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initial import of ia64 handbook

1 vapier 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7     <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86-kernel.xml,v 1.52 2005/07/04 15:57:32 swift Exp $ -->
8    
9     <sections>
10    
11     <version>7.1</version>
12     <date>2006-08-30</date>
13    
14     <section>
15     <title>Timezone</title>
16     <body>
17    
18     <p>
19     You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20     located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
21     it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
22     <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23     indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
24     </p>
25    
26     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
27     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
28     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
29     # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
30     </pre>
31    
32     </body>
33     </section>
34     <section>
35     <title>Installing the Sources</title>
36     <subsection>
37     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
38     <body>
39    
40     <p>
41     The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
42     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
43     users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
44     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
45     Guide</uri>.
46     </p>
47    
48     <p>
49     For IA64 systems, the available kernels are <c>vanilla-sources</c> (the default
50     kernel source as distributed from <uri link="http://kernel.org/">kernel.org</uri>
51     and <c>gentoo-sources</c> (contains additional patches for performance and
52     stability).
53     </p>
54    
55     <p>
56     Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>. The
57     <c>USE="-doc"</c> is necessary to avoid installing xorg-x11 or other
58     dependencies at this point. <c>USE="symlink"</c> is not necessary for a new
59     install, but ensures proper creation of the <path>/usr/src/linux</path>
60     symlink.
61     </p>
62    
63     <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
64     # <i>USE="-doc symlink" emerge gentoo-sources</i>
65     </pre>
66    
67     <p>
68     When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
69     <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
70     kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
71     Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
72     </p>
73    
74     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
75     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
76     lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
77     </pre>
78    
79     <p>
80     Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
81     <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
82     Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
83     the best way to optimize your environment.
84     </p>
85    
86     <p>
87     If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
88     link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
89     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
90     genkernel</uri> instead.
91     </p>
92    
93     </body>
94     </subsection>
95     </section>
96     <section id="manual">
97     <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
98     <subsection>
99     <title>Introduction</title>
100     <body>
101    
102     <p>
103     Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
104     Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
105     couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
106     </p>
107    
108     <p>
109     However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
110     configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
111     pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
112     be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
113     ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
114     /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
115     <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
116     You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
117     uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
118     </p>
119    
120     <p>
121     Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
122     will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
123     </p>
124    
125     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
126     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
127     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
128     </pre>
129    
130     <p>
131     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
132     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
133     properly without additional tweaks).
134     </p>
135    
136     </body>
137     </subsection>
138     <subsection>
139     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
140     <body>
141    
142     <p>
143     First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
144     You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
145     </p>
146    
147     <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers, General setup">
148     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
149     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
150     General setup ---&gt;
151     [*] Support for hot-pluggable devices
152     </pre>
153    
154     <p>
155     Make sure that every driver that is vital to the booting of your system (such as
156     SCSI controller, ...) is compiled <e>in</e> the kernel and not as a module,
157     otherwise your system will not be able to boot completely.
158     </p>
159    
160     <p>
161     Now select the correct system type and processor type. If you don't know what
162     kind of IA64 system type you have, <c>DIG-compliant</c> is a good default
163     choice. If you are installing on an SGI system make sure you select the
164     SGI system type, your kernel may just lock up and refuse to boot otherwise.
165     </p>
166    
167     <pre caption="Selecting correct system type">
168     System type ---&gt;
169     <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
170     <i>DIG-compliant</i>
171     Processor type ---&gt;
172     <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
173     <i>Itanium 2</i>
174     </pre>
175    
176     <p>
177     Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
178     <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
179     able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
180     file system</c>.
181     </p>
182    
183     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
184     File systems ---&gt;
185     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
186     [*] /proc file system support
187     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
188    
189     <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
190     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
191     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
192     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
193     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
194     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
195    
196     <comment>(Be sure to enable VFAT support for the EFI partition)</comment>
197     DOS/FAT/NT Filesystems --->
198     &lt;*&gt; VFAT (Windows-95) fs support
199     </pre>
200    
201     <p>
202     Do not forget to enable DMA for your drives:
203     </p>
204    
205     <pre caption="Activating DMA">
206     Device Drivers ---&gt;
207     ATA/ATAPI/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
208     [*] Generic PCI bus-master DMA support
209     [*] Use PCI DMA by default when available
210     </pre>
211    
212     <p>
213     If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
214     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
215     </p>
216    
217     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
218     Device Drivers ---&gt;
219     Networking Support ---&gt;
220     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
221     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
222     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
223     </pre>
224    
225     <p>
226     The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
227     does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
228     <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
229     </p>
230    
231     <p>
232     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
233     ethernet card.
234     </p>
235    
236     <p>
237     If you have an Intel CPU that supports HyperThreading (tm), or you have a
238     multi-CPU system, you should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
239     </p>
240    
241     <pre caption="Activating SMP support">
242     Processor type and features ---&gt;
243     [*] Symmetric multi-processing support
244     </pre>
245    
246     <p>
247     If you use USB Input Devices (like Keyboard or Mouse) don't forget to enable
248     those as well:
249     </p>
250    
251     <pre caption="Activating USB Support for Input Devices">
252     Device Drivers ---&gt;
253     USB Support ---&gt;
254     &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support
255     </pre>
256    
257     <p>
258     When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
259     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
260     </p>
261    
262     </body>
263     </subsection>
264     <subsection id="compiling">
265     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
266     <body>
267    
268     <p>
269     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
270     the configuration and start the compilation process:
271     </p>
272    
273     <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
274     # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
275     </pre>
276    
277     <p>
278     When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
279     <path>/boot</path>. Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel
280     choice and remember it as you will need it later on when you configure your
281     bootloader. Remember to replace <c><keyval id="kernel-name"/></c> with the
282     name and version of your kernel.
283     </p>
284    
285     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
286     # <i>cp vmlinux.gz /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
287     </pre>
288    
289     <p>
290     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
291     </p>
292    
293     </body>
294     </subsection>
295     </section>
296     <section id="genkernel">
297     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
298     <body>
299    
300     <p>
301     If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
302     script to configure your kernel for you.
303     </p>
304    
305     <p>
306     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
307     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
308     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
309     way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
310     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
311     your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
312     genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
313     solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
314     </p>
315    
316     <p>
317     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
318     </p>
319    
320     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
321     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
322     </pre>
323    
324     <p>
325     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel --udev all</c>.
326     Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
327     hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
328     </p>
329    
330     <note>
331     Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably want to add
332     <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> to the genkernel command-line.
333     </note>
334    
335     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
336     # <i>genkernel --udev all</i>
337     </pre>
338    
339     <p>
340     Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
341     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
342     and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
343     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
344     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
345     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
346     before your "real" system starts up.
347     </p>
348    
349     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
350     # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs*</i>
351     </pre>
352    
353     <p>
354     Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the
355     Installation CD -- let's emerge <c>coldplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects
356     hardware that is needed to boot your system, <c>coldplug</c> autodetects
357     everything else. To emerge and enable <c>coldplug</c>, type the following:
358     </p>
359    
360     <pre caption="Emerging and enabling coldplug">
361     # <i>emerge coldplug</i>
362     # <i>rc-update add coldplug boot</i>
363     </pre>
364    
365     </body>
366     </section>
367     <section id="kernel_modules">
368     <title>Kernel Modules</title>
369     <subsection>
370     <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
371     <body>
372    
373     <p>
374     You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
375     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>. You can add extra options to
376     the modules too if you want.
377     </p>
378    
379     <p>
380     To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
381     forget to substitute <c><keyval id="kernel-version"/></c> with the version of
382     the kernel you just compiled:
383     </p>
384    
385     <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
386     # <i>find /lib/modules/<keyval id="kernel-version"/>/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
387     </pre>
388    
389     <p>
390     For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
391     <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module name in it.
392     </p>
393    
394     <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
395     # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
396     </pre>
397    
398     <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
399     3c59x
400     </pre>
401    
402     <p>
403     Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
404     your System</uri>.
405     </p>
406    
407     </body>
408     </subsection>
409     </section>
410     </sections>

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