/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ia64-kernel.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ia64-kernel.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.33 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Tue Dec 17 10:38:05 2013 UTC (4 months ago) by swift
Branch: MAIN
CVS Tags: HEAD
Changes since 1.32: +4 -4 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
Bug 489782 - Switch links to wiki documents

1 vapier 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7 swift 1.33 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ia64-kernel.xml,v 1.32 2013/09/25 17:31:18 swift Exp $ -->
8 vapier 1.1
9     <sections>
10    
11 swift 1.33 <version>23</version>
12     <date>2013-12-17</date>
13 vapier 1.1
14     <section>
15     <title>Installing the Sources</title>
16     <subsection>
17     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21     The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
22     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
23     users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
24 swift 1.33 available at the <uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Kernel/Overview">Gentoo Kernel
25 vapier 1.1 Guide</uri>.
26     </p>
27    
28     <p>
29 nightmorph 1.20 For <keyval id="arch"/> systems, we will use <c>gentoo-sources</c> (contains
30     additional patches for extra features).
31 vapier 1.1 </p>
32    
33     <p>
34 nightmorph 1.3 Now install it using <c>emerge</c>.
35 vapier 1.1 </p>
36    
37     <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
38 nightmorph 1.3 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
39 vapier 1.1 </pre>
40    
41     <p>
42     When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
43     <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
44     kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
45     Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
46     </p>
47    
48     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
49     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
50     lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
51     </pre>
52    
53     <p>
54     Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
55     <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
56     Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
57     the best way to optimize your environment.
58     </p>
59    
60     <p>
61     If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
62     link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
63     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
64     genkernel</uri> instead.
65     </p>
66    
67     </body>
68     </subsection>
69     </section>
70     <section id="manual">
71     <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
72     <subsection>
73     <title>Introduction</title>
74     <body>
75    
76     <p>
77     Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
78     Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
79     couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
80     </p>
81    
82     <p>
83     However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
84     configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
85     pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
86     be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
87     ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
88     /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
89     <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
90     You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
91     uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
92     </p>
93    
94     <p>
95     Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
96     will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
97     </p>
98    
99     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
100     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
101     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
102     </pre>
103    
104     <p>
105     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
106     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
107     properly without additional tweaks).
108     </p>
109    
110     </body>
111     </subsection>
112     <subsection>
113     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
114     <body>
115    
116     <p>
117     Make sure that every driver that is vital to the booting of your system (such as
118     SCSI controller, ...) is compiled <e>in</e> the kernel and not as a module,
119     otherwise your system will not be able to boot completely.
120     </p>
121    
122     <p>
123     Now select the correct system type and processor type. If you don't know what
124     kind of IA64 system type you have, <c>DIG-compliant</c> is a good default
125     choice. If you are installing on an SGI system make sure you select the
126     SGI system type, your kernel may just lock up and refuse to boot otherwise.
127     </p>
128    
129     <pre caption="Selecting correct system type">
130     System type ---&gt;
131     <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
132     <i>DIG-compliant</i>
133     Processor type ---&gt;
134     <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
135     <i>Itanium 2</i>
136     </pre>
137    
138     <p>
139 swift 1.30 Next select <e>Maintain a devtmpfs file system to mount at /dev</e> so that
140     critical device files are already available early in the boot process.
141     </p>
142    
143     <pre caption="Enabling devtmpfs support">
144     Device Drivers ---&gt;
145     Generic Driver Options ---&gt;
146     [*] Maintain a devtmpfs filesystem to mount at /dev
147     [ ] Automount devtmpfs at /dev, after the kernel mounted the rootfs
148     </pre>
149    
150     <p>
151 vapier 1.1 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
152 swift 1.31 <e>Don't</e> compile the file system you use for the root filesystem as module,
153     otherwise your Gentoo system will not be able to mount your partition. Also
154     select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc file system</c>.
155 vapier 1.1 </p>
156    
157     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
158     File systems ---&gt;
159     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
160     [*] /proc file system support
161     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
162    
163     <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
164     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
165     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
166     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
167     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
168     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
169    
170     <comment>(Be sure to enable VFAT support for the EFI partition)</comment>
171 swift 1.24 DOS/FAT/NT Filesystems ---&gt;
172     &lt;*&gt; VFAT (Windows-95) fs support
173    
174     <comment>(Enable GPT partition label support if you used that previously</comment>
175 nightmorph 1.28 -*- Enable the block layer --->
176     ...
177     Partition Types --->
178 swift 1.24 [*] Advanced partition selection
179     ...
180     [*] EFI GUID Partition support
181 vapier 1.1 </pre>
182    
183     <p>
184     If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
185     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
186     </p>
187    
188     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
189     Device Drivers ---&gt;
190 swift 1.26 Network device support ---&gt;
191 vapier 1.1 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
192     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
193     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
194     </pre>
195    
196     <p>
197     The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
198 nightmorph 1.5 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by <c>ppp</c>
199     when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
200 vapier 1.1 </p>
201    
202     <p>
203     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
204     ethernet card.
205     </p>
206    
207     <p>
208     If you have an Intel CPU that supports HyperThreading (tm), or you have a
209     multi-CPU system, you should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
210     </p>
211    
212     <pre caption="Activating SMP support">
213     Processor type and features ---&gt;
214     [*] Symmetric multi-processing support
215     </pre>
216    
217     <p>
218     If you use USB Input Devices (like Keyboard or Mouse) don't forget to enable
219     those as well:
220     </p>
221    
222     <pre caption="Activating USB Support for Input Devices">
223     Device Drivers ---&gt;
224 nightmorph 1.18 [*] HID Devices ---&gt;
225 vapier 1.1 &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support
226     </pre>
227    
228     <p>
229     When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
230     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
231     </p>
232    
233     </body>
234     </subsection>
235     <subsection id="compiling">
236     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
237     <body>
238    
239     <p>
240     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
241     the configuration and start the compilation process:
242     </p>
243    
244     <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
245     # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
246     </pre>
247    
248     <p>
249 nightmorph 1.27 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to <path>/</path>.
250     Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel choice and remember it
251     as you will need it later on when you configure your bootloader. Remember to
252     replace <c>vmlinuz</c> with the name and version of your kernel.
253 vapier 1.1 </p>
254    
255     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
256 nightmorph 1.27 # <i>cp vmlinux.gz /boot/vmlinuz</i>
257     </pre>
258    
259     </body>
260     </subsection>
261     <subsection id="initramfs">
262     <title>(Optional) Building an Initramfs</title>
263     <body>
264    
265     <p>
266     If you use a specific partition layout where important file system locations
267     (like <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path>) are on separate partitions, then
268     you will need to setup an initramfs so that this partition can be mounted before
269     it is needed.
270     </p>
271    
272     <p>
273     Without an initramfs, you risk that the system will not boot up properly as the
274     tools that are responsible for mounting the file systems need information that
275     resides on those file systems. An initramfs will pull in the necessary files
276     into an archive which is used right after the kernel boots, but before the
277     control is handed over to the <c>init</c> tool. Scripts on the initramfs will
278     then make sure that the partitions are properly mounted before the system
279     continues booting.
280     </p>
281    
282     <p>
283     To install an initramfs, install <c>genkernel</c> first, then have it
284     generate an initramfs for you.
285     </p>
286    
287     <pre caption="Building an initramfs">
288     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
289     # <i>genkernel --bootdir=/. --no-mountboot --install initramfs</i>
290     </pre>
291    
292     <p>
293     If you need specific support in the initramfs, such as lvm or raid, add in the
294     appropriate options to genkernel. See <c>genkernel --help</c> for more
295     information, or the next example which enables support for LVM and software raid
296     (mdadm):
297     </p>
298    
299     <pre caption="Building an initramfs with support for LVM and software raid">
300     # <i>genkernel --bootdir=/. --no-mountboot --lvm --mdadm --install initramfs</i>
301     </pre>
302    
303     <p>
304     The initramfs will be stored in <path>/</path>. You can find the file by simply
305     listing the files starting with <path>initramfs</path>:
306     </p>
307    
308     <pre caption="Checking the initramfs file name">
309     # <i>ls /initramfs*</i>
310 vapier 1.1 </pre>
311    
312     <p>
313     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
314     </p>
315    
316     </body>
317     </subsection>
318     </section>
319     <section id="genkernel">
320     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
321     <body>
322    
323     <p>
324     If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
325     script to configure your kernel for you.
326     </p>
327    
328     <p>
329     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
330     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
331     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
332     way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
333     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
334     your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
335     genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
336     solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
337     </p>
338    
339     <p>
340     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
341     </p>
342    
343     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
344     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
345     </pre>
346    
347     <p>
348 nightmorph 1.27 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel</c>. Be aware
349 nightmorph 1.19 though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all hardware,
350     this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
351 vapier 1.1 </p>
352    
353     <note>
354 swift 1.32 Users of LVM2 will probably want to add <c>--lvm</c> to the genkernel
355 swift 1.23 command-line.
356 vapier 1.1 </note>
357    
358     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
359 nightmorph 1.27 # <i>genkernel --bootdir=/. --no-mountboot all</i>
360 vapier 1.1 </pre>
361    
362     <p>
363     Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
364 swift 1.22 <e>initial ram disk</e> (initramfs) will be created. We will use the kernel
365 vapier 1.1 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
366     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
367     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
368     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
369     before your "real" system starts up.
370     </p>
371    
372     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
373 nightmorph 1.27 # <i>ls /kernel* /initramfs*</i>
374 vapier 1.1 </pre>
375    
376     </body>
377     </section>
378     <section id="kernel_modules">
379     <title>Kernel Modules</title>
380 nightmorph 1.16
381 vapier 1.1 <subsection>
382 nightmorph 1.16 <include href="hb-install-kernelmodules.xml"/>
383     </subsection>
384 vapier 1.1
385     </section>
386     </sections>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20