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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ia64-disk.xml,v 1.6 2007/06/26 07:07:27 nightmorph Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ia64-disk.xml,v 1.7 2008/04/01 08:53:46 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<version>3.2</version> 11<version>4.0</version>
12<date>2007-06-26</date> 12<date>2008-04-01</date>
13 13
14<section> 14<section>
15<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title> 15<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16<subsection>
17<title>Block Devices</title>
18<body>
19 16
20<p>
21We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
22and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices.
23Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems,
24you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
25for your Gentoo Linux installation.
26</p>
27
28<p>
29To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is
30probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system, namely
31<path>/dev/hda</path>. If your system uses SCSI or SATA drives, then your
32first hard drive would be <path>/dev/sda</path>.
33</p>
34
35<p>
36The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
37programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
38about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program can
39simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
40randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
41</p>
42
43</body>
44</subsection> 17<subsection>
18<include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
19</subsection>
20
45<subsection> 21<subsection>
46<title>Partitions</title> 22<title>Partitions</title>
47<body> 23<body>
48 24
49<p> 25<p>
180</p> 156</p>
181 157
182<pre caption="Filesystem usage example"> 158<pre caption="Filesystem usage example">
183$ <i>df -h</i> 159$ <i>df -h</i>
184Filesystem Type Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on 160Filesystem Type Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
185/dev/hda5 ext3 509M 132M 351M 28% / 161/dev/sda5 ext3 509M 132M 351M 28% /
186/dev/hda2 ext3 5.0G 3.0G 1.8G 63% /home 162/dev/sda2 ext3 5.0G 3.0G 1.8G 63% /home
187/dev/hda7 ext3 7.9G 6.2G 1.3G 83% /usr 163/dev/sda7 ext3 7.9G 6.2G 1.3G 83% /usr
188/dev/hda8 ext3 1011M 483M 477M 51% /opt 164/dev/sda8 ext3 1011M 483M 477M 51% /opt
189/dev/hda9 ext3 2.0G 607M 1.3G 32% /var 165/dev/sda9 ext3 2.0G 607M 1.3G 32% /var
190/dev/hda1 ext2 51M 17M 31M 36% /boot 166/dev/sda1 ext2 51M 17M 31M 36% /boot
191/dev/hda6 swap 516M 12M 504M 2% &lt;not mounted&gt; 167/dev/sda6 swap 516M 12M 504M 2% &lt;not mounted&gt;
192<comment>(Unpartitioned space for future usage: 2 GB)</comment> 168<comment>(Unpartitioned space for future usage: 2 GB)</comment>
193</pre> 169</pre>
194 170
195<p> 171<p>
196<path>/usr</path> is rather full (83% used) here, but once 172<path>/usr</path> is rather full (83% used) here, but once
444Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems... 420Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
445</p> 421</p>
446 422
447</body> 423</body>
448</subsection> 424</subsection>
449<subsection>
450<title>Filesystems?</title>
451<body>
452 425
453<p>
454The Linux kernel supports various filesystems. We'll explain vfat, ext2, ext3,
455ReiserFS, XFS and JFS as these are the most commonly used filesystems on Linux
456systems.
457</p>
458
459<p>
460<b>vfat</b> is the MS-DOS filesystem, updated to allow long filenames. It is
461also the only filesystem type that the EFI firmware on ia64 systems understand.
462The boot partition on ia64 systems should always be vfat, but for your data
463partitions you should use one of the other filesystems listed below.
464</p>
465
466<p>
467<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
468journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
469be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
470journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are
471thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled
472filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
473happens to be in an inconsistent state.
474</p>
475
476<p>
477<b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
478journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like
479full data and ordered data journaling. It uses an HTree index that enables high
480performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is a very good and reliable
481filesystem.
482</p>
483
484<p>
485<b>ReiserFS</b> is a B+tree-based filesystem that has very good overall
486performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
487files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
488extremely well and has metadata journaling. ReiserFS is solid and usable as
489both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of
490large filesystems, very large files and directories containing tens of
491thousands of small files.
492</p>
493
494<p>
495<b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling which comes with a robust
496feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
497filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
498an uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
499in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
500when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
501deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
502</p>
503
504<p>
505<b>JFS</b> is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
506become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
507comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this point.
508</p>
509
510</body>
511</subsection> 426<subsection>
427<include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
428</subsection>
429
512<subsection id="filesystems-apply"> 430<subsection id="filesystems-apply">
513<title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title> 431<title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
514<body> 432<body>
515 433
516<p> 434<p>

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