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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 swift 1.13 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 swift 1.32 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-mips-disk.xml,v 1.31 2011/10/17 19:51:45 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.7
11 nightmorph 1.28 <abstract>
12     To be able to install Gentoo, you must create the necessary partitions.
13     This chapter describes how to partition a disk for future usage.
14     </abstract>
15    
16 swift 1.32 <version>6</version>
17     <date>2012-10-06</date>
18 swift 1.7
19 swift 1.1 <section>
20     <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
21 nightmorph 1.25
22 swift 1.1 <subsection>
23 nightmorph 1.25 <include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
24     </subsection>
25 swift 1.1
26     <subsection>
27     <title>Partitions</title>
28     <body>
29    
30     <p>
31     Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
32     system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
33 neysx 1.19 are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. These are called
34 swift 1.1 <e>partitions</e>.
35     </p>
36    
37     </body>
38     </subsection>
39     </section>
40     <section>
41     <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
42     <subsection>
43     <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
44     <body>
45    
46     <p>
47     The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
48     if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
49     <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
50 neysx 1.19 If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
51     should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good
52     choice of filesystem will then maximise your performance. Gameservers will have
53     a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The
54     reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. You will
55     definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big: not only will it contain the
56     majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes around 500 Mbyte
57     excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
58 swift 1.1 </p>
59    
60     <p>
61     As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
62     partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
63     </p>
64    
65     <ul>
66     <li>
67 neysx 1.2 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
68 swift 1.1 </li>
69     <li>
70     Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
71     continuously writing files to a partition or volume
72     </li>
73     <li>
74     If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
75     be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
76     it is with multiple partitions)
77     </li>
78     <li>
79     Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
80     nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
81     </li>
82     </ul>
83    
84     <p>
85 swift 1.31 However, multiple partitions have disadvantages as well. If not configured
86     properly, you will have a system with lots of free space on one partition and
87     none on another. Another nuisance is that separate partitions - especially
88     for important mountpoints like <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> - often
89     require the administrator to boot with an initramfs to mount the partition
90 swift 1.32 before other boot scripts start. This isn't always the case though, so your
91     results may vary.
92 swift 1.31 </p>
93    
94     <p>
95     There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and SATA.
96 swift 1.1 </p>
97    
98     </body>
99     </subsection>
100     </section>
101     <section>
102     <title>Using fdisk on MIPS to Partition your Disk</title>
103     <subsection>
104 swift 1.11 <title>SGI Machines: Creating an SGI Disk Label</title>
105 swift 1.1 <body>
106    
107     <p>
108 neysx 1.19 All disks in an SGI System require an <e>SGI Disk Label</e>, which serves a
109     similar function as Sun &amp; MS-DOS disklabels -- It stores information about
110     the disk partitions. Creating a new SGI Disk Label will create two special
111 swift 1.1 partitions on the disk:
112     </p>
113    
114     <ul>
115     <li>
116 swift 1.11 <e>SGI Volume Header</e> (9th partition): This partition is important. It
117 neysx 1.19 is where the bootloader will reside, and in some cases, it will also
118     contain the kernel images.
119 swift 1.1 </li>
120     <li>
121     <e>SGI Volume</e> (11th partition): This partition is similar in purpose to
122     the Sun Disklabel's third partition of "Whole Disk". This partition spans
123     the entire disk, and should be left untouched. It serves no special purpose
124 neysx 1.19 other than to assist the PROM in some undocumented fashion (or it is used
125     by IRIX in some way).
126 swift 1.1 </li>
127     </ul>
128    
129     <warn>
130     The SGI Volume Header <e>must</e> begin at cylinder 0. Failure to do so means
131     you won't be able to boot from the disk.
132     </warn>
133    
134     <p>
135     The following is an example excerpt from an <c>fdisk</c> session. Read and
136     tailor it to your needs...
137     </p>
138    
139     <pre caption="Creating an SGI Disklabel">
140     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
141    
142     Command (m for help): <i>x</i>
143    
144     Expert command (m for help): <i>m</i>
145     Command action
146     b move beginning of data in a partition
147     c change number of cylinders
148     d print the raw data in the partition table
149     e list extended partitions
150     f fix partition order
151     g create an IRIX (SGI) partition table
152     h change number of heads
153     m print this menu
154     p print the partition table
155     q quit without saving changes
156     r return to main menu
157     s change number of sectors/track
158     v verify the partition table
159     w write table to disk and exit
160    
161     Expert command (m for help): <i>g</i>
162     Building a new SGI disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
163     until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
164 vanquirius 1.17 content will be irrecoverably lost.
165 swift 1.1
166     Expert command (m for help): <i>r</i>
167    
168     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
169    
170     Disk /dev/sda (SGI disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 17482 cylinders
171     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
172    
173     ----- partitions -----
174     Pt# Device Info Start End Sectors Id System
175     9: /dev/sda1 0 4 10240 0 SGI volhdr
176     11: /dev/sda2 0 17481 35803136 6 SGI volume
177     ----- Bootinfo -----
178     Bootfile: /unix
179     ----- Directory Entries -----
180    
181     Command (m for help):
182     </pre>
183    
184     <note>
185     If your disk already has an existing SGI Disklabel, then fdisk will not allow
186     the creation of a new label. There are two ways around this. One is to create a
187     Sun or MS-DOS disklabel, write the changes to disk, and restart fdisk. The
188     second is to overwrite the partition table with null data via the following
189     command: <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda bs=512 count=1</c>.
190     </note>
191 rane 1.16 </body>
192     </subsection>
193    
194     <subsection>
195     <title>Getting the SGI Volume Header to just the right size</title>
196     <body>
197 swift 1.1
198 rane 1.16 <impo>
199 neysx 1.19 This step is often needed, due to a bug in <c>fdisk</c>. For some reason, the
200 rane 1.16 volume header isn't created correctly, the end result being it starts and ends
201 neysx 1.19 on cylinder 0. This prevents multiple partitions from being created. To get
202 rane 1.16 around this issue... read on.
203     </impo>
204 swift 1.1
205     <p>
206     Now that an SGI Disklabel is created, partitions may now be defined. In the
207     above example, there are already two partitions defined for you. These are the
208     special partitions mentioned above and should not normally be altered. However,
209 rane 1.16 for installing Gentoo, we'll need to load a bootloader, and possibly multiple
210 neysx 1.19 kernel images (depending on system type) directly into the volume header. The
211     volume header itself can hold up to <e>eight</e> images of any size, with each
212     image allowed eight-character names.
213 swift 1.1 </p>
214    
215     <p>
216 rane 1.16 The process of making the volume header larger isn't exactly straight-forward;
217 swift 1.1 there's a bit of a trick to it. One cannot simply delete and re-add the volume
218     header due to odd fdisk behavior. In the example provided below, we'll create a
219 neysx 1.19 50MB Volume header in conjunction with a 50MB /boot partition. The actual
220     layout of your disk may vary, but this is for illustrative purposes only.
221 swift 1.1 </p>
222    
223     <pre caption="Resizing the SGI Volume Header correctly">
224     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
225     Partition number (1-16): <i>1</i>
226     First cylinder (5-8682, default 5): <i>51</i>
227     Last cylinder (51-8682, default 8682): <i>101</i>
228 swift 1.11
229 rane 1.16 <comment>(Notice how fdisk only allows Partition #1 to be re-created starting at a )
230     (minimum of cylinder 5? Had you attempted to delete &amp; re-create the SGI )
231     (Volume Header this way, this is the same issue you would have encountered. )
232     (In our example, we want /boot to be 50MB, so we start it at cylinder 51 (the )
233     (Volume Header needs to start at cylinder 0, remember?), and set its ending )
234     (cylinder to 101, which will roughly be 50MB (+/- 1-5MB). )</comment>
235 swift 1.1
236     Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
237     Partition number (1-16): <i>9</i>
238 swift 1.11
239 swift 1.1 <comment>(Delete Partition #9 (SGI Volume Header))</comment>
240    
241     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
242     Partition number (1-16): <i>9</i>
243     First cylinder (0-50, default 0): <i>0</i>
244     Last cylinder (0-50, default 50): <i>50</i>
245 swift 1.11
246 swift 1.1 <comment>(Re-Create Partition #9, ending just before Partition #1)</comment>
247     </pre>
248 rane 1.16
249 swift 1.11 <p>
250     If you're unsure how to use <c>fdisk</c> have a look down further at the
251 neysx 1.19 instructions for partitioning on Cobalts. The concepts are exactly the same --
252 swift 1.11 just remember to leave the volume header and whole disk partitions alone.
253     </p>
254    
255 rane 1.16 <p>
256 neysx 1.19 Once this is done, you are safe to create the rest of your partitions as you
257     see fit. After all your partitions are laid out, make sure you set the
258     partition ID of your swap partition to <c>82</c>, which is Linux Swap. By
259     default, it will be <c>83</c>, Linux Native.
260 rane 1.16 </p>
261 swift 1.11
262     <p>
263 nightmorph 1.27 Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
264 swift 1.11 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
265     </p>
266 swift 1.1
267     </body>
268     </subsection>
269 swift 1.11
270 swift 1.1 <subsection>
271 swift 1.11 <title>Cobalt Machines: Partitioning your drive</title>
272 swift 1.1 <body>
273    
274     <p>
275 neysx 1.19 On Cobalt machines, the BOOTROM expects to see a MS-DOS MBR, so partitioning
276     the drive is relatively straightforward -- in fact, it's done the same way as
277     you'd do for an Intel x86 machine. <e>However</e> there are some things you
278     need to bear in mind.
279 swift 1.11 </p>
280    
281     <ul>
282     <li>
283 nightmorph 1.26 Cobalt firmware will expect <path>/dev/sda1</path> to be a Linux partition
284 neysx 1.19 formatted <e>EXT2 Revision 0</e>. <e>EXT2 Revision 1 partitions will NOT
285     WORK!</e> (The Cobalt BOOTROM only understands EXT2r0)
286 swift 1.11 </li>
287     <li>
288     The above said partition must contain a gzipped ELF image,
289 neysx 1.19 <path>vmlinux.gz</path> in the root of that partition, which it loads as
290     the kernel
291 swift 1.11 </li>
292     </ul>
293    
294     <p>
295     For that reason, I recommend creating a ~20MB <path>/boot</path> partition
296 neysx 1.19 formatted EXT2r0 upon which you can install CoLo &amp; your kernels. This
297 swift 1.11 allows you to run a modern filesystem (EXT3 or ReiserFS) for your root
298     filesystem.
299     </p>
300    
301     <p>
302 nightmorph 1.26 I will assume you have created <path>/dev/sda1</path> to mount later as a
303 neysx 1.19 <path>/boot</path> partition. If you wish to make this <path>/</path>, you'll
304 swift 1.11 need to keep the PROM's expectations in mind.
305     </p>
306    
307     <p>
308 nightmorph 1.26 So, continuing on... To create the partitions you type <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c> at
309 neysx 1.19 the prompt. The main commands you need to know are these:
310 swift 1.1 </p>
311    
312 swift 1.11 <ul>
313     <li>
314     <c>o</c>: Wipe out old partition table, starting with an empty MS-DOS
315     partition table
316     </li>
317     <li>
318     <c>n</c>: New Partition
319     </li>
320     <li>
321     <c>t</c>: Change Partition Type
322     <ul>
323     <li>Use type <c>82</c> for Linux Swap, <c>83</c> for Linux FS</li>
324     </ul>
325     </li>
326     <li>
327     <c>d</c>: Delete a partition
328     </li>
329     <li>
330     <c>p</c>: Display (print) Partition Table
331     </li>
332     <li>
333     <c>q</c>: Quit -- leaving old partition table as is.
334     </li>
335     <li>
336     <c>w</c>: Quit -- writing partition table in the process.
337     </li>
338     </ul>
339    
340     <pre caption="Partitioning the disk">
341 nightmorph 1.26 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
342 swift 1.11
343     The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 19870.
344     There is nothing wrong with that, but this is larger than 1024,
345     and could in certain setups cause problems with:
346     1) software that runs at boot time (e.g., old versions of LILO)
347     2) booting and partitioning software from other OSs
348     (e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)
349    
350     <comment>(Start by clearing out any existing partitions)</comment>
351     Command (m for help): <i>o</i>
352     Building a new DOS disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
353     until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
354     content won't be recoverable.
355    
356    
357     The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 19870.
358     There is nothing wrong with that, but this is larger than 1024,
359     and could in certain setups cause problems with:
360     1) software that runs at boot time (e.g., old versions of LILO)
361     2) booting and partitioning software from other OSs
362     (e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)
363     Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)
364    
365     <comment>(You can now verify the partition table is empty using the 'p' command)</comment>
366    
367     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
368    
369 nightmorph 1.26 Disk /dev/sda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
370 swift 1.11 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
371     Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
372    
373     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
374    
375     <comment>(Create the /boot partition)</comment>
376    
377     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
378     Command action
379     e extended
380     p primary partition (1-4)
381     <i>p</i>
382     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
383    
384     <comment>(Just press ENTER here to accept the default)</comment>
385    
386     First cylinder (1-19870, default 1):
387     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-19870, default 19870): <i>+20M</i>
388    
389     <comment>(and now if we type 'p' again, we should see the new partition)</comment>
390     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
391    
392 nightmorph 1.26 Disk /dev/sda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
393 swift 1.11 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
394     Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
395    
396     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
397 nightmorph 1.26 /dev/sda1 1 40 20128+ 83 Linux
398 swift 1.11
399     <comment>(The rest, I prefer to put in an extended partition, so I'll create that)</comment>
400    
401     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
402     Command action
403     e extended
404     p primary partition (1-4)
405     <i>e</i>
406     Partition number (1-4): <i>2</i>
407    
408     <comment>(Again, the default is fine, just press ENTER.)</comment>
409    
410     First cylinder (41-19870, default 41):
411     Using default value 41
412    
413     <comment>(We want to use the whole disk here, so just press ENTER again)</comment>
414     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (41-19870, default 19870):
415     Using default value 19870
416    
417     <comment>(Now, the / partition -- I use separate partitions for /usr, /var,
418 neysx 1.19 etc... so / can be small. Adjust as per your preference.)</comment>
419 swift 1.11
420     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
421     Command action
422     l logical (5 or over)
423     p primary partition (1-4)
424     <i>l</i>
425     First cylinder (41-19870, default 41):<i>&lt;Press ENTER&gt;</i>
426     Using default value 41
427     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (41-19870, default 19870): <i>+500M</i>
428    
429     <comment>(... and similar for any other partitions ...)</comment>
430    
431 neysx 1.19 <comment>(Last but not least, the swap space. I recommend at least 250MB swap,
432 swift 1.11 preferrably 1GB)</comment>
433    
434     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
435     Command action
436     l logical (5 or over)
437     p primary partition (1-4)
438     <i>l</i>
439     First cylinder (17294-19870, default 17294): <i>&lt;Press ENTER&gt;</i>
440     Using default value 17294
441     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1011-19870, default 19870): <i>&lt;Press ENTER&gt;</i>
442     Using default value 19870
443    
444     <comment>(Now, if we check our partition table, everything should mostly be ship
445     shape except for one thing...)</comment>
446    
447     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
448    
449 nightmorph 1.26 Disk /dev/sda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
450 swift 1.11 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
451     Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
452    
453     Device Boot Start End Blocks ID System
454 nightmorph 1.26 /dev/sda1 1 21 10552+ 83 Linux
455     /dev/sda2 22 19870 10003896 5 Extended
456     /dev/sda5 22 1037 512032+ 83 Linux
457     /dev/sda6 1038 5101 2048224+ 83 Linux
458     /dev/sda7 5102 9165 2048224+ 83 Linux
459     /dev/sda8 9166 13229 2048224+ 83 Linux
460     /dev/sda9 13230 17293 2048224+ 83 Linux
461     /dev/sda10 17294 19870 1298776+ 83 Linux
462 swift 1.11
463     <comment>(Notice how #10, our swap partition is still type 83?)</comment>
464    
465     Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
466     Partition number (1-10): <i>10</i>
467     Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>82</i>
468     Changed system type of partition 10 to 82 (Linux swap)
469    
470     <comment>(That should fix it... just to verify...)</comment>
471    
472     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
473    
474 nightmorph 1.26 Disk /dev/sda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
475 swift 1.11 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
476     Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
477    
478     Device Boot Start End Blocks ID System
479 nightmorph 1.26 /dev/sda1 1 21 10552+ 83 Linux
480     /dev/sda2 22 19870 10003896 5 Extended
481     /dev/sda5 22 1037 512032+ 83 Linux
482     /dev/sda6 1038 5101 2048224+ 83 Linux
483     /dev/sda7 5102 9165 2048224+ 83 Linux
484     /dev/sda8 9166 13229 2048224+ 83 Linux
485     /dev/sda9 13230 17293 2048224+ 83 Linux
486     /dev/sda10 17294 19870 1298776+ 82 Linux Swap
487 swift 1.11
488     <comment>(Now, we write out the new partition table.)</comment>
489    
490     Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
491     The partition table has been altered!
492    
493     Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
494     Syncing disks.
495    
496     #
497     </pre>
498    
499 swift 1.1 <p>
500 neysx 1.19 And that's all there is to it. You should now be right to proceed onto the next
501     stage: <uri link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
502 swift 1.1 </p>
503    
504     </body>
505     </subsection>
506     </section>
507 swift 1.11
508 swift 1.1 <section id="filesystems">
509     <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
510     <subsection>
511     <title>Introduction</title>
512     <body>
513    
514     <p>
515 neysx 1.19 Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
516     If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we
517     use as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
518     link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>. Otherwise
519     read on to learn about the available filesystems...
520 swift 1.1 </p>
521    
522     </body>
523     </subsection>
524 nightmorph 1.25
525 swift 1.1 <subsection>
526 nightmorph 1.25 <include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
527     </subsection>
528 swift 1.1
529     <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
530     <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
531     <body>
532    
533     <p>
534 neysx 1.19 To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
535 swift 1.1 each possible filesystem:
536     </p>
537    
538     <table>
539     <tr>
540     <th>Filesystem</th>
541     <th>Creation Command</th>
542     </tr>
543     <tr>
544     <ti>ext2</ti>
545 swift 1.29 <ti><c>mkfs.ext2</c></ti>
546 swift 1.1 </tr>
547     <tr>
548     <ti>ext3</ti>
549 swift 1.29 <ti><c>mkfs.ext3</c></ti>
550 swift 1.1 </tr>
551     <tr>
552 swift 1.30 <ti>ext4</ti>
553     <ti><c>mkfs.ext4</c></ti>
554     </tr>
555     <tr>
556 swift 1.1 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
557 swift 1.29 <ti><c>mkfs.reiserfs</c></ti>
558 swift 1.1 </tr>
559     <tr>
560     <ti>xfs</ti>
561     <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
562     </tr>
563     <tr>
564     <ti>jfs</ti>
565     <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
566     </tr>
567     </table>
568    
569     <p>
570     For instance, to have the boot partition (<path>/dev/sda1</path> in our
571     example) in ext2 and the root partition (<path>/dev/sda3</path> in our example)
572     in ext3, you would use:
573     </p>
574    
575     <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
576 swift 1.29 # <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1</i>
577     # <i>mkfs.ext3 /dev/sda3</i>
578 swift 1.1 </pre>
579    
580     <p>
581     Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
582     volumes).
583     </p>
584    
585 swift 1.11 <warn>
586 nightmorph 1.26 If you're installing on a Cobalt server, remember <path>/dev/sda1</path> MUST
587 neysx 1.19 be of type <e>EXT2 revision 0</e>; Anything else (e.g. EXT2 revision 1, EXT3,
588     ReiserFS, XFS, JFS and others) <e>WILL NOT WORK!</e> You can format the
589 swift 1.29 partition using the command: <c>mkfs.ext2 -r 0 /dev/sda1</c>.
590 swift 1.11 </warn>
591    
592 swift 1.1 </body>
593     </subsection>
594     <subsection>
595     <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
596     <body>
597    
598     <p>
599 neysx 1.19 <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to create and initialize swap
600     partitions:
601 swift 1.1 </p>
602    
603     <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
604     # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2</i>
605     </pre>
606    
607     <p>
608     To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
609     </p>
610    
611     <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
612     # <i>swapon /dev/sda2</i>
613     </pre>
614    
615     <p>
616 swift 1.12 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
617 swift 1.1 </p>
618    
619     </body>
620     </subsection>
621     </section>
622     <section>
623     <title>Mounting</title>
624     <body>
625    
626     <p>
627     Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
628     time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
629     create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
630     example we mount the root and boot partition:
631     </p>
632    
633     <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
634     # <i>mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
635     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
636     # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
637     </pre>
638    
639     <note>
640 neysx 1.19 If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure
641     to change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>.
642     This also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
643 swift 1.1 </note>
644    
645     <p>
646 neysx 1.19 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
647     kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the
648     partitions.
649 swift 1.1 </p>
650    
651     <p>
652 neysx 1.19 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo Installation
653     Files</uri>.
654 swift 1.1 </p>
655    
656     </body>
657     </section>
658     </sections>

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