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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ia64-kernel.xml,v 1.14 2008/01/12 22:51:31 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>8.7</version>
12 <date>2008-01-14</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Timezone</title>
16 <body>
17
18 <p>
19 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
21 it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
22 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
24 GMT+8.
25 </p>
26
27 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
28 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
29 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
30 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
31 </pre>
32
33 </body>
34 </section>
35 <section>
36 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
37 <subsection>
38 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
39 <body>
40
41 <p>
42 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
43 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
44 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
45 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
46 Guide</uri>.
47 </p>
48
49 <p>
50 For IA64 systems, we will use <c>gentoo-sources</c> (contains additional patches
51 for extra features).
52 </p>
53
54 <p>
55 Now install it using <c>emerge</c>.
56 </p>
57
58 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
59 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
60 </pre>
61
62 <p>
63 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
64 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
65 kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
66 Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
67 </p>
68
69 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
70 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
71 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
72 </pre>
73
74 <p>
75 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
76 <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
77 Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
78 the best way to optimize your environment.
79 </p>
80
81 <p>
82 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
83 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
84 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
85 genkernel</uri> instead.
86 </p>
87
88 </body>
89 </subsection>
90 </section>
91 <section id="manual">
92 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
93 <subsection>
94 <title>Introduction</title>
95 <body>
96
97 <p>
98 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
99 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
100 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
101 </p>
102
103 <p>
104 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
105 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
106 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
107 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
108 ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
109 /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
110 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
111 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
112 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
113 </p>
114
115 <p>
116 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
117 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
118 </p>
119
120 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
121 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
122 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
123 </pre>
124
125 <p>
126 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
127 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
128 properly without additional tweaks).
129 </p>
130
131 </body>
132 </subsection>
133 <subsection>
134 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
135 <body>
136
137 <p>
138 First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
139 You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
140 </p>
141
142 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
143 General setup ---&gt;
144 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
145 </pre>
146
147 <p>
148 Make sure that every driver that is vital to the booting of your system (such as
149 SCSI controller, ...) is compiled <e>in</e> the kernel and not as a module,
150 otherwise your system will not be able to boot completely.
151 </p>
152
153 <p>
154 Now select the correct system type and processor type. If you don't know what
155 kind of IA64 system type you have, <c>DIG-compliant</c> is a good default
156 choice. If you are installing on an SGI system make sure you select the
157 SGI system type, your kernel may just lock up and refuse to boot otherwise.
158 </p>
159
160 <pre caption="Selecting correct system type">
161 System type ---&gt;
162 <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
163 <i>DIG-compliant</i>
164 Processor type ---&gt;
165 <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
166 <i>Itanium 2</i>
167 </pre>
168
169 <p>
170 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
171 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
172 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
173 file system</c>.
174 </p>
175
176 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
177 File systems ---&gt;
178 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
179 [*] /proc file system support
180 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
181
182 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
183 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
184 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
185 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
186 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
187 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
188
189 <comment>(Be sure to enable VFAT support for the EFI partition)</comment>
190 DOS/FAT/NT Filesystems --->
191 &lt;*&gt; VFAT (Windows-95) fs support
192 </pre>
193
194 <p>
195 Do not forget to enable DMA for your drives:
196 </p>
197
198 <pre caption="Activating DMA">
199 Device Drivers ---&gt;
200 ATA/ATAPI/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
201 [*] Generic PCI bus-master DMA support
202 </pre>
203
204 <p>
205 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
206 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
207 </p>
208
209 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
210 Device Drivers ---&gt;
211 Networking Support ---&gt;
212 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
213 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
214 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
215 </pre>
216
217 <p>
218 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
219 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by <c>ppp</c>
220 when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
221 </p>
222
223 <p>
224 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
225 ethernet card.
226 </p>
227
228 <p>
229 If you have an Intel CPU that supports HyperThreading (tm), or you have a
230 multi-CPU system, you should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
231 </p>
232
233 <pre caption="Activating SMP support">
234 Processor type and features ---&gt;
235 [*] Symmetric multi-processing support
236 </pre>
237
238 <p>
239 If you use USB Input Devices (like Keyboard or Mouse) don't forget to enable
240 those as well:
241 </p>
242
243 <pre caption="Activating USB Support for Input Devices">
244 Device Drivers ---&gt;
245 HID Devices --->
246 &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support
247 </pre>
248
249 <p>
250 When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
251 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
252 </p>
253
254 </body>
255 </subsection>
256 <subsection id="compiling">
257 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
258 <body>
259
260 <p>
261 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
262 the configuration and start the compilation process:
263 </p>
264
265 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
266 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
267 </pre>
268
269 <p>
270 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
271 <path>/boot</path>. Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel
272 choice and remember it as you will need it later on when you configure your
273 bootloader. Remember to replace <c><keyval id="kernel-name"/></c> with the
274 name and version of your kernel.
275 </p>
276
277 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
278 # <i>cp vmlinux.gz /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
279 </pre>
280
281 <p>
282 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
283 </p>
284
285 </body>
286 </subsection>
287 </section>
288 <section id="genkernel">
289 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
290 <body>
291
292 <p>
293 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
294 script to configure your kernel for you.
295 </p>
296
297 <p>
298 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
299 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
300 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
301 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
302 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
303 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
304 genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
305 solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
306 </p>
307
308 <p>
309 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
310 </p>
311
312 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
313 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
314 </pre>
315
316 <p>
317 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel --udev all</c>.
318 Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
319 hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
320 </p>
321
322 <note>
323 Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably want to add
324 <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> to the genkernel command-line.
325 </note>
326
327 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
328 # <i>genkernel --udev all</i>
329 </pre>
330
331 <p>
332 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
333 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
334 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
335 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
336 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
337 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
338 before your "real" system starts up.
339 </p>
340
341 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
342 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs*</i>
343 </pre>
344
345 </body>
346 </section>
347 <section id="kernel_modules">
348 <title>Kernel Modules</title>
349 <subsection>
350 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
351 <body>
352
353 <p>
354 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
355 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>. You can add extra options to
356 the modules too if you want.
357 </p>
358
359 <p>
360 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
361 forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
362 just compiled:
363 </p>
364
365 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
366 # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
367 </pre>
368
369 <p>
370 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.ko</c> module, edit the
371 <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module name in it.
372 </p>
373
374 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
375 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
376 </pre>
377
378 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
379 3c59x
380 </pre>
381
382 <p>
383 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
384 your System</uri>.
385 </p>
386
387 </body>
388 </subsection>
389 </section>
390 </sections>

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