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Fix bug #334167 - Mention ext4 in the handbook. Done for alpha, mips, amd64 and x86. Other arches: please verify and comment on the bug. Thanks to Maciej Grela for reporting.

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 swift 1.13 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 swift 1.29 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-mips-disk.xml,v 1.28 2010/07/27 22:54:33 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.7
11 nightmorph 1.28 <abstract>
12     To be able to install Gentoo, you must create the necessary partitions.
13     This chapter describes how to partition a disk for future usage.
14     </abstract>
15    
16 swift 1.29 <version>5</version>
17     <date>2011-08-22</date>
18 swift 1.7
19 swift 1.1 <section>
20     <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
21 nightmorph 1.25
22 swift 1.1 <subsection>
23 nightmorph 1.25 <include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
24     </subsection>
25 swift 1.1
26     <subsection>
27     <title>Partitions</title>
28     <body>
29    
30     <p>
31     Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
32     system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
33 neysx 1.19 are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. These are called
34 swift 1.1 <e>partitions</e>.
35     </p>
36    
37     </body>
38     </subsection>
39     </section>
40     <section>
41     <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
42     <subsection>
43     <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
44     <body>
45    
46     <p>
47     The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
48     if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
49     <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
50 neysx 1.19 If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
51     should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good
52     choice of filesystem will then maximise your performance. Gameservers will have
53     a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The
54     reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. You will
55     definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big: not only will it contain the
56     majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes around 500 Mbyte
57     excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
58 swift 1.1 </p>
59    
60     <p>
61     As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
62     partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
63     </p>
64    
65     <ul>
66     <li>
67 neysx 1.2 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
68 swift 1.1 </li>
69     <li>
70     Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
71     continuously writing files to a partition or volume
72     </li>
73     <li>
74     If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
75     be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
76     it is with multiple partitions)
77     </li>
78     <li>
79     Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
80     nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
81     </li>
82     </ul>
83    
84     <p>
85 neysx 1.19 However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
86     properly, you might result in having a system with lots of free space on one
87     partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and
88     SATA.
89 swift 1.1 </p>
90    
91     </body>
92     </subsection>
93     </section>
94     <section>
95     <title>Using fdisk on MIPS to Partition your Disk</title>
96     <subsection>
97 swift 1.11 <title>SGI Machines: Creating an SGI Disk Label</title>
98 swift 1.1 <body>
99    
100     <p>
101 neysx 1.19 All disks in an SGI System require an <e>SGI Disk Label</e>, which serves a
102     similar function as Sun &amp; MS-DOS disklabels -- It stores information about
103     the disk partitions. Creating a new SGI Disk Label will create two special
104 swift 1.1 partitions on the disk:
105     </p>
106    
107     <ul>
108     <li>
109 swift 1.11 <e>SGI Volume Header</e> (9th partition): This partition is important. It
110 neysx 1.19 is where the bootloader will reside, and in some cases, it will also
111     contain the kernel images.
112 swift 1.1 </li>
113     <li>
114     <e>SGI Volume</e> (11th partition): This partition is similar in purpose to
115     the Sun Disklabel's third partition of "Whole Disk". This partition spans
116     the entire disk, and should be left untouched. It serves no special purpose
117 neysx 1.19 other than to assist the PROM in some undocumented fashion (or it is used
118     by IRIX in some way).
119 swift 1.1 </li>
120     </ul>
121    
122     <warn>
123     The SGI Volume Header <e>must</e> begin at cylinder 0. Failure to do so means
124     you won't be able to boot from the disk.
125     </warn>
126    
127     <p>
128     The following is an example excerpt from an <c>fdisk</c> session. Read and
129     tailor it to your needs...
130     </p>
131    
132     <pre caption="Creating an SGI Disklabel">
133     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
134    
135     Command (m for help): <i>x</i>
136    
137     Expert command (m for help): <i>m</i>
138     Command action
139     b move beginning of data in a partition
140     c change number of cylinders
141     d print the raw data in the partition table
142     e list extended partitions
143     f fix partition order
144     g create an IRIX (SGI) partition table
145     h change number of heads
146     m print this menu
147     p print the partition table
148     q quit without saving changes
149     r return to main menu
150     s change number of sectors/track
151     v verify the partition table
152     w write table to disk and exit
153    
154     Expert command (m for help): <i>g</i>
155     Building a new SGI disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
156     until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
157 vanquirius 1.17 content will be irrecoverably lost.
158 swift 1.1
159     Expert command (m for help): <i>r</i>
160    
161     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
162    
163     Disk /dev/sda (SGI disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 17482 cylinders
164     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
165    
166     ----- partitions -----
167     Pt# Device Info Start End Sectors Id System
168     9: /dev/sda1 0 4 10240 0 SGI volhdr
169     11: /dev/sda2 0 17481 35803136 6 SGI volume
170     ----- Bootinfo -----
171     Bootfile: /unix
172     ----- Directory Entries -----
173    
174     Command (m for help):
175     </pre>
176    
177     <note>
178     If your disk already has an existing SGI Disklabel, then fdisk will not allow
179     the creation of a new label. There are two ways around this. One is to create a
180     Sun or MS-DOS disklabel, write the changes to disk, and restart fdisk. The
181     second is to overwrite the partition table with null data via the following
182     command: <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda bs=512 count=1</c>.
183     </note>
184 rane 1.16 </body>
185     </subsection>
186    
187     <subsection>
188     <title>Getting the SGI Volume Header to just the right size</title>
189     <body>
190 swift 1.1
191 rane 1.16 <impo>
192 neysx 1.19 This step is often needed, due to a bug in <c>fdisk</c>. For some reason, the
193 rane 1.16 volume header isn't created correctly, the end result being it starts and ends
194 neysx 1.19 on cylinder 0. This prevents multiple partitions from being created. To get
195 rane 1.16 around this issue... read on.
196     </impo>
197 swift 1.1
198     <p>
199     Now that an SGI Disklabel is created, partitions may now be defined. In the
200     above example, there are already two partitions defined for you. These are the
201     special partitions mentioned above and should not normally be altered. However,
202 rane 1.16 for installing Gentoo, we'll need to load a bootloader, and possibly multiple
203 neysx 1.19 kernel images (depending on system type) directly into the volume header. The
204     volume header itself can hold up to <e>eight</e> images of any size, with each
205     image allowed eight-character names.
206 swift 1.1 </p>
207    
208     <p>
209 rane 1.16 The process of making the volume header larger isn't exactly straight-forward;
210 swift 1.1 there's a bit of a trick to it. One cannot simply delete and re-add the volume
211     header due to odd fdisk behavior. In the example provided below, we'll create a
212 neysx 1.19 50MB Volume header in conjunction with a 50MB /boot partition. The actual
213     layout of your disk may vary, but this is for illustrative purposes only.
214 swift 1.1 </p>
215    
216     <pre caption="Resizing the SGI Volume Header correctly">
217     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
218     Partition number (1-16): <i>1</i>
219     First cylinder (5-8682, default 5): <i>51</i>
220     Last cylinder (51-8682, default 8682): <i>101</i>
221 swift 1.11
222 rane 1.16 <comment>(Notice how fdisk only allows Partition #1 to be re-created starting at a )
223     (minimum of cylinder 5? Had you attempted to delete &amp; re-create the SGI )
224     (Volume Header this way, this is the same issue you would have encountered. )
225     (In our example, we want /boot to be 50MB, so we start it at cylinder 51 (the )
226     (Volume Header needs to start at cylinder 0, remember?), and set its ending )
227     (cylinder to 101, which will roughly be 50MB (+/- 1-5MB). )</comment>
228 swift 1.1
229     Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
230     Partition number (1-16): <i>9</i>
231 swift 1.11
232 swift 1.1 <comment>(Delete Partition #9 (SGI Volume Header))</comment>
233    
234     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
235     Partition number (1-16): <i>9</i>
236     First cylinder (0-50, default 0): <i>0</i>
237     Last cylinder (0-50, default 50): <i>50</i>
238 swift 1.11
239 swift 1.1 <comment>(Re-Create Partition #9, ending just before Partition #1)</comment>
240     </pre>
241 rane 1.16
242 swift 1.11 <p>
243     If you're unsure how to use <c>fdisk</c> have a look down further at the
244 neysx 1.19 instructions for partitioning on Cobalts. The concepts are exactly the same --
245 swift 1.11 just remember to leave the volume header and whole disk partitions alone.
246     </p>
247    
248 rane 1.16 <p>
249 neysx 1.19 Once this is done, you are safe to create the rest of your partitions as you
250     see fit. After all your partitions are laid out, make sure you set the
251     partition ID of your swap partition to <c>82</c>, which is Linux Swap. By
252     default, it will be <c>83</c>, Linux Native.
253 rane 1.16 </p>
254 swift 1.11
255     <p>
256 nightmorph 1.27 Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
257 swift 1.11 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
258     </p>
259 swift 1.1
260     </body>
261     </subsection>
262 swift 1.11
263 swift 1.1 <subsection>
264 swift 1.11 <title>Cobalt Machines: Partitioning your drive</title>
265 swift 1.1 <body>
266    
267     <p>
268 neysx 1.19 On Cobalt machines, the BOOTROM expects to see a MS-DOS MBR, so partitioning
269     the drive is relatively straightforward -- in fact, it's done the same way as
270     you'd do for an Intel x86 machine. <e>However</e> there are some things you
271     need to bear in mind.
272 swift 1.11 </p>
273    
274     <ul>
275     <li>
276 nightmorph 1.26 Cobalt firmware will expect <path>/dev/sda1</path> to be a Linux partition
277 neysx 1.19 formatted <e>EXT2 Revision 0</e>. <e>EXT2 Revision 1 partitions will NOT
278     WORK!</e> (The Cobalt BOOTROM only understands EXT2r0)
279 swift 1.11 </li>
280     <li>
281     The above said partition must contain a gzipped ELF image,
282 neysx 1.19 <path>vmlinux.gz</path> in the root of that partition, which it loads as
283     the kernel
284 swift 1.11 </li>
285     </ul>
286    
287     <p>
288     For that reason, I recommend creating a ~20MB <path>/boot</path> partition
289 neysx 1.19 formatted EXT2r0 upon which you can install CoLo &amp; your kernels. This
290 swift 1.11 allows you to run a modern filesystem (EXT3 or ReiserFS) for your root
291     filesystem.
292     </p>
293    
294     <p>
295 nightmorph 1.26 I will assume you have created <path>/dev/sda1</path> to mount later as a
296 neysx 1.19 <path>/boot</path> partition. If you wish to make this <path>/</path>, you'll
297 swift 1.11 need to keep the PROM's expectations in mind.
298     </p>
299    
300     <p>
301 nightmorph 1.26 So, continuing on... To create the partitions you type <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c> at
302 neysx 1.19 the prompt. The main commands you need to know are these:
303 swift 1.1 </p>
304    
305 swift 1.11 <ul>
306     <li>
307     <c>o</c>: Wipe out old partition table, starting with an empty MS-DOS
308     partition table
309     </li>
310     <li>
311     <c>n</c>: New Partition
312     </li>
313     <li>
314     <c>t</c>: Change Partition Type
315     <ul>
316     <li>Use type <c>82</c> for Linux Swap, <c>83</c> for Linux FS</li>
317     </ul>
318     </li>
319     <li>
320     <c>d</c>: Delete a partition
321     </li>
322     <li>
323     <c>p</c>: Display (print) Partition Table
324     </li>
325     <li>
326     <c>q</c>: Quit -- leaving old partition table as is.
327     </li>
328     <li>
329     <c>w</c>: Quit -- writing partition table in the process.
330     </li>
331     </ul>
332    
333     <pre caption="Partitioning the disk">
334 nightmorph 1.26 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
335 swift 1.11
336     The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 19870.
337     There is nothing wrong with that, but this is larger than 1024,
338     and could in certain setups cause problems with:
339     1) software that runs at boot time (e.g., old versions of LILO)
340     2) booting and partitioning software from other OSs
341     (e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)
342    
343     <comment>(Start by clearing out any existing partitions)</comment>
344     Command (m for help): <i>o</i>
345     Building a new DOS disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
346     until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
347     content won't be recoverable.
348    
349    
350     The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 19870.
351     There is nothing wrong with that, but this is larger than 1024,
352     and could in certain setups cause problems with:
353     1) software that runs at boot time (e.g., old versions of LILO)
354     2) booting and partitioning software from other OSs
355     (e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)
356     Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)
357    
358     <comment>(You can now verify the partition table is empty using the 'p' command)</comment>
359    
360     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
361    
362 nightmorph 1.26 Disk /dev/sda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
363 swift 1.11 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
364     Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
365    
366     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
367    
368     <comment>(Create the /boot partition)</comment>
369    
370     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
371     Command action
372     e extended
373     p primary partition (1-4)
374     <i>p</i>
375     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
376    
377     <comment>(Just press ENTER here to accept the default)</comment>
378    
379     First cylinder (1-19870, default 1):
380     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-19870, default 19870): <i>+20M</i>
381    
382     <comment>(and now if we type 'p' again, we should see the new partition)</comment>
383     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
384    
385 nightmorph 1.26 Disk /dev/sda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
386 swift 1.11 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
387     Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
388    
389     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
390 nightmorph 1.26 /dev/sda1 1 40 20128+ 83 Linux
391 swift 1.11
392     <comment>(The rest, I prefer to put in an extended partition, so I'll create that)</comment>
393    
394     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
395     Command action
396     e extended
397     p primary partition (1-4)
398     <i>e</i>
399     Partition number (1-4): <i>2</i>
400    
401     <comment>(Again, the default is fine, just press ENTER.)</comment>
402    
403     First cylinder (41-19870, default 41):
404     Using default value 41
405    
406     <comment>(We want to use the whole disk here, so just press ENTER again)</comment>
407     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (41-19870, default 19870):
408     Using default value 19870
409    
410     <comment>(Now, the / partition -- I use separate partitions for /usr, /var,
411 neysx 1.19 etc... so / can be small. Adjust as per your preference.)</comment>
412 swift 1.11
413     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
414     Command action
415     l logical (5 or over)
416     p primary partition (1-4)
417     <i>l</i>
418     First cylinder (41-19870, default 41):<i>&lt;Press ENTER&gt;</i>
419     Using default value 41
420     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (41-19870, default 19870): <i>+500M</i>
421    
422     <comment>(... and similar for any other partitions ...)</comment>
423    
424 neysx 1.19 <comment>(Last but not least, the swap space. I recommend at least 250MB swap,
425 swift 1.11 preferrably 1GB)</comment>
426    
427     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
428     Command action
429     l logical (5 or over)
430     p primary partition (1-4)
431     <i>l</i>
432     First cylinder (17294-19870, default 17294): <i>&lt;Press ENTER&gt;</i>
433     Using default value 17294
434     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1011-19870, default 19870): <i>&lt;Press ENTER&gt;</i>
435     Using default value 19870
436    
437     <comment>(Now, if we check our partition table, everything should mostly be ship
438     shape except for one thing...)</comment>
439    
440     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
441    
442 nightmorph 1.26 Disk /dev/sda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
443 swift 1.11 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
444     Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
445    
446     Device Boot Start End Blocks ID System
447 nightmorph 1.26 /dev/sda1 1 21 10552+ 83 Linux
448     /dev/sda2 22 19870 10003896 5 Extended
449     /dev/sda5 22 1037 512032+ 83 Linux
450     /dev/sda6 1038 5101 2048224+ 83 Linux
451     /dev/sda7 5102 9165 2048224+ 83 Linux
452     /dev/sda8 9166 13229 2048224+ 83 Linux
453     /dev/sda9 13230 17293 2048224+ 83 Linux
454     /dev/sda10 17294 19870 1298776+ 83 Linux
455 swift 1.11
456     <comment>(Notice how #10, our swap partition is still type 83?)</comment>
457    
458     Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
459     Partition number (1-10): <i>10</i>
460     Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>82</i>
461     Changed system type of partition 10 to 82 (Linux swap)
462    
463     <comment>(That should fix it... just to verify...)</comment>
464    
465     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
466    
467 nightmorph 1.26 Disk /dev/sda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
468 swift 1.11 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
469     Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
470    
471     Device Boot Start End Blocks ID System
472 nightmorph 1.26 /dev/sda1 1 21 10552+ 83 Linux
473     /dev/sda2 22 19870 10003896 5 Extended
474     /dev/sda5 22 1037 512032+ 83 Linux
475     /dev/sda6 1038 5101 2048224+ 83 Linux
476     /dev/sda7 5102 9165 2048224+ 83 Linux
477     /dev/sda8 9166 13229 2048224+ 83 Linux
478     /dev/sda9 13230 17293 2048224+ 83 Linux
479     /dev/sda10 17294 19870 1298776+ 82 Linux Swap
480 swift 1.11
481     <comment>(Now, we write out the new partition table.)</comment>
482    
483     Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
484     The partition table has been altered!
485    
486     Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
487     Syncing disks.
488    
489     #
490     </pre>
491    
492 swift 1.1 <p>
493 neysx 1.19 And that's all there is to it. You should now be right to proceed onto the next
494     stage: <uri link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
495 swift 1.1 </p>
496    
497     </body>
498     </subsection>
499     </section>
500 swift 1.11
501 swift 1.1 <section id="filesystems">
502     <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
503     <subsection>
504     <title>Introduction</title>
505     <body>
506    
507     <p>
508 neysx 1.19 Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
509     If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we
510     use as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
511     link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>. Otherwise
512     read on to learn about the available filesystems...
513 swift 1.1 </p>
514    
515     </body>
516     </subsection>
517 nightmorph 1.25
518 swift 1.1 <subsection>
519 nightmorph 1.25 <include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
520     </subsection>
521 swift 1.1
522     <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
523     <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
524     <body>
525    
526     <p>
527 neysx 1.19 To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
528 swift 1.1 each possible filesystem:
529     </p>
530    
531     <table>
532     <tr>
533     <th>Filesystem</th>
534     <th>Creation Command</th>
535     </tr>
536     <tr>
537     <ti>ext2</ti>
538 swift 1.29 <ti><c>mkfs.ext2</c></ti>
539 swift 1.1 </tr>
540     <tr>
541     <ti>ext3</ti>
542 swift 1.29 <ti><c>mkfs.ext3</c></ti>
543 swift 1.1 </tr>
544     <tr>
545     <ti>reiserfs</ti>
546 swift 1.29 <ti><c>mkfs.reiserfs</c></ti>
547 swift 1.1 </tr>
548     <tr>
549     <ti>xfs</ti>
550     <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
551     </tr>
552     <tr>
553     <ti>jfs</ti>
554     <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
555     </tr>
556     </table>
557    
558     <p>
559     For instance, to have the boot partition (<path>/dev/sda1</path> in our
560     example) in ext2 and the root partition (<path>/dev/sda3</path> in our example)
561     in ext3, you would use:
562     </p>
563    
564     <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
565 swift 1.29 # <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1</i>
566     # <i>mkfs.ext3 /dev/sda3</i>
567 swift 1.1 </pre>
568    
569     <p>
570     Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
571     volumes).
572     </p>
573    
574 swift 1.11 <warn>
575 nightmorph 1.26 If you're installing on a Cobalt server, remember <path>/dev/sda1</path> MUST
576 neysx 1.19 be of type <e>EXT2 revision 0</e>; Anything else (e.g. EXT2 revision 1, EXT3,
577     ReiserFS, XFS, JFS and others) <e>WILL NOT WORK!</e> You can format the
578 swift 1.29 partition using the command: <c>mkfs.ext2 -r 0 /dev/sda1</c>.
579 swift 1.11 </warn>
580    
581 swift 1.1 </body>
582     </subsection>
583     <subsection>
584     <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
585     <body>
586    
587     <p>
588 neysx 1.19 <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to create and initialize swap
589     partitions:
590 swift 1.1 </p>
591    
592     <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
593     # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2</i>
594     </pre>
595    
596     <p>
597     To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
598     </p>
599    
600     <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
601     # <i>swapon /dev/sda2</i>
602     </pre>
603    
604     <p>
605 swift 1.12 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
606 swift 1.1 </p>
607    
608     </body>
609     </subsection>
610     </section>
611     <section>
612     <title>Mounting</title>
613     <body>
614    
615     <p>
616     Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
617     time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
618     create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
619     example we mount the root and boot partition:
620     </p>
621    
622     <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
623     # <i>mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
624     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
625     # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
626     </pre>
627    
628     <note>
629 neysx 1.19 If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure
630     to change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>.
631     This also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
632 swift 1.1 </note>
633    
634     <p>
635 neysx 1.19 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
636     kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the
637     partitions.
638 swift 1.1 </p>
639    
640     <p>
641 neysx 1.19 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo Installation
642     Files</uri>.
643 swift 1.1 </p>
644    
645     </body>
646     </section>
647     </sections>

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