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#81072 - MIPS overhaul

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-mips-disk.xml,v 1.10 2005/01/04 18:11:20 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>1.7</version>
12 <date>2005-02-14</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Block Devices</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
22 and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices.
23 Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems,
24 you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
25 for your Gentoo Linux installation.
26 </p>
27
28 <p>
29 To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is
30 probably the one that represents the first SCSI HD in a Linux system, namely
31 <path>/dev/sda</path>.
32 </p>
33
34 <p>
35 The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
36 programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
37 about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program can
38 simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
39 randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
40 </p>
41
42 </body>
43 </subsection>
44 <subsection>
45 <title>Partitions</title>
46 <body>
47
48 <p>
49 Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
50 system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
51 are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. These are called
52 <e>partitions</e>.
53 </p>
54
55 </body>
56 </subsection>
57 </section>
58 <section>
59 <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
60 <subsection>
61 <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
62 <body>
63
64 <p>
65 The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
66 if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
67 <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
68 If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your
69 <path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside
70 <path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your
71 performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming
72 servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>:
73 security and backups.
74 </p>
75
76 <p>
77 As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
78 partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
79 </p>
80
81 <ul>
82 <li>
83 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
84 </li>
85 <li>
86 Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
87 continuously writing files to a partition or volume
88 </li>
89 <li>
90 If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
91 be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
92 it is with multiple partitions)
93 </li>
94 <li>
95 Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
96 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
97 </li>
98 </ul>
99
100 <p>
101 However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
102 properly, you might result in having a system with lots
103 of free space on one partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition
104 limit for SCSI and SATA.
105 </p>
106
107 </body>
108 </subsection>
109 </section>
110 <section>
111 <title>Using fdisk on MIPS to Partition your Disk</title>
112 <subsection>
113 <title>SGI Machines: Creating an SGI Disk Label</title>
114 <body>
115
116 <p>
117 All disks in an SGI System require an <e>SGI Disk Label</e>, which serves a
118 similar function as Sun &amp; MS-DOS disklabels -- It stores information about
119 the disk partitions. Creating a new SGI Disk Label will create two special
120 partitions on the disk:
121 </p>
122
123 <ul>
124 <li>
125 <!-- <e>SGI Volume Header</e> (9th partition): This partition is important. It
126 is where the kernel images will go. To store kernel images, you will utilize
127 the tool known as <c>dvhtool</c> to copy kernel images to this partition.
128 You will then be able to boot kernels from this partition via the SGI PROM
129 Monitor. -->
130 <e>SGI Volume Header</e> (9th partition): This partition is important. It
131 is where the arcboot bootloader will go.
132 </li>
133 <li>
134 <e>SGI Volume</e> (11th partition): This partition is similar in purpose to
135 the Sun Disklabel's third partition of "Whole Disk". This partition spans
136 the entire disk, and should be left untouched. It serves no special purpose
137 other than to assist the PROM in some undocumented fashion (or it is used by
138 IRIX in some way).
139 </li>
140 </ul>
141
142 <warn>
143 The SGI Volume Header <e>must</e> begin at cylinder 0. Failure to do so means
144 you won't be able to boot from the disk.
145 </warn>
146
147 <p>
148 The following is an example excerpt from an <c>fdisk</c> session. Read and
149 tailor it to your needs...
150 </p>
151
152 <pre caption="Creating an SGI Disklabel">
153 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
154
155 Command (m for help): <i>x</i>
156
157 Expert command (m for help): <i>m</i>
158 Command action
159 b move beginning of data in a partition
160 c change number of cylinders
161 d print the raw data in the partition table
162 e list extended partitions
163 f fix partition order
164 g create an IRIX (SGI) partition table
165 h change number of heads
166 m print this menu
167 p print the partition table
168 q quit without saving changes
169 r return to main menu
170 s change number of sectors/track
171 v verify the partition table
172 w write table to disk and exit
173
174 Expert command (m for help): <i>g</i>
175 Building a new SGI disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
176 until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
177 content will be unrecoverably lost.
178
179 Expert command (m for help): <i>r</i>
180
181 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
182
183 Disk /dev/sda (SGI disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 17482 cylinders
184 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
185
186 ----- partitions -----
187 Pt# Device Info Start End Sectors Id System
188 9: /dev/sda1 0 4 10240 0 SGI volhdr
189 11: /dev/sda2 0 17481 35803136 6 SGI volume
190 ----- Bootinfo -----
191 Bootfile: /unix
192 ----- Directory Entries -----
193
194 Command (m for help):
195 </pre>
196
197 <note>
198 If your disk already has an existing SGI Disklabel, then fdisk will not allow
199 the creation of a new label. There are two ways around this. One is to create a
200 Sun or MS-DOS disklabel, write the changes to disk, and restart fdisk. The
201 second is to overwrite the partition table with null data via the following
202 command: <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda bs=512 count=1</c>.
203 </note>
204
205 <!-- This has been dropped in favour of using arcboot
206 <p>Getting the SGI Volume Header to just the right size</p>
207
208 <p>
209 Now that an SGI Disklabel is created, partitions may now be defined. In the
210 above example, there are already two partitions defined for you. These are the
211 special partitions mentioned above and should not normally be altered. However,
212 for installing Gentoo, we'll need to load multiple kernel images directly into
213 the volume header, as there is no supported SGI Bootloader available in Portage
214 yet. The volume header itself can hold up to <e>eight</e> images of any size,
215 with each image allowed eight-character names.
216 </p>
217
218 <p>
219 The process of making the volume header larger isn't exactly straight-forward - -
220 there's a bit of a trick to it. One cannot simply delete and re-add the volume
221 header due to odd fdisk behavior. In the example provided below, we'll create a
222 50MB Volume header in conjunction with a 50MB /boot partition. The actual layout
223 of your disk may vary, but this is for illustrative purposes only.
224 </p>
225
226 <pre caption="Resizing the SGI Volume Header correctly">
227 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
228 Partition number (1-16): <i>1</i>
229 First cylinder (5-8682, default 5): <i>51</i>
230 Last cylinder (51-8682, default 8682): <i>101</i>
231
232 <comment>(Notice how fdisk only allows Partition #1 to be re-created starting at a
233 minimum of cylinder 5? Had you attempted to delete &amp; re-create the SGI
234 Volume Header this way, this is the same issue you would have encountered.
235 In our example, we want /boot to be 50MB, so we start it at cylinder 51 (the
236 Volume Header needs to start at cylinder 0, remember?), and set its ending
237 cylinder to 101, which will roughly be 50MB (+/- 1-5MB).)</comment>
238
239 Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
240 Partition number (1-16): <i>9</i>
241
242 <comment>(Delete Partition #9 (SGI Volume Header))</comment>
243
244 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
245 Partition number (1-16): <i>9</i>
246 First cylinder (0-50, default 0): <i>0</i>
247 Last cylinder (0-50, default 50): <i>50</i>
248
249 <comment>(Re-Create Partition #9, ending just before Partition #1)</comment>
250 </pre>
251 -->
252 <p>
253 If you're unsure how to use <c>fdisk</c> have a look down further at the
254 instructions for partitioning on Cobalts. The concepts are exactly the same --
255 just remember to leave the volume header and whole disk partitions alone.
256 </p>
257
258 <!-- <p> Perhaps part of the above commented-out block?
259 Once this is done, you are safe to create the rest of your partitions as you see
260 fit. After all your partitions are laid out, make sure you set the partition ID
261 of your swap partition to <c>82</c>, which is Linux Swap. By default, it will be
262 <c>83</c>, Linux Native.
263 </p> -->
264
265 <p>
266 Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
267 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
268 </p>
269
270 </body>
271 </subsection>
272
273 <subsection>
274 <title>Cobalt Machines: Partitioning your drive</title>
275 <body>
276
277 <p>
278 On Cobalt machines, the BOOTROM expects to see a MS-DOS MBR, so partitioning the
279 drive is relatively straightforward -- in fact, it's done the same way as you'd
280 do for an Intel x86 machine. <e>However</e> there are some things you need to
281 bear in mind.
282 </p>
283
284 <ul>
285 <li>
286 Cobalt firmware will expect <path>/dev/hda1</path> to be a Linux partition
287 formatted <e>EXT2 Revision 0</e>. <e>EXT2 Revision 1 partitions will NOT
288 WORK!</e> (The Cobalt BOOTROM only understands EXT2r0)
289 </li>
290 <li>
291 The above said partition must contain a gzipped ELF image,
292 <path>vmlinux.gz</path> in the root of that partition, which it loads as the
293 kernel
294 </li>
295 </ul>
296
297 <p>
298 For that reason, I recommend creating a ~20MB <path>/boot</path> partition
299 formatted EXT2r0 upon which you can install CoLo &amp; your kernels. This
300 allows you to run a modern filesystem (EXT3 or ReiserFS) for your root
301 filesystem.
302 </p>
303
304 <p>
305 I will assume you have created <path>/dev/hda1</path> to mount later as a
306 <path>/boot</path> partition. If you wish to make this <path>/</path>, you'll
307 need to keep the PROM's expectations in mind.
308 </p>
309
310 <p>
311 So, continuing on... To create the partitions you type <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> at
312 the prompt. The main commands you need to know are these:
313 </p>
314
315 <ul>
316 <li>
317 <c>o</c>: Wipe out old partition table, starting with an empty MS-DOS
318 partition table
319 </li>
320 <li>
321 <c>n</c>: New Partition
322 </li>
323 <li>
324 <c>t</c>: Change Partition Type
325 <ul>
326 <li>Use type <c>82</c> for Linux Swap, <c>83</c> for Linux FS</li>
327 </ul>
328 </li>
329 <li>
330 <c>d</c>: Delete a partition
331 </li>
332 <li>
333 <c>p</c>: Display (print) Partition Table
334 </li>
335 <li>
336 <c>q</c>: Quit -- leaving old partition table as is.
337 </li>
338 <li>
339 <c>w</c>: Quit -- writing partition table in the process.
340 </li>
341 </ul>
342
343 <pre caption="Partitioning the disk">
344 # <i>fdisk /dev/hda</i>
345
346 The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 19870.
347 There is nothing wrong with that, but this is larger than 1024,
348 and could in certain setups cause problems with:
349 1) software that runs at boot time (e.g., old versions of LILO)
350 2) booting and partitioning software from other OSs
351 (e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)
352
353 <comment>(Start by clearing out any existing partitions)</comment>
354 Command (m for help): <i>o</i>
355 Building a new DOS disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
356 until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
357 content won't be recoverable.
358
359
360 The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 19870.
361 There is nothing wrong with that, but this is larger than 1024,
362 and could in certain setups cause problems with:
363 1) software that runs at boot time (e.g., old versions of LILO)
364 2) booting and partitioning software from other OSs
365 (e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)
366 Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)
367
368 <comment>(You can now verify the partition table is empty using the 'p' command)</comment>
369
370 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
371
372 Disk /dev/hda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
373 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
374 Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
375
376 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
377
378 <comment>(Create the /boot partition)</comment>
379
380 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
381 Command action
382 e extended
383 p primary partition (1-4)
384 <i>p</i>
385 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
386
387 <comment>(Just press ENTER here to accept the default)</comment>
388
389 First cylinder (1-19870, default 1):
390 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-19870, default 19870): <i>+20M</i>
391
392 <comment>(and now if we type 'p' again, we should see the new partition)</comment>
393 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
394
395 Disk /dev/hda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
396 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
397 Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
398
399 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
400 /dev/hda1 1 40 20128+ 83 Linux
401
402 <comment>(The rest, I prefer to put in an extended partition, so I'll create that)</comment>
403
404 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
405 Command action
406 e extended
407 p primary partition (1-4)
408 <i>e</i>
409 Partition number (1-4): <i>2</i>
410
411 <comment>(Again, the default is fine, just press ENTER.)</comment>
412
413 First cylinder (41-19870, default 41):
414 Using default value 41
415
416 <comment>(We want to use the whole disk here, so just press ENTER again)</comment>
417 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (41-19870, default 19870):
418 Using default value 19870
419
420 <comment>(Now, the / partition -- I use separate partitions for /usr, /var,
421 etc... so / can be small. Adjust as per your preference.)</comment>
422
423 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
424 Command action
425 l logical (5 or over)
426 p primary partition (1-4)
427 <i>l</i>
428 First cylinder (41-19870, default 41):<i>&lt;Press ENTER&gt;</i>
429 Using default value 41
430 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (41-19870, default 19870): <i>+500M</i>
431
432 <comment>(... and similar for any other partitions ...)</comment>
433
434 <comment>(Last but not least, the swap space. I recommend at least 250MB swap,
435 preferrably 1GB)</comment>
436
437 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
438 Command action
439 l logical (5 or over)
440 p primary partition (1-4)
441 <i>l</i>
442 First cylinder (17294-19870, default 17294): <i>&lt;Press ENTER&gt;</i>
443 Using default value 17294
444 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1011-19870, default 19870): <i>&lt;Press ENTER&gt;</i>
445 Using default value 19870
446
447 <comment>(Now, if we check our partition table, everything should mostly be ship
448 shape except for one thing...)</comment>
449
450 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
451
452 Disk /dev/hda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
453 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
454 Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
455
456 Device Boot Start End Blocks ID System
457 /dev/hda1 1 21 10552+ 83 Linux
458 /dev/hda2 22 19870 10003896 5 Extended
459 /dev/hda5 22 1037 512032+ 83 Linux
460 /dev/hda6 1038 5101 2048224+ 83 Linux
461 /dev/hda7 5102 9165 2048224+ 83 Linux
462 /dev/hda8 9166 13229 2048224+ 83 Linux
463 /dev/hda9 13230 17293 2048224+ 83 Linux
464 /dev/hda10 17294 19870 1298776+ 83 Linux
465
466 <comment>(Notice how #10, our swap partition is still type 83?)</comment>
467
468 Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
469 Partition number (1-10): <i>10</i>
470 Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>82</i>
471 Changed system type of partition 10 to 82 (Linux swap)
472
473 <comment>(That should fix it... just to verify...)</comment>
474
475 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
476
477 Disk /dev/hda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
478 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
479 Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
480
481 Device Boot Start End Blocks ID System
482 /dev/hda1 1 21 10552+ 83 Linux
483 /dev/hda2 22 19870 10003896 5 Extended
484 /dev/hda5 22 1037 512032+ 83 Linux
485 /dev/hda6 1038 5101 2048224+ 83 Linux
486 /dev/hda7 5102 9165 2048224+ 83 Linux
487 /dev/hda8 9166 13229 2048224+ 83 Linux
488 /dev/hda9 13230 17293 2048224+ 83 Linux
489 /dev/hda10 17294 19870 1298776+ 82 Linux Swap
490
491 <comment>(Now, we write out the new partition table.)</comment>
492
493 Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
494 The partition table has been altered!
495
496 Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
497 Syncing disks.
498
499 #
500 </pre>
501
502 <p>
503 And that's all there is to it. You should now be right to proceed onto the
504 next stage: <uri link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
505 </p>
506
507 </body>
508 </subsection>
509 </section>
510
511 <section id="filesystems">
512 <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
513 <subsection>
514 <title>Introduction</title>
515 <body>
516
517 <p>
518 Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
519 If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
520 as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
521 link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
522 Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
523 </p>
524
525 </body>
526 </subsection>
527 <subsection>
528 <title>Filesystems?</title>
529 <body>
530
531 <p>
532 Several filesystems are available. ReiserFS, EXT2 and EXT3 are found stable
533 on the MIPS architectures, others are experimental.
534 </p>
535
536 <p>
537 <b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
538 journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
539 be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
540 journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are
541 thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled
542 filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
543 happens to be in an inconsistent state.
544 </p>
545
546 <p>
547 <b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
548 journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like
549 full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
550 filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables
551 high performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is an excellent
552 filesystem.
553 </p>
554
555 <p>
556 <b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
557 performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
558 files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
559 extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
560 solid and usable as both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such
561 as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large
562 files and directories containing tens of thousands of files.
563 </p>
564
565 <p>
566 <b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling which comes with a robust
567 feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
568 filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
569 an uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
570 in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
571 when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
572 deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
573 </p>
574
575 <p>
576 <b>JFS</b> is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
577 become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
578 comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this point.
579 </p>
580
581 </body>
582 </subsection>
583 <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
584 <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
585 <body>
586
587 <p>
588 To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
589 each possible filesystem:
590 </p>
591
592 <table>
593 <tr>
594 <th>Filesystem</th>
595 <th>Creation Command</th>
596 </tr>
597 <tr>
598 <ti>ext2</ti>
599 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
600 </tr>
601 <tr>
602 <ti>ext3</ti>
603 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
604 </tr>
605 <tr>
606 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
607 <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
608 </tr>
609 <tr>
610 <ti>xfs</ti>
611 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
612 </tr>
613 <tr>
614 <ti>jfs</ti>
615 <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
616 </tr>
617 </table>
618
619 <p>
620 For instance, to have the boot partition (<path>/dev/sda1</path> in our
621 example) in ext2 and the root partition (<path>/dev/sda3</path> in our example)
622 in ext3, you would use:
623 </p>
624
625 <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
626 # <i>mke2fs /dev/sda1</i>
627 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda3</i>
628 </pre>
629
630 <p>
631 Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
632 volumes).
633 </p>
634
635 <warn>
636 If you're installing on a Cobalt server, remember <path>/dev/hda1</path> MUST be
637 of type <e>EXT2 revision 0</e>; Anything else (e.g. EXT2 revision 1, EXT3,
638 ReiserFS, XFS, JFS and others) <e>WILL NOT WORK!</e>
639 You can format the partition using the command: <c>mke2fs -r 0 /dev/hda1</c>.
640 </warn>
641
642 <warn>
643 Also, be aware that arcboot currently is not able to read any filesystem other
644 than EXT2, EXT3 and ISO9660 (recent versions). For that reason,
645 <path>/boot</path> on SGI machines must also reside on an EXT2 or EXT3 partition.
646 </warn>
647
648 </body>
649 </subsection>
650 <subsection>
651 <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
652 <body>
653
654 <p>
655 <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to create and initialize swap partitions:
656 </p>
657
658 <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
659 # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2</i>
660 </pre>
661
662 <p>
663 To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
664 </p>
665
666 <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
667 # <i>swapon /dev/sda2</i>
668 </pre>
669
670 <p>
671 Create and activate the swap now.
672 </p>
673
674 </body>
675 </subsection>
676 </section>
677 <section>
678 <title>Mounting</title>
679 <body>
680
681 <p>
682 Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
683 time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
684 create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
685 example we mount the root and boot partition:
686 </p>
687
688 <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
689 # <i>mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
690 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
691 # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
692 </pre>
693
694 <note>
695 If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
696 change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
697 also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
698 </note>
699
700 <p>
701 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
702 kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
703 </p>
704
705 <p>
706 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
707 Installation Files</uri>.
708 </p>
709
710 </body>
711 </section>
712 </sections>

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