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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ia64-disk.xml,v 1.15 2013/02/23 18:38:22 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>11</version>
12 <date>2013-12-17</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16
17 <subsection>
18 <include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
19 </subsection>
20
21 <subsection>
22 <title>Partitions</title>
23 <body>
24
25 <p>
26 Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
27 system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
28 are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On <keyval id="arch"/>
29 systems, these are called <e>partitions</e>.
30 </p>
31
32 <p>
33 Itanium systems use EFI, the Extensible Firmware Interface, for booting. The
34 partition table format that EFI understands is called GPT, or GUID Partition
35 Table. The partitioning program that understands GPT is called "parted", so
36 that is the tool we will use below. Additionally, EFI can only read FAT
37 filesystems, so that is the format to use for the EFI boot partition, where the
38 kernel will be installed by "elilo".
39 </p>
40
41 </body>
42 </subsection>
43 <subsection>
44 <title>Advanced Storage</title>
45 <body>
46
47 <p>
48 The <keyval id="arch"/> Installation CDs provide support for LVM2.
49 LVM2 increases the flexibility offered by your partitioning setup.
50 During the installation instructions, we will focus on "regular" partitions,
51 but it is still good to know LVM2 is supported as well.
52 </p>
53
54 </body>
55 </subsection>
56 </section>
57 <section>
58 <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
59 <subsection>
60 <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
61 <body>
62
63 <p>
64 If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system,
65 you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book:
66 </p>
67
68 <table>
69 <tr>
70 <th>Partition</th>
71 <th>Filesystem</th>
72 <th>Size</th>
73 <th>Description</th>
74 </tr>
75 <tr>
76 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
77 <ti>vfat</ti>
78 <ti>32M</ti>
79 <ti>EFI Boot partition</ti>
80 </tr>
81 <tr>
82 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
83 <ti>(swap)</ti>
84 <ti>512M</ti>
85 <ti>Swap partition</ti>
86 </tr>
87 <tr>
88 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
89 <ti>ext4</ti>
90 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti>
91 <ti>Root partition</ti>
92 </tr>
93 </table>
94
95 <p>
96 If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how
97 many partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with partitioning
98 your disk by reading <uri link="#parted">Using parted to Partition your
99 Disk</uri>.
100 </p>
101
102 </body>
103 </subsection>
104 <subsection>
105 <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
106 <body>
107
108 <p>
109 The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
110 if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
111 <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
112 If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your
113 <path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside
114 <path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your
115 performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming
116 servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>:
117 security and backups. You will definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big:
118 not only will it contain the majority of applications, the Portage tree alone
119 takes around 500 Mbyte excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
120 </p>
121
122 <p>
123 As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
124 partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
125 </p>
126
127 <ul>
128 <li>
129 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
130 </li>
131 <li>
132 Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
133 continuously writing files to a partition or volume
134 </li>
135 <li>
136 If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
137 be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
138 it is with multiple partitions)
139 </li>
140 <li>
141 Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
142 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
143 </li>
144 </ul>
145
146 <p>
147 However, multiple partitions have disadvantages as well. If not configured
148 properly, you will have a system with lots of free space on one partition and
149 none on another. Another nuisance is that separate partitions - especially
150 for important mountpoints like <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> - often
151 require the administrator to boot with an initramfs to mount the partition
152 before other boot scripts start. This isn't always the case though, so your
153 results may vary.
154 </p>
155
156 <p>
157 There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and SATA, unless you use GPT
158 labels.
159 </p>
160
161 <p>
162 As an example partitioning, we show you one for a 20GB disk, used as a
163 demonstration laptop (containing webserver, mailserver, gnome, ...):
164 </p>
165
166 <pre caption="Filesystem usage example">
167 $ <i>df -h</i>
168 Filesystem Type Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
169 /dev/sda5 ext4 509M 132M 351M 28% /
170 /dev/sda2 ext4 5.0G 3.0G 1.8G 63% /home
171 /dev/sda7 ext4 7.9G 6.2G 1.3G 83% /usr
172 /dev/sda8 ext4 1011M 483M 477M 51% /opt
173 /dev/sda9 ext4 2.0G 607M 1.3G 32% /var
174 /dev/sda1 ext2 51M 17M 31M 36% /boot
175 /dev/sda6 swap 516M 12M 504M 2% &lt;not mounted&gt;
176 <comment>(Unpartitioned space for future usage: 2 GB)</comment>
177 </pre>
178
179 <p>
180 <path>/usr</path> is rather full (83% used) here, but once
181 all software is installed, <path>/usr</path> doesn't tend to grow that much.
182 Although allocating a few gigabytes of disk space for <path>/var</path> may
183 seem excessive, remember that Portage uses this partition by default for
184 compiling packages. If you want to keep <path>/var</path> at a more reasonable
185 size, such as 1GB, you will need to alter your <c>PORTAGE_TMPDIR</c> variable
186 in <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path> to point to the partition with enough
187 free space for compiling extremely large packages such as LibreOffice.
188 </p>
189
190 </body>
191 </subsection>
192 </section>
193 <section id="parted">
194 <title>Using parted to Partition your Disk</title>
195 <subsection>
196 <body>
197
198 <p>
199 The following parts explain how to create the example partition layout
200 described previously, namely:
201 </p>
202
203 <table>
204 <tr>
205 <th>Partition</th>
206 <th>Description</th>
207 </tr>
208 <tr>
209 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
210 <ti>EFI Boot partition</ti>
211 </tr>
212 <tr>
213 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
214 <ti>Swap partition</ti>
215 </tr>
216 <tr>
217 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
218 <ti>Root partition</ti>
219 </tr>
220 </table>
221
222 <p>
223 Change your partition layout according to your own preference.
224 </p>
225
226 </body>
227 </subsection>
228 <subsection>
229 <title>Viewing the Current Partition Layout</title>
230 <body>
231
232 <p>
233 <c>parted</c> is the GNU partition editor.
234 Fire up <c>parted</c> on your disk (in our example, we use
235 <path>/dev/sda</path>):
236 </p>
237
238 <pre caption="Starting parted">
239 # <i>parted /dev/sda</i>
240 </pre>
241
242 <p>
243 Once in <c>parted</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
244 </p>
245
246 <pre caption="parted prompt">
247 GNU Parted 1.6.22
248 Copyright (C) 1998 - 2005 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
249 This program is free software, covered by the GNU General Public License.
250
251 This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without
252 even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
253 General Public License for more details.
254
255 Using /dev/sda
256 (parted)
257 </pre>
258
259 <p>
260 At this point one of the available commands is <c>help</c>, which you should use
261 if you want to see the other available commands. Another command is
262 <c>print</c> which you should type next to display your disk's current partition
263 configuration:
264 </p>
265
266 <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
267 (parted) <i>print</i>
268 Disk geometry for /dev/sda: 0.000-34732.890 megabytes
269 Disk label type: gpt
270 Minor Start End Filesystem Name Flags
271 1 0.017 203.938 fat32 boot
272 2 203.938 4243.468 linux-swap
273 3 4243.469 34724.281 ext4
274 </pre>
275
276 <p>
277 This particular configuration is very similar to the one that we recommend
278 above. Note on the second line that the partition table is type is GPT. If it
279 is different, then the ia64 system will not be able to boot from this disk.
280 For the sake of this guide we'll remove the partitions and create them anew.
281 </p>
282
283 </body>
284 </subsection>
285 <subsection>
286 <title>Removing all Partitions</title>
287 <body>
288
289 <note>
290 Unlike fdisk and some other partitioning programs which postpone committing
291 changes until you give the write instruction, parted commands take effect
292 immediately. So once you start adding and removing partitions, you can't
293 simply quit without writing them... they've already been written.
294 </note>
295
296 <p>
297 The easy way to remove all partitions and start fresh, which guarantees that we
298 are using the correct partition type, is to make a new partition table using the
299 <c>mklabel</c> command. After you do this, you will have an empty GPT partition
300 table.
301 </p>
302
303 <pre caption="Creating a new partition table">
304 (parted) <i>mklabel gpt</i>
305 (parted) <i>print</i>
306 Disk geometry for /dev/sda: 0.000-34732.890 megabytes
307 Disk label type: gpt
308 Minor Start End Filesystem Name Flags
309 </pre>
310
311 <p>
312 Now that the partition table is empty, we're ready to create the
313 partitions. We will use a default partitioning scheme as discussed previously.
314 Of course, don't follow these instructions to the letter if you don't want the
315 same partitioning scheme!
316 </p>
317
318 </body>
319 </subsection>
320 <subsection>
321 <title>Creating the EFI Boot Partition</title>
322 <body>
323
324 <p>
325 We first create a small EFI boot partition. This is required to be a FAT
326 filesystem in order for the <keyval id="arch"/> firmware to read it. Our
327 example makes this 32 MB, which is appropriate for storing kernels and
328 <c>elilo</c> configuration. You can expect each <keyval id="arch"/> kernel to
329 be around 5 MB, so this configuration leaves you some room to grow and
330 experiment.
331 </p>
332
333 <pre caption="Creating the boot partition">
334 (parted) <i>mkpart primary fat32 0 32</i>
335 (parted) <i>print</i>
336 Disk geometry for /dev/sda: 0.000-34732.890 megabytes
337 Disk label type: gpt
338 Minor Start End Filesystem Name Flags
339 1 0.017 32.000 fat32
340 </pre>
341
342 </body>
343 </subsection>
344 <subsection>
345 <title>Creating the Swap Partition</title>
346 <body>
347
348 <p>
349 Let's now create the swap partition. The classic size to make the swap
350 partition was twice the amount of RAM in the system. In modern systems with
351 lots of RAM, this is no longer necessary. For most desktop systems, a 512
352 megabyte swap partition is sufficient. For a server, you should consider
353 something larger to reflect the anticipated needs of the server.
354 </p>
355
356 <pre caption="Creating the swap partition">
357 (parted) <i>mkpart primary linux-swap 32 544</i>
358 (parted) <i>print</i>
359 Disk geometry for /dev/sda: 0.000-34732.890 megabytes
360 Disk label type: gpt
361 Minor Start End Filesystem Name Flags
362 1 0.017 32.000 fat32
363 2 32.000 544.000
364 </pre>
365
366 </body>
367 </subsection>
368 <subsection>
369 <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
370 <body>
371
372 <p>
373 Finally, let's create the root partition. Our configuration will make the root
374 partition to occupy the rest of the disk. We default to ext4, but you can use
375 ext2, jfs, reiserfs or xfs if you prefer. The actual filesystem is not created
376 in this step, but the partition table contains an indication of what kind of
377 filesystem is stored on each partition, and it's a good idea to make the table
378 match your intentions.
379 </p>
380
381 <pre caption="Creating the root partition">
382 (parted) <i>mkpart primary ext4 544 34732.890</i>
383 (parted) <i>print</i>
384 Disk geometry for /dev/sda: 0.000-34732.890 megabytes
385 Disk label type: gpt
386 Minor Start End Filesystem Name Flags
387 1 0.017 32.000 fat32
388 2 32.000 544.000
389 3 544.000 34732.874
390 </pre>
391
392 </body>
393 </subsection>
394 <subsection>
395 <title>Exiting parted</title>
396 <body>
397
398 <p>
399 To quit from parted, type <c>quit</c>. There's no need to take a separate step
400 to save your partition layout since parted has been saving it all along. As you
401 leave, parted gives you reminder to update your <c>/etc/fstab</c>, which we'll
402 do later in this guide.
403 </p>
404
405 <pre caption="Quit from parted">
406 (parted) <i>quit</i>
407 Information: Don't forget to update /etc/fstab, if necessary.
408 </pre>
409
410 <p>
411 Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
412 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
413 </p>
414
415 </body>
416 </subsection>
417 </section>
418 <section id="filesystems">
419 <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
420 <subsection>
421 <title>Introduction</title>
422 <body>
423
424 <p>
425 Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
426 If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
427 as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
428 link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
429 Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
430 </p>
431
432 </body>
433 </subsection>
434
435 <subsection>
436 <include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
437 </subsection>
438
439 <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
440 <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
441 <body>
442
443 <p>
444 To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
445 each possible filesystem:
446 </p>
447
448 <table>
449 <tr>
450 <th>Filesystem</th>
451 <th>Creation Command</th>
452 </tr>
453 <tr>
454 <ti>vfat</ti>
455 <ti><c>mkdosfs</c></ti>
456 </tr>
457 <tr>
458 <ti>ext2</ti>
459 <ti><c>mkfs.ext2</c></ti>
460 </tr>
461 <tr>
462 <ti>ext3</ti>
463 <ti><c>mkfs.ext3</c></ti>
464 </tr>
465 <tr>
466 <ti>ext4</ti>
467 <ti><c>mkfs.ext4</c></ti>
468 </tr>
469 <tr>
470 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
471 <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
472 </tr>
473 <tr>
474 <ti>xfs</ti>
475 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
476 </tr>
477 <tr>
478 <ti>jfs</ti>
479 <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
480 </tr>
481 </table>
482
483 <p>
484 For instance, to have the boot partition (<path>/dev/sda1</path> in our
485 example) as vfat and the root partition (<path>/dev/sda3</path> in our example)
486 as ext4, you would run the following commands:
487 </p>
488
489 <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
490 # <i>mkdosfs /dev/sda1</i>
491 # <i>mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3</i>
492 </pre>
493
494 </body>
495 </subsection>
496 <subsection>
497 <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
498 <body>
499
500 <p>
501 <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
502 </p>
503
504 <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
505 # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2</i>
506 </pre>
507
508 <p>
509 To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
510 </p>
511
512 <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
513 # <i>swapon /dev/sda2</i>
514 </pre>
515
516 <p>
517 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
518 </p>
519
520 </body>
521 </subsection>
522 </section>
523 <section>
524 <title>Mounting</title>
525 <body>
526
527 <p>
528 Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
529 time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
530 create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
531 example we mount the root and boot partition:
532 </p>
533
534 <pre caption="Mounting the root partition">
535 # <i>mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
536 </pre>
537
538 <note>
539 Unlike some of the other architectures supported by Gentoo, <path>/boot</path>
540 is not mounted on ia64. The reason for this is that the EFI boot partition will
541 be automatically mounted and written by the <c>elilo</c> command each time that
542 you run it. Because of this, <path>/boot</path> resides on the root filesystem
543 and is the storage place for the kernels referenced by your <c>elilo</c>
544 configuration.
545 </note>
546
547 <note>
548 If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
549 change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
550 also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
551 </note>
552
553 <p>
554 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
555 kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
556 </p>
557
558 <p>
559 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
560 Installation Files</uri>.
561 </p>
562
563 </body>
564 </section>
565 </sections>

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