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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ia64-kernel.xml,v 1.33 2013/12/17 10:38:05 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>24</version>
12 <date>2014-05-11</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
22 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
23 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
24 available at the <uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Kernel/Overview">Gentoo Kernel
25 Guide</uri>.
26 </p>
27
28 <p>
29 For <keyval id="arch"/> systems, we will use <c>gentoo-sources</c> (contains
30 additional patches for extra features).
31 </p>
32
33 <p>
34 Now install it using <c>emerge</c>.
35 </p>
36
37 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
38 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
39 </pre>
40
41 <p>
42 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
43 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
44 kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
45 Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
46 </p>
47
48 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
49 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
50 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
51 </pre>
52
53 <p>
54 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
55 <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
56 Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
57 the best way to optimize your environment.
58 </p>
59
60 <p>
61 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
62 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
63 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
64 genkernel</uri> instead.
65 </p>
66
67 </body>
68 </subsection>
69 </section>
70 <section id="manual">
71 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
72 <subsection>
73 <title>Introduction</title>
74 <body>
75
76 <p>
77 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
78 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
79 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
80 </p>
81
82 <p>
83 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
84 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
85 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
86 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
87 ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
88 /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
89 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
90 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
91 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
92 </p>
93
94 <p>
95 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
96 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
97 </p>
98
99 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
100 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
101 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
102 </pre>
103
104 <p>
105 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
106 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
107 properly without additional tweaks). We also have a <uri
108 link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Kernel/Gentoo_Kernel_Configuration_Guide">Gentoo
109 Kernel Configuration Guide</uri> on the Gentoo wiki that might help you further.
110 </p>
111
112 </body>
113 </subsection>
114 <subsection>
115 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
116 <body>
117
118 <p>
119 Make sure that every driver that is vital to the booting of your system (such as
120 SCSI controller, ...) is compiled <e>in</e> the kernel and not as a module,
121 otherwise your system will not be able to boot completely.
122 </p>
123
124 <p>
125 Now select the correct system type and processor type. If you don't know what
126 kind of IA64 system type you have, <c>DIG-compliant</c> is a good default
127 choice. If you are installing on an SGI system make sure you select the
128 SGI system type, your kernel may just lock up and refuse to boot otherwise.
129 </p>
130
131 <pre caption="Selecting correct system type">
132 System type ---&gt;
133 <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
134 <i>DIG-compliant</i>
135 Processor type ---&gt;
136 <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
137 <i>Itanium 2</i>
138 </pre>
139
140 <p>
141 Next select <e>Maintain a devtmpfs file system to mount at /dev</e> so that
142 critical device files are already available early in the boot process.
143 </p>
144
145 <pre caption="Enabling devtmpfs support">
146 Device Drivers ---&gt;
147 Generic Driver Options ---&gt;
148 [*] Maintain a devtmpfs filesystem to mount at /dev
149 [ ] Automount devtmpfs at /dev, after the kernel mounted the rootfs
150 </pre>
151
152 <p>
153 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
154 <e>Don't</e> compile the file system you use for the root filesystem as module,
155 otherwise your Gentoo system will not be able to mount your partition. Also
156 select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc file system</c>.
157 </p>
158
159 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
160 File systems ---&gt;
161 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
162 [*] /proc file system support
163 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
164
165 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
166 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
167 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
168 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
169 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
170 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
171
172 <comment>(Be sure to enable VFAT support for the EFI partition)</comment>
173 DOS/FAT/NT Filesystems ---&gt;
174 &lt;*&gt; VFAT (Windows-95) fs support
175
176 <comment>(Enable GPT partition label support if you used that previously</comment>
177 -*- Enable the block layer --->
178 ...
179 Partition Types --->
180 [*] Advanced partition selection
181 ...
182 [*] EFI GUID Partition support
183 </pre>
184
185 <p>
186 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
187 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
188 </p>
189
190 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
191 Device Drivers ---&gt;
192 Network device support ---&gt;
193 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
194 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
195 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
196 </pre>
197
198 <p>
199 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
200 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by <c>ppp</c>
201 when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
202 </p>
203
204 <p>
205 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
206 ethernet card.
207 </p>
208
209 <p>
210 If you have an Intel CPU that supports HyperThreading (tm), or you have a
211 multi-CPU system, you should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
212 </p>
213
214 <pre caption="Activating SMP support">
215 Processor type and features ---&gt;
216 [*] Symmetric multi-processing support
217 </pre>
218
219 <p>
220 If you use USB Input Devices (like Keyboard or Mouse) don't forget to enable
221 those as well:
222 </p>
223
224 <pre caption="Activating USB Support for Input Devices">
225 Device Drivers ---&gt;
226 [*] HID Devices ---&gt;
227 &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support
228 </pre>
229
230 <p>
231 When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
232 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
233 </p>
234
235 </body>
236 </subsection>
237 <subsection id="compiling">
238 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
239 <body>
240
241 <p>
242 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
243 the configuration and start the compilation process:
244 </p>
245
246 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
247 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
248 </pre>
249
250 <p>
251 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to <path>/</path>.
252 Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel choice and remember it
253 as you will need it later on when you configure your bootloader. Remember to
254 replace <c>vmlinuz</c> with the name and version of your kernel.
255 </p>
256
257 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
258 # <i>cp vmlinux.gz /boot/vmlinuz</i>
259 </pre>
260
261 </body>
262 </subsection>
263 <subsection id="initramfs">
264 <title>(Optional) Building an Initramfs</title>
265 <body>
266
267 <p>
268 If you use a specific partition layout where important file system locations
269 (like <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path>) are on separate partitions, then
270 you will need to setup an initramfs so that this partition can be mounted before
271 it is needed.
272 </p>
273
274 <p>
275 Without an initramfs, you risk that the system will not boot up properly as the
276 tools that are responsible for mounting the file systems need information that
277 resides on those file systems. An initramfs will pull in the necessary files
278 into an archive which is used right after the kernel boots, but before the
279 control is handed over to the <c>init</c> tool. Scripts on the initramfs will
280 then make sure that the partitions are properly mounted before the system
281 continues booting.
282 </p>
283
284 <p>
285 To install an initramfs, install <c>genkernel</c> first, then have it
286 generate an initramfs for you.
287 </p>
288
289 <pre caption="Building an initramfs">
290 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
291 # <i>genkernel --bootdir=/. --no-mountboot --install initramfs</i>
292 </pre>
293
294 <p>
295 If you need specific support in the initramfs, such as lvm or raid, add in the
296 appropriate options to genkernel. See <c>genkernel --help</c> for more
297 information, or the next example which enables support for LVM and software raid
298 (mdadm):
299 </p>
300
301 <pre caption="Building an initramfs with support for LVM and software raid">
302 # <i>genkernel --bootdir=/. --no-mountboot --lvm --mdadm --install initramfs</i>
303 </pre>
304
305 <p>
306 The initramfs will be stored in <path>/</path>. You can find the file by simply
307 listing the files starting with <path>initramfs</path>:
308 </p>
309
310 <pre caption="Checking the initramfs file name">
311 # <i>ls /initramfs*</i>
312 </pre>
313
314 <p>
315 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
316 </p>
317
318 </body>
319 </subsection>
320 </section>
321 <section id="genkernel">
322 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
323 <body>
324
325 <p>
326 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
327 script to configure your kernel for you.
328 </p>
329
330 <p>
331 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
332 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
333 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
334 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
335 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
336 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
337 genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
338 solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
339 </p>
340
341 <p>
342 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
343 </p>
344
345 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
346 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
347 </pre>
348
349 <p>
350 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel</c>. Be aware
351 though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all hardware,
352 this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
353 </p>
354
355 <note>
356 Users of LVM2 will probably want to add <c>--lvm</c> to the genkernel
357 command-line.
358 </note>
359
360 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
361 # <i>genkernel --bootdir=/. --no-mountboot all</i>
362 </pre>
363
364 <p>
365 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
366 <e>initial ram disk</e> (initramfs) will be created. We will use the kernel
367 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
368 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
369 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
370 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
371 before your "real" system starts up.
372 </p>
373
374 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
375 # <i>ls /kernel* /initramfs*</i>
376 </pre>
377
378 </body>
379 </section>
380 <section id="kernel_modules">
381 <title>Kernel Modules</title>
382
383 <subsection>
384 <include href="hb-install-kernelmodules.xml"/>
385 </subsection>
386
387 </section>
388 </sections>

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