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#81072 - MIPS overhaul

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.11 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-mips-disk.xml,v 1.10 2005/01/04 18:11:20 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.7
11 swift 1.11 <version>1.7</version>
12     <date>2005-02-14</date>
13 swift 1.7
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16     <subsection>
17     <title>Block Devices</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21     We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
22     and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices.
23     Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems,
24     you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
25     for your Gentoo Linux installation.
26     </p>
27    
28     <p>
29     To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is
30     probably the one that represents the first SCSI HD in a Linux system, namely
31     <path>/dev/sda</path>.
32     </p>
33    
34     <p>
35     The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
36     programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
37     about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program can
38     simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
39     randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
40     </p>
41    
42     </body>
43     </subsection>
44     <subsection>
45     <title>Partitions</title>
46     <body>
47    
48     <p>
49     Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
50     system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
51     are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. These are called
52     <e>partitions</e>.
53     </p>
54    
55     </body>
56     </subsection>
57     </section>
58     <section>
59     <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
60     <subsection>
61     <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
62     <body>
63    
64     <p>
65     The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
66     if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
67     <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
68     If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your
69     <path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside
70     <path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your
71     performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming
72     servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>:
73     security and backups.
74     </p>
75    
76     <p>
77     As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
78     partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
79     </p>
80    
81     <ul>
82     <li>
83 neysx 1.2 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
84 swift 1.1 </li>
85     <li>
86     Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
87     continuously writing files to a partition or volume
88     </li>
89     <li>
90     If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
91     be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
92     it is with multiple partitions)
93     </li>
94     <li>
95     Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
96     nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
97     </li>
98     </ul>
99    
100     <p>
101     However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
102     properly, you might result in having a system with lots
103 swift 1.5 of free space on one partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition
104 swift 1.6 limit for SCSI and SATA.
105 swift 1.1 </p>
106    
107     </body>
108     </subsection>
109     </section>
110     <section>
111     <title>Using fdisk on MIPS to Partition your Disk</title>
112     <subsection>
113 swift 1.11 <title>SGI Machines: Creating an SGI Disk Label</title>
114 swift 1.1 <body>
115    
116     <p>
117     All disks in an SGI System require an <e>SGI Disk Label</e>, which serves a
118     similar function as Sun &amp; MS-DOS disklabels -- It stores information about
119     the disk partitions. Creating a new SGI Disk Label will create two special
120     partitions on the disk:
121     </p>
122    
123     <ul>
124     <li>
125 swift 1.11 <!-- <e>SGI Volume Header</e> (9th partition): This partition is important. It
126 swift 1.1 is where the kernel images will go. To store kernel images, you will utilize
127     the tool known as <c>dvhtool</c> to copy kernel images to this partition.
128     You will then be able to boot kernels from this partition via the SGI PROM
129 swift 1.11 Monitor. -->
130     <e>SGI Volume Header</e> (9th partition): This partition is important. It
131     is where the arcboot bootloader will go.
132 swift 1.1 </li>
133     <li>
134     <e>SGI Volume</e> (11th partition): This partition is similar in purpose to
135     the Sun Disklabel's third partition of "Whole Disk". This partition spans
136     the entire disk, and should be left untouched. It serves no special purpose
137     other than to assist the PROM in some undocumented fashion (or it is used by
138     IRIX in some way).
139     </li>
140     </ul>
141    
142     <warn>
143     The SGI Volume Header <e>must</e> begin at cylinder 0. Failure to do so means
144     you won't be able to boot from the disk.
145     </warn>
146    
147     <p>
148     The following is an example excerpt from an <c>fdisk</c> session. Read and
149     tailor it to your needs...
150     </p>
151    
152     <pre caption="Creating an SGI Disklabel">
153     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
154    
155     Command (m for help): <i>x</i>
156    
157     Expert command (m for help): <i>m</i>
158     Command action
159     b move beginning of data in a partition
160     c change number of cylinders
161     d print the raw data in the partition table
162     e list extended partitions
163     f fix partition order
164     g create an IRIX (SGI) partition table
165     h change number of heads
166     m print this menu
167     p print the partition table
168     q quit without saving changes
169     r return to main menu
170     s change number of sectors/track
171     v verify the partition table
172     w write table to disk and exit
173    
174     Expert command (m for help): <i>g</i>
175     Building a new SGI disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
176     until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
177     content will be unrecoverably lost.
178    
179     Expert command (m for help): <i>r</i>
180    
181     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
182    
183     Disk /dev/sda (SGI disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 17482 cylinders
184     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
185    
186     ----- partitions -----
187     Pt# Device Info Start End Sectors Id System
188     9: /dev/sda1 0 4 10240 0 SGI volhdr
189     11: /dev/sda2 0 17481 35803136 6 SGI volume
190     ----- Bootinfo -----
191     Bootfile: /unix
192     ----- Directory Entries -----
193    
194     Command (m for help):
195     </pre>
196    
197     <note>
198     If your disk already has an existing SGI Disklabel, then fdisk will not allow
199     the creation of a new label. There are two ways around this. One is to create a
200     Sun or MS-DOS disklabel, write the changes to disk, and restart fdisk. The
201     second is to overwrite the partition table with null data via the following
202     command: <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda bs=512 count=1</c>.
203     </note>
204    
205 swift 1.11 <!-- This has been dropped in favour of using arcboot
206     <p>Getting the SGI Volume Header to just the right size</p>
207 swift 1.1
208     <p>
209     Now that an SGI Disklabel is created, partitions may now be defined. In the
210     above example, there are already two partitions defined for you. These are the
211     special partitions mentioned above and should not normally be altered. However,
212     for installing Gentoo, we'll need to load multiple kernel images directly into
213     the volume header, as there is no supported SGI Bootloader available in Portage
214     yet. The volume header itself can hold up to <e>eight</e> images of any size,
215     with each image allowed eight-character names.
216     </p>
217    
218     <p>
219 swift 1.11 The process of making the volume header larger isn't exactly straight-forward - -
220 swift 1.1 there's a bit of a trick to it. One cannot simply delete and re-add the volume
221     header due to odd fdisk behavior. In the example provided below, we'll create a
222     50MB Volume header in conjunction with a 50MB /boot partition. The actual layout
223     of your disk may vary, but this is for illustrative purposes only.
224     </p>
225    
226     <pre caption="Resizing the SGI Volume Header correctly">
227     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
228     Partition number (1-16): <i>1</i>
229     First cylinder (5-8682, default 5): <i>51</i>
230     Last cylinder (51-8682, default 8682): <i>101</i>
231 swift 1.11
232     <comment>(Notice how fdisk only allows Partition #1 to be re-created starting at a
233     minimum of cylinder 5? Had you attempted to delete &amp; re-create the SGI
234     Volume Header this way, this is the same issue you would have encountered.
235     In our example, we want /boot to be 50MB, so we start it at cylinder 51 (the
236     Volume Header needs to start at cylinder 0, remember?), and set its ending
237     cylinder to 101, which will roughly be 50MB (+/- 1-5MB).)</comment>
238 swift 1.1
239     Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
240     Partition number (1-16): <i>9</i>
241 swift 1.11
242 swift 1.1 <comment>(Delete Partition #9 (SGI Volume Header))</comment>
243    
244     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
245     Partition number (1-16): <i>9</i>
246     First cylinder (0-50, default 0): <i>0</i>
247     Last cylinder (0-50, default 50): <i>50</i>
248 swift 1.11
249 swift 1.1 <comment>(Re-Create Partition #9, ending just before Partition #1)</comment>
250     </pre>
251 swift 1.11 -->
252     <p>
253     If you're unsure how to use <c>fdisk</c> have a look down further at the
254     instructions for partitioning on Cobalts. The concepts are exactly the same --
255     just remember to leave the volume header and whole disk partitions alone.
256     </p>
257    
258     <!-- <p> Perhaps part of the above commented-out block?
259     Once this is done, you are safe to create the rest of your partitions as you see
260     fit. After all your partitions are laid out, make sure you set the partition ID
261     of your swap partition to <c>82</c>, which is Linux Swap. By default, it will be
262     <c>83</c>, Linux Native.
263     </p> -->
264    
265     <p>
266     Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
267     link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
268     </p>
269 swift 1.1
270     </body>
271     </subsection>
272 swift 1.11
273 swift 1.1 <subsection>
274 swift 1.11 <title>Cobalt Machines: Partitioning your drive</title>
275 swift 1.1 <body>
276    
277     <p>
278 swift 1.11 On Cobalt machines, the BOOTROM expects to see a MS-DOS MBR, so partitioning the
279     drive is relatively straightforward -- in fact, it's done the same way as you'd
280     do for an Intel x86 machine. <e>However</e> there are some things you need to
281     bear in mind.
282     </p>
283    
284     <ul>
285     <li>
286     Cobalt firmware will expect <path>/dev/hda1</path> to be a Linux partition
287     formatted <e>EXT2 Revision 0</e>. <e>EXT2 Revision 1 partitions will NOT
288     WORK!</e> (The Cobalt BOOTROM only understands EXT2r0)
289     </li>
290     <li>
291     The above said partition must contain a gzipped ELF image,
292     <path>vmlinux.gz</path> in the root of that partition, which it loads as the
293     kernel
294     </li>
295     </ul>
296    
297     <p>
298     For that reason, I recommend creating a ~20MB <path>/boot</path> partition
299     formatted EXT2r0 upon which you can install CoLo &amp; your kernels. This
300     allows you to run a modern filesystem (EXT3 or ReiserFS) for your root
301     filesystem.
302     </p>
303    
304     <p>
305     I will assume you have created <path>/dev/hda1</path> to mount later as a
306     <path>/boot</path> partition. If you wish to make this <path>/</path>, you'll
307     need to keep the PROM's expectations in mind.
308     </p>
309    
310     <p>
311     So, continuing on... To create the partitions you type <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> at
312     the prompt. The main commands you need to know are these:
313 swift 1.1 </p>
314    
315 swift 1.11 <ul>
316     <li>
317     <c>o</c>: Wipe out old partition table, starting with an empty MS-DOS
318     partition table
319     </li>
320     <li>
321     <c>n</c>: New Partition
322     </li>
323     <li>
324     <c>t</c>: Change Partition Type
325     <ul>
326     <li>Use type <c>82</c> for Linux Swap, <c>83</c> for Linux FS</li>
327     </ul>
328     </li>
329     <li>
330     <c>d</c>: Delete a partition
331     </li>
332     <li>
333     <c>p</c>: Display (print) Partition Table
334     </li>
335     <li>
336     <c>q</c>: Quit -- leaving old partition table as is.
337     </li>
338     <li>
339     <c>w</c>: Quit -- writing partition table in the process.
340     </li>
341     </ul>
342    
343     <pre caption="Partitioning the disk">
344     # <i>fdisk /dev/hda</i>
345    
346     The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 19870.
347     There is nothing wrong with that, but this is larger than 1024,
348     and could in certain setups cause problems with:
349     1) software that runs at boot time (e.g., old versions of LILO)
350     2) booting and partitioning software from other OSs
351     (e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)
352    
353     <comment>(Start by clearing out any existing partitions)</comment>
354     Command (m for help): <i>o</i>
355     Building a new DOS disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
356     until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
357     content won't be recoverable.
358    
359    
360     The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 19870.
361     There is nothing wrong with that, but this is larger than 1024,
362     and could in certain setups cause problems with:
363     1) software that runs at boot time (e.g., old versions of LILO)
364     2) booting and partitioning software from other OSs
365     (e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)
366     Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)
367    
368     <comment>(You can now verify the partition table is empty using the 'p' command)</comment>
369    
370     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
371    
372     Disk /dev/hda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
373     16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
374     Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
375    
376     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
377    
378     <comment>(Create the /boot partition)</comment>
379    
380     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
381     Command action
382     e extended
383     p primary partition (1-4)
384     <i>p</i>
385     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
386    
387     <comment>(Just press ENTER here to accept the default)</comment>
388    
389     First cylinder (1-19870, default 1):
390     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-19870, default 19870): <i>+20M</i>
391    
392     <comment>(and now if we type 'p' again, we should see the new partition)</comment>
393     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
394    
395     Disk /dev/hda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
396     16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
397     Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
398    
399     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
400     /dev/hda1 1 40 20128+ 83 Linux
401    
402     <comment>(The rest, I prefer to put in an extended partition, so I'll create that)</comment>
403    
404     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
405     Command action
406     e extended
407     p primary partition (1-4)
408     <i>e</i>
409     Partition number (1-4): <i>2</i>
410    
411     <comment>(Again, the default is fine, just press ENTER.)</comment>
412    
413     First cylinder (41-19870, default 41):
414     Using default value 41
415    
416     <comment>(We want to use the whole disk here, so just press ENTER again)</comment>
417     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (41-19870, default 19870):
418     Using default value 19870
419    
420     <comment>(Now, the / partition -- I use separate partitions for /usr, /var,
421     etc... so / can be small. Adjust as per your preference.)</comment>
422    
423     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
424     Command action
425     l logical (5 or over)
426     p primary partition (1-4)
427     <i>l</i>
428     First cylinder (41-19870, default 41):<i>&lt;Press ENTER&gt;</i>
429     Using default value 41
430     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (41-19870, default 19870): <i>+500M</i>
431    
432     <comment>(... and similar for any other partitions ...)</comment>
433    
434     <comment>(Last but not least, the swap space. I recommend at least 250MB swap,
435     preferrably 1GB)</comment>
436    
437     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
438     Command action
439     l logical (5 or over)
440     p primary partition (1-4)
441     <i>l</i>
442     First cylinder (17294-19870, default 17294): <i>&lt;Press ENTER&gt;</i>
443     Using default value 17294
444     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1011-19870, default 19870): <i>&lt;Press ENTER&gt;</i>
445     Using default value 19870
446    
447     <comment>(Now, if we check our partition table, everything should mostly be ship
448     shape except for one thing...)</comment>
449    
450     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
451    
452     Disk /dev/hda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
453     16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
454     Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
455    
456     Device Boot Start End Blocks ID System
457     /dev/hda1 1 21 10552+ 83 Linux
458     /dev/hda2 22 19870 10003896 5 Extended
459     /dev/hda5 22 1037 512032+ 83 Linux
460     /dev/hda6 1038 5101 2048224+ 83 Linux
461     /dev/hda7 5102 9165 2048224+ 83 Linux
462     /dev/hda8 9166 13229 2048224+ 83 Linux
463     /dev/hda9 13230 17293 2048224+ 83 Linux
464     /dev/hda10 17294 19870 1298776+ 83 Linux
465    
466     <comment>(Notice how #10, our swap partition is still type 83?)</comment>
467    
468     Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
469     Partition number (1-10): <i>10</i>
470     Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>82</i>
471     Changed system type of partition 10 to 82 (Linux swap)
472    
473     <comment>(That should fix it... just to verify...)</comment>
474    
475     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
476    
477     Disk /dev/hda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
478     16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
479     Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
480    
481     Device Boot Start End Blocks ID System
482     /dev/hda1 1 21 10552+ 83 Linux
483     /dev/hda2 22 19870 10003896 5 Extended
484     /dev/hda5 22 1037 512032+ 83 Linux
485     /dev/hda6 1038 5101 2048224+ 83 Linux
486     /dev/hda7 5102 9165 2048224+ 83 Linux
487     /dev/hda8 9166 13229 2048224+ 83 Linux
488     /dev/hda9 13230 17293 2048224+ 83 Linux
489     /dev/hda10 17294 19870 1298776+ 82 Linux Swap
490    
491     <comment>(Now, we write out the new partition table.)</comment>
492    
493     Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
494     The partition table has been altered!
495    
496     Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
497     Syncing disks.
498    
499     #
500     </pre>
501    
502 swift 1.1 <p>
503 swift 1.11 And that's all there is to it. You should now be right to proceed onto the
504     next stage: <uri link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
505 swift 1.1 </p>
506    
507     </body>
508     </subsection>
509     </section>
510 swift 1.11
511 swift 1.1 <section id="filesystems">
512     <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
513     <subsection>
514     <title>Introduction</title>
515     <body>
516    
517     <p>
518     Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
519     If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
520     as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
521     link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
522     Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
523     </p>
524    
525     </body>
526     </subsection>
527     <subsection>
528     <title>Filesystems?</title>
529     <body>
530    
531     <p>
532 swift 1.11 Several filesystems are available. ReiserFS, EXT2 and EXT3 are found stable
533     on the MIPS architectures, others are experimental.
534 swift 1.1 </p>
535    
536     <p>
537     <b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
538     journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
539     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
540     journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are
541     thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled
542     filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
543     happens to be in an inconsistent state.
544     </p>
545    
546     <p>
547     <b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
548     journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like
549     full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
550     filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables
551     high performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is an excellent
552     filesystem.
553     </p>
554    
555     <p>
556     <b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
557     performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
558     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
559     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
560     solid and usable as both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such
561     as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large
562     files and directories containing tens of thousands of files.
563     </p>
564    
565     <p>
566 neysx 1.3 <b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling which comes with a robust
567     feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
568     filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
569     an uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
570     in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
571     when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
572     deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
573 swift 1.1 </p>
574    
575     <p>
576     <b>JFS</b> is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
577     become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
578     comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this point.
579     </p>
580    
581     </body>
582     </subsection>
583     <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
584     <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
585     <body>
586    
587     <p>
588     To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
589     each possible filesystem:
590     </p>
591    
592     <table>
593     <tr>
594     <th>Filesystem</th>
595     <th>Creation Command</th>
596     </tr>
597     <tr>
598     <ti>ext2</ti>
599     <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
600     </tr>
601     <tr>
602     <ti>ext3</ti>
603     <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
604     </tr>
605     <tr>
606     <ti>reiserfs</ti>
607     <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
608     </tr>
609     <tr>
610     <ti>xfs</ti>
611     <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
612     </tr>
613     <tr>
614     <ti>jfs</ti>
615     <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
616     </tr>
617     </table>
618    
619     <p>
620     For instance, to have the boot partition (<path>/dev/sda1</path> in our
621     example) in ext2 and the root partition (<path>/dev/sda3</path> in our example)
622     in ext3, you would use:
623     </p>
624    
625     <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
626     # <i>mke2fs /dev/sda1</i>
627     # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda3</i>
628     </pre>
629    
630     <p>
631     Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
632     volumes).
633     </p>
634    
635 swift 1.11 <warn>
636     If you're installing on a Cobalt server, remember <path>/dev/hda1</path> MUST be
637     of type <e>EXT2 revision 0</e>; Anything else (e.g. EXT2 revision 1, EXT3,
638     ReiserFS, XFS, JFS and others) <e>WILL NOT WORK!</e>
639     You can format the partition using the command: <c>mke2fs -r 0 /dev/hda1</c>.
640     </warn>
641    
642     <warn>
643     Also, be aware that arcboot currently is not able to read any filesystem other
644     than EXT2, EXT3 and ISO9660 (recent versions). For that reason,
645     <path>/boot</path> on SGI machines must also reside on an EXT2 or EXT3 partition.
646     </warn>
647    
648 swift 1.1 </body>
649     </subsection>
650     <subsection>
651     <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
652     <body>
653    
654     <p>
655 swift 1.11 <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to create and initialize swap partitions:
656 swift 1.1 </p>
657    
658     <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
659     # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2</i>
660     </pre>
661    
662     <p>
663     To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
664     </p>
665    
666     <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
667     # <i>swapon /dev/sda2</i>
668     </pre>
669    
670     <p>
671     Create and activate the swap now.
672     </p>
673    
674     </body>
675     </subsection>
676     </section>
677     <section>
678     <title>Mounting</title>
679     <body>
680    
681     <p>
682     Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
683     time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
684     create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
685     example we mount the root and boot partition:
686     </p>
687    
688     <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
689     # <i>mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
690     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
691     # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
692     </pre>
693    
694     <note>
695     If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
696     change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
697     also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
698     </note>
699    
700     <p>
701 swift 1.4 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
702     kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
703 swift 1.1 </p>
704    
705     <p>
706 swift 1.4 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
707 swift 1.1 Installation Files</uri>.
708     </p>
709    
710     </body>
711     </section>
712     </sections>

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