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Sun May 20 20:32:23 2007 UTC (7 years, 6 months ago) by nightmorph
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seems the previous fix was made a little too quickly? reverting previous change.

1 vapier 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7 nightmorph 1.7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ia64-kernel.xml,v 1.6 2007/05/15 13:07:41 neysx Exp $ -->
8 vapier 1.1
9     <sections>
10    
11 nightmorph 1.8 <version>8.1</version>
12     <date>2007-05-15</date>
13 vapier 1.1
14     <section>
15     <title>Timezone</title>
16     <body>
17    
18     <p>
19     You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 neysx 1.6 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
21     it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
22 vapier 1.1 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23 neysx 1.6 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
24     GMT+8.
25 vapier 1.1 </p>
26    
27     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
28     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
29     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
30 neysx 1.6 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
31 vapier 1.1 </pre>
32    
33     </body>
34     </section>
35     <section>
36     <title>Installing the Sources</title>
37     <subsection>
38     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
39     <body>
40    
41     <p>
42     The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
43     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
44     users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
45     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
46     Guide</uri>.
47     </p>
48    
49     <p>
50 nightmorph 1.3 For IA64 systems, we will use <c>gentoo-sources</c> (contains additional patches
51     for performance and stability).
52 vapier 1.1 </p>
53    
54     <p>
55 nightmorph 1.3 Now install it using <c>emerge</c>.
56 vapier 1.1 </p>
57    
58     <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
59 nightmorph 1.3 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
60 vapier 1.1 </pre>
61    
62     <p>
63     When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
64     <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
65     kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
66     Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
67     </p>
68    
69     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
70     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
71     lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
72     </pre>
73    
74     <p>
75     Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
76     <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
77     Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
78     the best way to optimize your environment.
79     </p>
80    
81     <p>
82     If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
83     link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
84     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
85     genkernel</uri> instead.
86     </p>
87    
88     </body>
89     </subsection>
90     </section>
91     <section id="manual">
92     <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
93     <subsection>
94     <title>Introduction</title>
95     <body>
96    
97     <p>
98     Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
99     Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
100     couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
101     </p>
102    
103     <p>
104     However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
105     configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
106     pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
107     be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
108     ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
109     /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
110     <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
111     You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
112     uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
113     </p>
114    
115     <p>
116     Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
117     will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
118     </p>
119    
120     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
121     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
122     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
123     </pre>
124    
125     <p>
126     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
127     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
128     properly without additional tweaks).
129     </p>
130    
131     </body>
132     </subsection>
133     <subsection>
134     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
135     <body>
136    
137     <p>
138     First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
139     You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
140     </p>
141    
142     <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers, General setup">
143     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
144     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
145     General setup ---&gt;
146     [*] Support for hot-pluggable devices
147     </pre>
148    
149     <p>
150     Make sure that every driver that is vital to the booting of your system (such as
151     SCSI controller, ...) is compiled <e>in</e> the kernel and not as a module,
152     otherwise your system will not be able to boot completely.
153     </p>
154    
155     <p>
156     Now select the correct system type and processor type. If you don't know what
157     kind of IA64 system type you have, <c>DIG-compliant</c> is a good default
158     choice. If you are installing on an SGI system make sure you select the
159     SGI system type, your kernel may just lock up and refuse to boot otherwise.
160     </p>
161    
162     <pre caption="Selecting correct system type">
163     System type ---&gt;
164     <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
165     <i>DIG-compliant</i>
166     Processor type ---&gt;
167     <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
168     <i>Itanium 2</i>
169     </pre>
170    
171     <p>
172     Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
173     <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
174     able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
175     file system</c>.
176     </p>
177    
178     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
179     File systems ---&gt;
180     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
181     [*] /proc file system support
182     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
183    
184     <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
185     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
186     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
187     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
188     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
189     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
190    
191     <comment>(Be sure to enable VFAT support for the EFI partition)</comment>
192     DOS/FAT/NT Filesystems --->
193     &lt;*&gt; VFAT (Windows-95) fs support
194     </pre>
195    
196     <p>
197     Do not forget to enable DMA for your drives:
198     </p>
199    
200     <pre caption="Activating DMA">
201     Device Drivers ---&gt;
202     ATA/ATAPI/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
203     [*] Generic PCI bus-master DMA support
204     [*] Use PCI DMA by default when available
205     </pre>
206    
207     <p>
208     If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
209     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
210     </p>
211    
212     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
213     Device Drivers ---&gt;
214     Networking Support ---&gt;
215     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
216     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
217     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
218     </pre>
219    
220     <p>
221     The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
222 nightmorph 1.5 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by <c>ppp</c>
223     when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
224 vapier 1.1 </p>
225    
226     <p>
227     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
228     ethernet card.
229     </p>
230    
231     <p>
232     If you have an Intel CPU that supports HyperThreading (tm), or you have a
233     multi-CPU system, you should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
234     </p>
235    
236     <pre caption="Activating SMP support">
237     Processor type and features ---&gt;
238     [*] Symmetric multi-processing support
239     </pre>
240    
241     <p>
242     If you use USB Input Devices (like Keyboard or Mouse) don't forget to enable
243     those as well:
244     </p>
245    
246     <pre caption="Activating USB Support for Input Devices">
247     Device Drivers ---&gt;
248     USB Support ---&gt;
249     &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support
250     </pre>
251    
252     <p>
253     When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
254     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
255     </p>
256    
257     </body>
258     </subsection>
259     <subsection id="compiling">
260     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
261     <body>
262    
263     <p>
264     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
265     the configuration and start the compilation process:
266     </p>
267    
268     <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
269     # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
270     </pre>
271    
272     <p>
273     When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
274     <path>/boot</path>. Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel
275     choice and remember it as you will need it later on when you configure your
276     bootloader. Remember to replace <c><keyval id="kernel-name"/></c> with the
277     name and version of your kernel.
278     </p>
279    
280     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
281     # <i>cp vmlinux.gz /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
282     </pre>
283    
284     <p>
285     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
286     </p>
287    
288     </body>
289     </subsection>
290     </section>
291     <section id="genkernel">
292     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
293     <body>
294    
295     <p>
296     If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
297     script to configure your kernel for you.
298     </p>
299    
300     <p>
301     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
302     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
303     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
304     way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
305     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
306     your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
307     genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
308     solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
309     </p>
310    
311     <p>
312     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
313     </p>
314    
315     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
316     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
317     </pre>
318    
319     <p>
320     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel --udev all</c>.
321     Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
322     hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
323     </p>
324    
325     <note>
326     Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably want to add
327     <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> to the genkernel command-line.
328     </note>
329    
330     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
331     # <i>genkernel --udev all</i>
332     </pre>
333    
334     <p>
335     Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
336     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
337     and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
338     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
339     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
340     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
341     before your "real" system starts up.
342     </p>
343    
344     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
345     # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs*</i>
346     </pre>
347    
348     </body>
349     </section>
350     <section id="kernel_modules">
351     <title>Kernel Modules</title>
352     <subsection>
353     <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
354     <body>
355    
356     <p>
357     You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
358     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>. You can add extra options to
359     the modules too if you want.
360     </p>
361    
362     <p>
363     To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
364     forget to substitute <c><keyval id="kernel-version"/></c> with the version of
365     the kernel you just compiled:
366     </p>
367    
368     <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
369     # <i>find /lib/modules/<keyval id="kernel-version"/>/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
370     </pre>
371    
372     <p>
373     For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
374     <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module name in it.
375     </p>
376    
377     <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
378     # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
379     </pre>
380    
381     <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
382     3c59x
383     </pre>
384    
385     <p>
386     Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
387     your System</uri>.
388     </p>
389    
390     </body>
391     </subsection>
392     </section>
393     </sections>

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