Disk</uri>.
100     </p>
101    
102     </body>
103     </subsection>
104     <subsection>
105     <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
106     <body>
107    
108     <p>
109     The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
110     if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
111     <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
112     If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your
113     <path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside
114     <path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your
115     performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming
116     servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>:
117     security and backups. You will definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big:
118     not only will it contain the majority of applications, the Portage tree alone
119     takes around 500 Mbyte excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
120     </p>
121    
122     <p>
123     As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
124     partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
125     </p>
126    
127     <ul>
128     <li>
129     You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
130     </li>
131     <li>
132     Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
133     continuously writing files to a partition or volume
134     </li>
135     <li>
136     If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
137     be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
138     it is with multiple partitions)
139     </li>
140     <li>
141     Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
142     nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
143     </li>
144     </ul>
145    
146     <p>
147 swift 1.12 However, multiple partitions have disadvantages as well. If not configured
148     properly, you will have a system with lots of free space on one partition and
149     none on another. Another nuisance is that separate partitions - especially
150     for important mountpoints like <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> - often
151     require the administrator to boot with an initramfs to mount the partition
152 swift 1.14 before other boot scripts start. This isn't always the case though, so your
153     results may vary.
154 swift 1.12 </p>
155    
156     <p>
157     There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and SATA, unless you use GPT
158     labels.
159 vapier 1.1 </p>
160    
161     <p>
162     As an example partitioning, we show you one for a 20GB disk, used as a
163     demonstration laptop (containing webserver, mailserver, gnome, ...):
164     </p>
165    
166     <pre caption="Filesystem usage example">
167     $ <i>df -h</i>
168     Filesystem Type Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
169 nightmorph 1.7 /dev/sda5 ext3 509M 132M 351M 28% /
170     /dev/sda2 ext3 5.0G 3.0G 1.8G 63% /home
171     /dev/sda7 ext3 7.9G 6.2G 1.3G 83% /usr
172     /dev/sda8 ext3 1011M 483M 477M 51% /opt
173     /dev/sda9 ext3 2.0G 607M 1.3G 32% /var
174     /dev/sda1 ext2 51M 17M 31M 36% /boot
175     /dev/sda6 swap 516M 12M 504M 2% &lt;not mounted&gt;
176 vapier 1.1 <comment>(Unpartitioned space for future usage: 2 GB)</comment>
177     </pre>
178    
179     <p>
180     <path>/usr</path> is rather full (83% used) here, but once
181     all software is installed, <path>/usr</path> doesn't tend to grow that much.
182     Although allocating a few gigabytes of disk space for <path>/var</path> may
183     seem excessive, remember that Portage uses this partition by default for
184     compiling packages. If you want to keep <path>/var</path> at a more reasonable
185     size, such as 1GB, you will need to alter your <c>PORTAGE_TMPDIR</c> variable
186 swift 1.13 in <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path> to point to the partition with enough
187     free space for compiling extremely large packages such as OpenOffice.
188 vapier 1.1 </p>
189    
190     </body>
191     </subsection>
192     </section>
193     <section id="parted">
194     <title>Using parted to Partition your Disk</title>
195     <subsection>
196     <body>
197    
198     <p>
199     The following parts explain how to create the example partition layout
200     described previously, namely:
201     </p>
202    
203     <table>
204     <tr>
205     <th>Partition</th>
206     <th>Description</th>
207     </tr>
208     <tr>
209     <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
210     <ti>EFI Boot partition</ti>
211     </tr>
212     <tr>
213     <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
214     <ti>Swap partition</ti>
215     </tr>
216     <tr>
217     <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
218     <ti>Root partition</ti>
219     </tr>
220     </table>
221    
222     <p>
223     Change your partition layout according to your own preference.
224     </p>
225    
226     </body>
227     </subsection>
228     <subsection>
229     <title>Viewing the Current Partition Layout</title>
230     <body>
231    
232     <p>
233     <c>parted</c> is the GNU partition editor.
234     Fire up <c>parted</c> on your disk (in our example, we use
235     <path>/dev/sda</path>):
236     </p>
237    
238     <pre caption="Starting parted">
239     # <i>parted /dev/sda</i>
240     </pre>
241    
242     <p>
243     Once in <c>parted</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
244     </p>
245    
246     <pre caption="parted prompt">
247     GNU Parted 1.6.22
248     Copyright (C) 1998 - 2005 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
249     This program is free software, covered by the GNU General Public License.
250    
251     This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without
252     even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
253     General Public License for more details.
254    
255     Using /dev/sda
256     (parted)
257     </pre>
258    
259     <p>
260     At this point one of the available commands is <c>help</c>, which you should use
261     if you want to see the other available commands. Another command is
262     <c>print</c> which you should type next to display your disk's current partition
263     configuration:
264     </p>
265    
266     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
267     (parted) <i>print</i>
268     Disk geometry for /dev/sda: 0.000-34732.890 megabytes
269     Disk label type: gpt
270     Minor Start End Filesystem Name Flags
271     1 0.017 203.938 fat32 boot
272     2 203.938 4243.468 linux-swap
273     3 4243.469 34724.281 ext3
274     </pre>
275    
276     <p>
277     This particular configuration is very similar to the one that we recommend
278     above. Note on the second line that the partition table is type is GPT. If it
279     is different, then the ia64 system will not be able to boot from this disk.
280     For the sake of this guide we'll remove the partitions and create them anew.
281     </p>
282    
283     </body>
284     </subsection>
285     <subsection>
286     <title>Removing all Partitions</title>
287     <body>
288    
289     <note>
290     Unlike fdisk and some other partitioning programs which postpone committing
291     changes until you give the write instruction, parted commands take effect
292     immediately. So once you start adding and removing partitions, you can't
293     simply quit without writing them... they've already been written.
294     </note>
295    
296     <p>
297     The easy way to remove all partitions and start fresh, which guarantees that we
298     are using the correct partition type, is to make a new partition table using the
299     <c>mklabel</c> command. After you do this, you will have an empty GPT partition
300     table.
301     </p>
302    
303     <pre caption="Creating a new partition table">
304     (parted) <i>mklabel gpt</i>
305     (parted) <i>print</i>
306     Disk geometry for /dev/sda: 0.000-34732.890 megabytes
307     Disk label type: gpt
308     Minor Start End Filesystem Name Flags
309     </pre>
310    
311     <p>
312     Now that the partition table is empty, we're ready to create the
313     partitions. We will use a default partitioning scheme as discussed previously.
314     Of course, don't follow these instructions to the letter if you don't want the
315     same partitioning scheme!
316     </p>
317    
318     </body>
319     </subsection>
320     <subsection>
321     <title>Creating the EFI Boot Partition</title>
322     <body>
323    
324     <p>
325     We first create a small EFI boot partition. This is required to be a FAT
326 nightmorph 1.9 filesystem in order for the <keyval id="arch"/> firmware to read it. Our
327     example makes this 32 MB, which is appropriate for storing kernels and
328     <c>elilo</c> configuration. You can expect each <keyval id="arch"/> kernel to
329     be around 5 MB, so this configuration leaves you some room to grow and
330     experiment.
331 vapier 1.1 </p>
332    
333     <pre caption="Creating the boot partition">
334     (parted) <i>mkpart primary fat32 0 32</i>
335     (parted) <i>print</i>
336     Disk geometry for /dev/sda: 0.000-34732.890 megabytes
337     Disk label type: gpt
338     Minor Start End Filesystem Name Flags
339     1 0.017 32.000 fat32
340     </pre>
341    
342     </body>
343     </subsection>
344     <subsection>
345     <title>Creating the Swap Partition</title>
346     <body>
347    
348     <p>
349     Let's now create the swap partition. The classic size to make the swap
350     partition was twice the amount of RAM in the system. In modern systems with
351     lots of RAM, this is no longer necessary. For most desktop systems, a 512
352     megabyte swap partition is sufficient. For a server, you should consider
353     something larger to reflect the anticipated needs of the server.
354     </p>
355    
356     <pre caption="Creating the swap partition">
357     (parted) <i>mkpart primary linux-swap 32 544</i>
358     (parted) <i>print</i>
359     Disk geometry for /dev/sda: 0.000-34732.890 megabytes
360     Disk label type: gpt
361     Minor Start End Filesystem Name Flags
362     1 0.017 32.000 fat32
363     2 32.000 544.000
364     </pre>
365    
366     </body>
367     </subsection>
368     <subsection>
369     <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
370     <body>
371    
372     <p>
373     Finally, let's create the root partition. Our configuration will make the root
374     partition to occupy the rest of the disk. We default to ext3, but you can use
375     ext2, jfs, reiserfs or xfs if you prefer. The actual filesystem is not created
376     in this step, but the partition table contains an indication of what kind of
377     filesystem is stored on each partition, and it's a good idea to make the table
378     match your intentions.
379     </p>
380    
381     <pre caption="Creating the root partition">
382     (parted) <i>mkpart primary ext3 544 34732.890</i>
383     (parted) <i>print</i>
384     Disk geometry for /dev/sda: 0.000-34732.890 megabytes
385     Disk label type: gpt
386     Minor Start End Filesystem Name Flags
387     1 0.017 32.000 fat32
388     2 32.000 544.000
389     3 544.000 34732.874
390     </pre>
391    
392     </body>
393     </subsection>
394     <subsection>
395     <title>Exiting parted</title>
396     <body>
397    
398     <p>
399     To quit from parted, type <c>quit</c>. There's no need to take a separate step
400     to save your partition layout since parted has been saving it all along. As you
401     leave, parted gives you reminder to update your <c>/etc/fstab</c>, which we'll
402     do later in this guide.
403     </p>
404    
405     <pre caption="Quit from parted">
406     (parted) <i>quit</i>
407     Information: Don't forget to update /etc/fstab, if necessary.
408     </pre>
409    
410     <p>
411 nightmorph 1.8 Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
412 vapier 1.1 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
413     </p>
414    
415     </body>
416     </subsection>
417     </section>
418     <section id="filesystems">
419     <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
420     <subsection>
421     <title>Introduction</title>
422     <body>
423    
424     <p>
425     Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
426     If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
427     as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
428     link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
429     Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
430     </p>
431    
432     </body>
433     </subsection>
434 nightmorph 1.7
435 vapier 1.1 <subsection>
436 nightmorph 1.7 <include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
437     </subsection>
438 vapier 1.1
439     <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
440     <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
441     <body>
442    
443     <p>
444     To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
445     each possible filesystem:
446     </p>
447    
448     <table>
449     <tr>
450     <th>Filesystem</th>
451     <th>Creation Command</th>
452     </tr>
453     <tr>
454     <ti>vfat</ti>
455     <ti><c>mkdosfs</c></ti>
456     </tr>
457     <tr>
458     <ti>ext2</ti>
459 swift 1.10 <ti><c>mkfs.ext2</c></ti>
460 vapier 1.1 </tr>
461     <tr>
462     <ti>ext3</ti>
463 swift 1.10 <ti><c>mkfs.ext3</c></ti>
464     </tr>
465     <tr>
466     <ti>ext4</ti>
467     <ti><c>mkfs.ext4</c></ti>
468 vapier 1.1 </tr>
469     <tr>
470     <ti>reiserfs</ti>
471     <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
472     </tr>
473     <tr>
474     <ti>xfs</ti>
475     <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
476     </tr>
477     <tr>
478     <ti>jfs</ti>
479     <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
480     </tr>
481     </table>
482    
483     <p>
484     For instance, to have the boot partition (<path>/dev/sda1</path> in our
485     example) as vfat and the root partition (<path>/dev/sda3</path> in our example)
486     as ext3, you would run the following commands:
487     </p>
488    
489     <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
490     # <i>mkdosfs /dev/sda1</i>
491 swift 1.10 # <i>mkfs.ext3 /dev/sda3</i>
492 vapier 1.1 </pre>
493    
494     </body>
495     </subsection>
496     <subsection>
497     <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
498     <body>
499    
500     <p>
501     <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
502     </p>
503    
504     <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
505     # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2</i>
506     </pre>
507    
508     <p>
509     To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
510     </p>
511    
512     <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
513     # <i>swapon /dev/sda2</i>
514     </pre>
515    
516     <p>
517     Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
518     </p>
519    
520     </body>
521     </subsection>
522     </section>
523     <section>
524     <title>Mounting</title>
525     <body>
526    
527     <p>
528     Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
529     time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
530     create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
531     example we mount the root and boot partition:
532     </p>
533    
534     <pre caption="Mounting the root partition">
535     # <i>mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
536     </pre>
537    
538     <note>
539     Unlike some of the other architectures supported by Gentoo, <path>/boot</path>
540 nightmorph 1.9 is not mounted on ia64. The reason for this is that the EFI boot partition will
541     be automatically mounted and written by the <c>elilo</c> command each time that
542     you run it. Because of this, <path>/boot</path> resides on the root filesystem
543     and is the storage place for the kernels referenced by your <c>elilo</c>
544     configuration.
545 vapier 1.1 </note>
546    
547     <note>
548     If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
549     change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
550     also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
551     </note>
552    
553     <p>
554     We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
555     kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
556     </p>
557    
558     <p>
559     Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
560     Installation Files</uri>.
561     </p>
562    
563     </body>
564     </section>
565     </sections>

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