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Revision 1.3 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Mon Feb 26 08:54:53 2007 UTC (7 years, 6 months ago) by nightmorph
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Changes since 1.2: +7 -13 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
removed USE=symlink by request of dsd as part of the USE flag removal from all kernel sources, bug 167703. also further vanilla-sources removals as it's unsupported.

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ia64-kernel.xml,v 1.2 2006/12/06 19:59:09 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>7.3</version>
12 <date>2007-02-26</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Timezone</title>
16 <body>
17
18 <p>
19 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
21 it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
22 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
24 </p>
25
26 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
27 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
28 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
29 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
30 </pre>
31
32 </body>
33 </section>
34 <section>
35 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
36 <subsection>
37 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
38 <body>
39
40 <p>
41 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
42 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
43 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
44 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
45 Guide</uri>.
46 </p>
47
48 <p>
49 For IA64 systems, we will use <c>gentoo-sources</c> (contains additional patches
50 for performance and stability).
51 </p>
52
53 <p>
54 Now install it using <c>emerge</c>.
55 </p>
56
57 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
58 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
59 </pre>
60
61 <p>
62 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
63 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
64 kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
65 Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
66 </p>
67
68 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
69 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
70 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
71 </pre>
72
73 <p>
74 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
75 <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
76 Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
77 the best way to optimize your environment.
78 </p>
79
80 <p>
81 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
82 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
83 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
84 genkernel</uri> instead.
85 </p>
86
87 </body>
88 </subsection>
89 </section>
90 <section id="manual">
91 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
92 <subsection>
93 <title>Introduction</title>
94 <body>
95
96 <p>
97 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
98 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
99 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
100 </p>
101
102 <p>
103 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
104 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
105 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
106 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
107 ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
108 /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
109 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
110 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
111 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
112 </p>
113
114 <p>
115 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
116 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
117 </p>
118
119 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
120 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
121 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
122 </pre>
123
124 <p>
125 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
126 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
127 properly without additional tweaks).
128 </p>
129
130 </body>
131 </subsection>
132 <subsection>
133 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
134 <body>
135
136 <p>
137 First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
138 You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
139 </p>
140
141 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers, General setup">
142 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
143 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
144 General setup ---&gt;
145 [*] Support for hot-pluggable devices
146 </pre>
147
148 <p>
149 Make sure that every driver that is vital to the booting of your system (such as
150 SCSI controller, ...) is compiled <e>in</e> the kernel and not as a module,
151 otherwise your system will not be able to boot completely.
152 </p>
153
154 <p>
155 Now select the correct system type and processor type. If you don't know what
156 kind of IA64 system type you have, <c>DIG-compliant</c> is a good default
157 choice. If you are installing on an SGI system make sure you select the
158 SGI system type, your kernel may just lock up and refuse to boot otherwise.
159 </p>
160
161 <pre caption="Selecting correct system type">
162 System type ---&gt;
163 <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
164 <i>DIG-compliant</i>
165 Processor type ---&gt;
166 <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
167 <i>Itanium 2</i>
168 </pre>
169
170 <p>
171 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
172 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
173 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
174 file system</c>.
175 </p>
176
177 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
178 File systems ---&gt;
179 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
180 [*] /proc file system support
181 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
182
183 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
184 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
185 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
186 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
187 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
188 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
189
190 <comment>(Be sure to enable VFAT support for the EFI partition)</comment>
191 DOS/FAT/NT Filesystems --->
192 &lt;*&gt; VFAT (Windows-95) fs support
193 </pre>
194
195 <p>
196 Do not forget to enable DMA for your drives:
197 </p>
198
199 <pre caption="Activating DMA">
200 Device Drivers ---&gt;
201 ATA/ATAPI/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
202 [*] Generic PCI bus-master DMA support
203 [*] Use PCI DMA by default when available
204 </pre>
205
206 <p>
207 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
208 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
209 </p>
210
211 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
212 Device Drivers ---&gt;
213 Networking Support ---&gt;
214 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
215 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
216 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
217 </pre>
218
219 <p>
220 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
221 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
222 <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
223 </p>
224
225 <p>
226 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
227 ethernet card.
228 </p>
229
230 <p>
231 If you have an Intel CPU that supports HyperThreading (tm), or you have a
232 multi-CPU system, you should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
233 </p>
234
235 <pre caption="Activating SMP support">
236 Processor type and features ---&gt;
237 [*] Symmetric multi-processing support
238 </pre>
239
240 <p>
241 If you use USB Input Devices (like Keyboard or Mouse) don't forget to enable
242 those as well:
243 </p>
244
245 <pre caption="Activating USB Support for Input Devices">
246 Device Drivers ---&gt;
247 USB Support ---&gt;
248 &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support
249 </pre>
250
251 <p>
252 When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
253 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
254 </p>
255
256 </body>
257 </subsection>
258 <subsection id="compiling">
259 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
260 <body>
261
262 <p>
263 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
264 the configuration and start the compilation process:
265 </p>
266
267 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
268 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
269 </pre>
270
271 <p>
272 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
273 <path>/boot</path>. Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel
274 choice and remember it as you will need it later on when you configure your
275 bootloader. Remember to replace <c><keyval id="kernel-name"/></c> with the
276 name and version of your kernel.
277 </p>
278
279 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
280 # <i>cp vmlinux.gz /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
281 </pre>
282
283 <p>
284 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
285 </p>
286
287 </body>
288 </subsection>
289 </section>
290 <section id="genkernel">
291 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
292 <body>
293
294 <p>
295 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
296 script to configure your kernel for you.
297 </p>
298
299 <p>
300 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
301 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
302 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
303 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
304 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
305 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
306 genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
307 solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
308 </p>
309
310 <p>
311 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
312 </p>
313
314 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
315 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
316 </pre>
317
318 <p>
319 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel --udev all</c>.
320 Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
321 hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
322 </p>
323
324 <note>
325 Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably want to add
326 <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> to the genkernel command-line.
327 </note>
328
329 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
330 # <i>genkernel --udev all</i>
331 </pre>
332
333 <p>
334 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
335 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
336 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
337 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
338 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
339 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
340 before your "real" system starts up.
341 </p>
342
343 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
344 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs*</i>
345 </pre>
346
347 <p>
348 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the
349 Installation CD -- let's emerge <c>coldplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects
350 hardware that is needed to boot your system, <c>coldplug</c> autodetects
351 everything else. To emerge and enable <c>coldplug</c>, type the following:
352 </p>
353
354 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling coldplug">
355 # <i>emerge coldplug</i>
356 # <i>rc-update add coldplug boot</i>
357 </pre>
358
359 <note>
360 You no longer need to emerge <c>coldplug</c> if you're using <c>udev</c> version
361 103 and higher. If you receive a message that <c>udev</c> blocks <c>coldplug</c>
362 from being installed, then you don't need to install <c>coldplug</c>.
363 </note>
364
365 </body>
366 </section>
367 <section id="kernel_modules">
368 <title>Kernel Modules</title>
369 <subsection>
370 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
371 <body>
372
373 <p>
374 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
375 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>. You can add extra options to
376 the modules too if you want.
377 </p>
378
379 <p>
380 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
381 forget to substitute <c><keyval id="kernel-version"/></c> with the version of
382 the kernel you just compiled:
383 </p>
384
385 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
386 # <i>find /lib/modules/<keyval id="kernel-version"/>/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
387 </pre>
388
389 <p>
390 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
391 <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module name in it.
392 </p>
393
394 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
395 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
396 </pre>
397
398 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
399 3c59x
400 </pre>
401
402 <p>
403 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
404 your System</uri>.
405 </p>
406
407 </body>
408 </subsection>
409 </section>
410 </sections>

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