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Sun May 20 04:16:25 2007 UTC (7 years, 4 months ago) by nightmorph
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for safety's sake, needed to move the conf.d/clock TIMEZONE edit to immediately before compiling a kernel. users still run into the warning message if it's left at the end, before rebooting. fixes http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-560322.html and other reports.

1 vapier 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7 nightmorph 1.7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ia64-kernel.xml,v 1.6 2007/05/15 13:07:41 neysx Exp $ -->
8 vapier 1.1
9     <sections>
10    
11 nightmorph 1.7 <version>8.2</version>
12     <date>2007-05-19</date>
13 vapier 1.1
14     <section>
15     <title>Timezone</title>
16     <body>
17    
18     <p>
19     You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 neysx 1.6 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
21     it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
22 vapier 1.1 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23 neysx 1.6 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
24     GMT+8.
25 vapier 1.1 </p>
26    
27     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
28     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
29     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
30 neysx 1.6 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
31 vapier 1.1 </pre>
32    
33 nightmorph 1.7 <p>
34     Next, define the timezone you just used in <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> so
35     that further upgrades of the <c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update
36     <path>/etc/localtime</path> automatically.
37     </p>
38    
39     <pre caption="Setting the TIMEZONE variable in /etc/conf.d/clock">
40     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
41     TIMEZONE="GMT"
42     </pre>
43    
44 vapier 1.1 </body>
45     </section>
46     <section>
47     <title>Installing the Sources</title>
48     <subsection>
49     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
50     <body>
51    
52     <p>
53     The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
54     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
55     users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
56     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
57     Guide</uri>.
58     </p>
59    
60     <p>
61 nightmorph 1.3 For IA64 systems, we will use <c>gentoo-sources</c> (contains additional patches
62     for performance and stability).
63 vapier 1.1 </p>
64    
65     <p>
66 nightmorph 1.3 Now install it using <c>emerge</c>.
67 vapier 1.1 </p>
68    
69     <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
70 nightmorph 1.3 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
71 vapier 1.1 </pre>
72    
73     <p>
74     When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
75     <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
76     kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
77     Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
78     </p>
79    
80     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
81     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
82     lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
83     </pre>
84    
85     <p>
86     Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
87     <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
88     Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
89     the best way to optimize your environment.
90     </p>
91    
92     <p>
93     If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
94     link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
95     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
96     genkernel</uri> instead.
97     </p>
98    
99     </body>
100     </subsection>
101     </section>
102     <section id="manual">
103     <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
104     <subsection>
105     <title>Introduction</title>
106     <body>
107    
108     <p>
109     Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
110     Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
111     couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
112     </p>
113    
114     <p>
115     However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
116     configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
117     pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
118     be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
119     ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
120     /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
121     <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
122     You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
123     uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
124     </p>
125    
126     <p>
127     Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
128     will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
129     </p>
130    
131     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
132     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
133     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
134     </pre>
135    
136     <p>
137     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
138     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
139     properly without additional tweaks).
140     </p>
141    
142     </body>
143     </subsection>
144     <subsection>
145     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
146     <body>
147    
148     <p>
149     First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
150     You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
151     </p>
152    
153     <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers, General setup">
154     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
155     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
156     General setup ---&gt;
157     [*] Support for hot-pluggable devices
158     </pre>
159    
160     <p>
161     Make sure that every driver that is vital to the booting of your system (such as
162     SCSI controller, ...) is compiled <e>in</e> the kernel and not as a module,
163     otherwise your system will not be able to boot completely.
164     </p>
165    
166     <p>
167     Now select the correct system type and processor type. If you don't know what
168     kind of IA64 system type you have, <c>DIG-compliant</c> is a good default
169     choice. If you are installing on an SGI system make sure you select the
170     SGI system type, your kernel may just lock up and refuse to boot otherwise.
171     </p>
172    
173     <pre caption="Selecting correct system type">
174     System type ---&gt;
175     <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
176     <i>DIG-compliant</i>
177     Processor type ---&gt;
178     <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
179     <i>Itanium 2</i>
180     </pre>
181    
182     <p>
183     Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
184     <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
185     able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
186     file system</c>.
187     </p>
188    
189     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
190     File systems ---&gt;
191     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
192     [*] /proc file system support
193     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
194    
195     <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
196     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
197     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
198     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
199     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
200     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
201    
202     <comment>(Be sure to enable VFAT support for the EFI partition)</comment>
203     DOS/FAT/NT Filesystems --->
204     &lt;*&gt; VFAT (Windows-95) fs support
205     </pre>
206    
207     <p>
208     Do not forget to enable DMA for your drives:
209     </p>
210    
211     <pre caption="Activating DMA">
212     Device Drivers ---&gt;
213     ATA/ATAPI/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
214     [*] Generic PCI bus-master DMA support
215     [*] Use PCI DMA by default when available
216     </pre>
217    
218     <p>
219     If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
220     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
221     </p>
222    
223     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
224     Device Drivers ---&gt;
225     Networking Support ---&gt;
226     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
227     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
228     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
229     </pre>
230    
231     <p>
232     The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
233 nightmorph 1.5 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by <c>ppp</c>
234     when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
235 vapier 1.1 </p>
236    
237     <p>
238     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
239     ethernet card.
240     </p>
241    
242     <p>
243     If you have an Intel CPU that supports HyperThreading (tm), or you have a
244     multi-CPU system, you should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
245     </p>
246    
247     <pre caption="Activating SMP support">
248     Processor type and features ---&gt;
249     [*] Symmetric multi-processing support
250     </pre>
251    
252     <p>
253     If you use USB Input Devices (like Keyboard or Mouse) don't forget to enable
254     those as well:
255     </p>
256    
257     <pre caption="Activating USB Support for Input Devices">
258     Device Drivers ---&gt;
259     USB Support ---&gt;
260     &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support
261     </pre>
262    
263     <p>
264     When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
265     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
266     </p>
267    
268     </body>
269     </subsection>
270     <subsection id="compiling">
271     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
272     <body>
273    
274     <p>
275     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
276     the configuration and start the compilation process:
277     </p>
278    
279     <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
280     # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
281     </pre>
282    
283     <p>
284     When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
285     <path>/boot</path>. Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel
286     choice and remember it as you will need it later on when you configure your
287     bootloader. Remember to replace <c><keyval id="kernel-name"/></c> with the
288     name and version of your kernel.
289     </p>
290    
291     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
292     # <i>cp vmlinux.gz /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
293     </pre>
294    
295     <p>
296     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
297     </p>
298    
299     </body>
300     </subsection>
301     </section>
302     <section id="genkernel">
303     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
304     <body>
305    
306     <p>
307     If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
308     script to configure your kernel for you.
309     </p>
310    
311     <p>
312     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
313     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
314     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
315     way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
316     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
317     your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
318     genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
319     solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
320     </p>
321    
322     <p>
323     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
324     </p>
325    
326     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
327     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
328     </pre>
329    
330     <p>
331     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel --udev all</c>.
332     Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
333     hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
334     </p>
335    
336     <note>
337     Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably want to add
338     <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> to the genkernel command-line.
339     </note>
340    
341     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
342     # <i>genkernel --udev all</i>
343     </pre>
344    
345     <p>
346     Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
347     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
348     and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
349     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
350     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
351     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
352     before your "real" system starts up.
353     </p>
354    
355     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
356     # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs*</i>
357     </pre>
358    
359     </body>
360     </section>
361     <section id="kernel_modules">
362     <title>Kernel Modules</title>
363     <subsection>
364     <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
365     <body>
366    
367     <p>
368     You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
369     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>. You can add extra options to
370     the modules too if you want.
371     </p>
372    
373     <p>
374     To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
375     forget to substitute <c><keyval id="kernel-version"/></c> with the version of
376     the kernel you just compiled:
377     </p>
378    
379     <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
380     # <i>find /lib/modules/<keyval id="kernel-version"/>/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
381     </pre>
382    
383     <p>
384     For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
385     <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module name in it.
386     </p>
387    
388     <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
389     # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
390     </pre>
391    
392     <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
393     3c59x
394     </pre>
395    
396     <p>
397     Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
398     your System</uri>.
399     </p>
400    
401     </body>
402     </subsection>
403     </section>
404     </sections>

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