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#178179 cp timezone file to /etc/localtime to prevent warning until next emerge of sys-libs/timezone-data

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ia64-kernel.xml,v 1.5 2007/05/07 18:11:41 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>8.1</version>
12 <date>2007-05-15</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Timezone</title>
16 <body>
17
18 <p>
19 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
21 it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
22 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
24 GMT+8.
25 </p>
26
27 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
28 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
29 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
30 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
31 </pre>
32
33 </body>
34 </section>
35 <section>
36 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
37 <subsection>
38 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
39 <body>
40
41 <p>
42 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
43 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
44 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
45 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
46 Guide</uri>.
47 </p>
48
49 <p>
50 For IA64 systems, we will use <c>gentoo-sources</c> (contains additional patches
51 for performance and stability).
52 </p>
53
54 <p>
55 Now install it using <c>emerge</c>.
56 </p>
57
58 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
59 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
60 </pre>
61
62 <p>
63 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
64 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
65 kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
66 Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
67 </p>
68
69 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
70 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
71 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
72 </pre>
73
74 <p>
75 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
76 <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
77 Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
78 the best way to optimize your environment.
79 </p>
80
81 <p>
82 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
83 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
84 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
85 genkernel</uri> instead.
86 </p>
87
88 </body>
89 </subsection>
90 </section>
91 <section id="manual">
92 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
93 <subsection>
94 <title>Introduction</title>
95 <body>
96
97 <p>
98 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
99 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
100 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
101 </p>
102
103 <p>
104 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
105 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
106 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
107 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
108 ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
109 /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
110 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
111 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
112 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
113 </p>
114
115 <p>
116 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
117 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
118 </p>
119
120 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
121 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
122 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
123 </pre>
124
125 <p>
126 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
127 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
128 properly without additional tweaks).
129 </p>
130
131 </body>
132 </subsection>
133 <subsection>
134 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
135 <body>
136
137 <p>
138 First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
139 You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
140 </p>
141
142 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers, General setup">
143 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
144 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
145 General setup ---&gt;
146 [*] Support for hot-pluggable devices
147 </pre>
148
149 <p>
150 Make sure that every driver that is vital to the booting of your system (such as
151 SCSI controller, ...) is compiled <e>in</e> the kernel and not as a module,
152 otherwise your system will not be able to boot completely.
153 </p>
154
155 <p>
156 Now select the correct system type and processor type. If you don't know what
157 kind of IA64 system type you have, <c>DIG-compliant</c> is a good default
158 choice. If you are installing on an SGI system make sure you select the
159 SGI system type, your kernel may just lock up and refuse to boot otherwise.
160 </p>
161
162 <pre caption="Selecting correct system type">
163 System type ---&gt;
164 <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
165 <i>DIG-compliant</i>
166 Processor type ---&gt;
167 <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
168 <i>Itanium 2</i>
169 </pre>
170
171 <p>
172 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
173 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
174 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
175 file system</c>.
176 </p>
177
178 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
179 File systems ---&gt;
180 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
181 [*] /proc file system support
182 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
183
184 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
185 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
186 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
187 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
188 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
189 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
190
191 <comment>(Be sure to enable VFAT support for the EFI partition)</comment>
192 DOS/FAT/NT Filesystems --->
193 &lt;*&gt; VFAT (Windows-95) fs support
194 </pre>
195
196 <p>
197 Do not forget to enable DMA for your drives:
198 </p>
199
200 <pre caption="Activating DMA">
201 Device Drivers ---&gt;
202 ATA/ATAPI/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
203 [*] Generic PCI bus-master DMA support
204 [*] Use PCI DMA by default when available
205 </pre>
206
207 <p>
208 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
209 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
210 </p>
211
212 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
213 Device Drivers ---&gt;
214 Networking Support ---&gt;
215 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
216 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
217 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
218 </pre>
219
220 <p>
221 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
222 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by <c>ppp</c>
223 when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
224 </p>
225
226 <p>
227 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
228 ethernet card.
229 </p>
230
231 <p>
232 If you have an Intel CPU that supports HyperThreading (tm), or you have a
233 multi-CPU system, you should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
234 </p>
235
236 <pre caption="Activating SMP support">
237 Processor type and features ---&gt;
238 [*] Symmetric multi-processing support
239 </pre>
240
241 <p>
242 If you use USB Input Devices (like Keyboard or Mouse) don't forget to enable
243 those as well:
244 </p>
245
246 <pre caption="Activating USB Support for Input Devices">
247 Device Drivers ---&gt;
248 USB Support ---&gt;
249 &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support
250 </pre>
251
252 <p>
253 When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
254 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
255 </p>
256
257 </body>
258 </subsection>
259 <subsection id="compiling">
260 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
261 <body>
262
263 <p>
264 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
265 the configuration and start the compilation process:
266 </p>
267
268 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
269 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
270 </pre>
271
272 <p>
273 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
274 <path>/boot</path>. Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel
275 choice and remember it as you will need it later on when you configure your
276 bootloader. Remember to replace <c><keyval id="kernel-name"/></c> with the
277 name and version of your kernel.
278 </p>
279
280 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
281 # <i>cp vmlinux.gz /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
282 </pre>
283
284 <p>
285 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
286 </p>
287
288 </body>
289 </subsection>
290 </section>
291 <section id="genkernel">
292 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
293 <body>
294
295 <p>
296 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
297 script to configure your kernel for you.
298 </p>
299
300 <p>
301 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
302 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
303 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
304 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
305 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
306 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
307 genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
308 solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
309 </p>
310
311 <p>
312 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
313 </p>
314
315 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
316 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
317 </pre>
318
319 <p>
320 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel --udev all</c>.
321 Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
322 hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
323 </p>
324
325 <note>
326 Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably want to add
327 <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> to the genkernel command-line.
328 </note>
329
330 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
331 # <i>genkernel --udev all</i>
332 </pre>
333
334 <p>
335 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
336 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
337 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
338 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
339 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
340 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
341 before your "real" system starts up.
342 </p>
343
344 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
345 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs*</i>
346 </pre>
347
348 </body>
349 </section>
350 <section id="kernel_modules">
351 <title>Kernel Modules</title>
352 <subsection>
353 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
354 <body>
355
356 <p>
357 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
358 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>. You can add extra options to
359 the modules too if you want.
360 </p>
361
362 <p>
363 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
364 forget to substitute <c><keyval id="kernel-version"/></c> with the version of
365 the kernel you just compiled:
366 </p>
367
368 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
369 # <i>find /lib/modules/<keyval id="kernel-version"/>/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
370 </pre>
371
372 <p>
373 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
374 <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module name in it.
375 </p>
376
377 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
378 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
379 </pre>
380
381 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
382 3c59x
383 </pre>
384
385 <p>
386 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
387 your System</uri>.
388 </p>
389
390 </body>
391 </subsection>
392 </section>
393 </sections>

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