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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-mips-disk.xml,v 1.13 2005/06/10 18:15:33 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>1.9</version>
12 <date>2005-06-10</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Block Devices</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
22 and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices.
23 Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems,
24 you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
25 for your Gentoo Linux installation.
26 </p>
27
28 <p>
29 To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is
30 probably the one that represents the first SCSI HD in a Linux system, namely
31 <path>/dev/sda</path>.
32 </p>
33
34 <p>
35 The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
36 programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
37 about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program can
38 simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
39 randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
40 </p>
41
42 </body>
43 </subsection>
44 <subsection>
45 <title>Partitions</title>
46 <body>
47
48 <p>
49 Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
50 system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
51 are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. These are called
52 <e>partitions</e>.
53 </p>
54
55 </body>
56 </subsection>
57 </section>
58 <section>
59 <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
60 <subsection>
61 <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
62 <body>
63
64 <p>
65 The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
66 if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
67 <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
68 If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your
69 <path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside
70 <path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your
71 performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming
72 servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>:
73 security and backups. You will definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big:
74 not only will it contain the majority of applications, the Portage tree alone
75 takes around 500 Mbyte excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
76 </p>
77
78 <p>
79 As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
80 partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
81 </p>
82
83 <ul>
84 <li>
85 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
86 </li>
87 <li>
88 Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
89 continuously writing files to a partition or volume
90 </li>
91 <li>
92 If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
93 be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
94 it is with multiple partitions)
95 </li>
96 <li>
97 Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
98 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
99 </li>
100 </ul>
101
102 <p>
103 However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
104 properly, you might result in having a system with lots
105 of free space on one partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition
106 limit for SCSI and SATA.
107 </p>
108
109 </body>
110 </subsection>
111 </section>
112 <section>
113 <title>Using fdisk on MIPS to Partition your Disk</title>
114 <subsection>
115 <title>SGI Machines: Creating an SGI Disk Label</title>
116 <body>
117
118 <p>
119 All disks in an SGI System require an <e>SGI Disk Label</e>, which serves a
120 similar function as Sun &amp; MS-DOS disklabels -- It stores information about
121 the disk partitions. Creating a new SGI Disk Label will create two special
122 partitions on the disk:
123 </p>
124
125 <ul>
126 <li>
127 <!-- <e>SGI Volume Header</e> (9th partition): This partition is important. It
128 is where the kernel images will go. To store kernel images, you will utilize
129 the tool known as <c>dvhtool</c> to copy kernel images to this partition.
130 You will then be able to boot kernels from this partition via the SGI PROM
131 Monitor. -->
132 <e>SGI Volume Header</e> (9th partition): This partition is important. It
133 is where the arcboot bootloader will go.
134 </li>
135 <li>
136 <e>SGI Volume</e> (11th partition): This partition is similar in purpose to
137 the Sun Disklabel's third partition of "Whole Disk". This partition spans
138 the entire disk, and should be left untouched. It serves no special purpose
139 other than to assist the PROM in some undocumented fashion (or it is used by
140 IRIX in some way).
141 </li>
142 </ul>
143
144 <warn>
145 The SGI Volume Header <e>must</e> begin at cylinder 0. Failure to do so means
146 you won't be able to boot from the disk.
147 </warn>
148
149 <p>
150 The following is an example excerpt from an <c>fdisk</c> session. Read and
151 tailor it to your needs...
152 </p>
153
154 <pre caption="Creating an SGI Disklabel">
155 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
156
157 Command (m for help): <i>x</i>
158
159 Expert command (m for help): <i>m</i>
160 Command action
161 b move beginning of data in a partition
162 c change number of cylinders
163 d print the raw data in the partition table
164 e list extended partitions
165 f fix partition order
166 g create an IRIX (SGI) partition table
167 h change number of heads
168 m print this menu
169 p print the partition table
170 q quit without saving changes
171 r return to main menu
172 s change number of sectors/track
173 v verify the partition table
174 w write table to disk and exit
175
176 Expert command (m for help): <i>g</i>
177 Building a new SGI disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
178 until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
179 content will be unrecoverably lost.
180
181 Expert command (m for help): <i>r</i>
182
183 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
184
185 Disk /dev/sda (SGI disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 17482 cylinders
186 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
187
188 ----- partitions -----
189 Pt# Device Info Start End Sectors Id System
190 9: /dev/sda1 0 4 10240 0 SGI volhdr
191 11: /dev/sda2 0 17481 35803136 6 SGI volume
192 ----- Bootinfo -----
193 Bootfile: /unix
194 ----- Directory Entries -----
195
196 Command (m for help):
197 </pre>
198
199 <note>
200 If your disk already has an existing SGI Disklabel, then fdisk will not allow
201 the creation of a new label. There are two ways around this. One is to create a
202 Sun or MS-DOS disklabel, write the changes to disk, and restart fdisk. The
203 second is to overwrite the partition table with null data via the following
204 command: <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda bs=512 count=1</c>.
205 </note>
206
207 <!-- This has been dropped in favour of using arcboot
208 <p>Getting the SGI Volume Header to just the right size</p>
209
210 <p>
211 Now that an SGI Disklabel is created, partitions may now be defined. In the
212 above example, there are already two partitions defined for you. These are the
213 special partitions mentioned above and should not normally be altered. However,
214 for installing Gentoo, we'll need to load multiple kernel images directly into
215 the volume header, as there is no supported SGI Bootloader available in Portage
216 yet. The volume header itself can hold up to <e>eight</e> images of any size,
217 with each image allowed eight-character names.
218 </p>
219
220 <p>
221 The process of making the volume header larger isn't exactly straight-forward - -
222 there's a bit of a trick to it. One cannot simply delete and re-add the volume
223 header due to odd fdisk behavior. In the example provided below, we'll create a
224 50MB Volume header in conjunction with a 50MB /boot partition. The actual layout
225 of your disk may vary, but this is for illustrative purposes only.
226 </p>
227
228 <pre caption="Resizing the SGI Volume Header correctly">
229 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
230 Partition number (1-16): <i>1</i>
231 First cylinder (5-8682, default 5): <i>51</i>
232 Last cylinder (51-8682, default 8682): <i>101</i>
233
234 <comment>(Notice how fdisk only allows Partition #1 to be re-created starting at a
235 minimum of cylinder 5? Had you attempted to delete &amp; re-create the SGI
236 Volume Header this way, this is the same issue you would have encountered.
237 In our example, we want /boot to be 50MB, so we start it at cylinder 51 (the
238 Volume Header needs to start at cylinder 0, remember?), and set its ending
239 cylinder to 101, which will roughly be 50MB (+/- 1-5MB).)</comment>
240
241 Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
242 Partition number (1-16): <i>9</i>
243
244 <comment>(Delete Partition #9 (SGI Volume Header))</comment>
245
246 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
247 Partition number (1-16): <i>9</i>
248 First cylinder (0-50, default 0): <i>0</i>
249 Last cylinder (0-50, default 50): <i>50</i>
250
251 <comment>(Re-Create Partition #9, ending just before Partition #1)</comment>
252 </pre>
253 -->
254 <p>
255 If you're unsure how to use <c>fdisk</c> have a look down further at the
256 instructions for partitioning on Cobalts. The concepts are exactly the same --
257 just remember to leave the volume header and whole disk partitions alone.
258 </p>
259
260 <!-- <p> Perhaps part of the above commented-out block?
261 Once this is done, you are safe to create the rest of your partitions as you see
262 fit. After all your partitions are laid out, make sure you set the partition ID
263 of your swap partition to <c>82</c>, which is Linux Swap. By default, it will be
264 <c>83</c>, Linux Native.
265 </p> -->
266
267 <p>
268 Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
269 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
270 </p>
271
272 </body>
273 </subsection>
274
275 <subsection>
276 <title>Cobalt Machines: Partitioning your drive</title>
277 <body>
278
279 <p>
280 On Cobalt machines, the BOOTROM expects to see a MS-DOS MBR, so partitioning the
281 drive is relatively straightforward -- in fact, it's done the same way as you'd
282 do for an Intel x86 machine. <e>However</e> there are some things you need to
283 bear in mind.
284 </p>
285
286 <ul>
287 <li>
288 Cobalt firmware will expect <path>/dev/hda1</path> to be a Linux partition
289 formatted <e>EXT2 Revision 0</e>. <e>EXT2 Revision 1 partitions will NOT
290 WORK!</e> (The Cobalt BOOTROM only understands EXT2r0)
291 </li>
292 <li>
293 The above said partition must contain a gzipped ELF image,
294 <path>vmlinux.gz</path> in the root of that partition, which it loads as the
295 kernel
296 </li>
297 </ul>
298
299 <p>
300 For that reason, I recommend creating a ~20MB <path>/boot</path> partition
301 formatted EXT2r0 upon which you can install CoLo &amp; your kernels. This
302 allows you to run a modern filesystem (EXT3 or ReiserFS) for your root
303 filesystem.
304 </p>
305
306 <p>
307 I will assume you have created <path>/dev/hda1</path> to mount later as a
308 <path>/boot</path> partition. If you wish to make this <path>/</path>, you'll
309 need to keep the PROM's expectations in mind.
310 </p>
311
312 <p>
313 So, continuing on... To create the partitions you type <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> at
314 the prompt. The main commands you need to know are these:
315 </p>
316
317 <ul>
318 <li>
319 <c>o</c>: Wipe out old partition table, starting with an empty MS-DOS
320 partition table
321 </li>
322 <li>
323 <c>n</c>: New Partition
324 </li>
325 <li>
326 <c>t</c>: Change Partition Type
327 <ul>
328 <li>Use type <c>82</c> for Linux Swap, <c>83</c> for Linux FS</li>
329 </ul>
330 </li>
331 <li>
332 <c>d</c>: Delete a partition
333 </li>
334 <li>
335 <c>p</c>: Display (print) Partition Table
336 </li>
337 <li>
338 <c>q</c>: Quit -- leaving old partition table as is.
339 </li>
340 <li>
341 <c>w</c>: Quit -- writing partition table in the process.
342 </li>
343 </ul>
344
345 <pre caption="Partitioning the disk">
346 # <i>fdisk /dev/hda</i>
347
348 The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 19870.
349 There is nothing wrong with that, but this is larger than 1024,
350 and could in certain setups cause problems with:
351 1) software that runs at boot time (e.g., old versions of LILO)
352 2) booting and partitioning software from other OSs
353 (e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)
354
355 <comment>(Start by clearing out any existing partitions)</comment>
356 Command (m for help): <i>o</i>
357 Building a new DOS disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
358 until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
359 content won't be recoverable.
360
361
362 The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 19870.
363 There is nothing wrong with that, but this is larger than 1024,
364 and could in certain setups cause problems with:
365 1) software that runs at boot time (e.g., old versions of LILO)
366 2) booting and partitioning software from other OSs
367 (e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)
368 Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)
369
370 <comment>(You can now verify the partition table is empty using the 'p' command)</comment>
371
372 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
373
374 Disk /dev/hda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
375 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
376 Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
377
378 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
379
380 <comment>(Create the /boot partition)</comment>
381
382 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
383 Command action
384 e extended
385 p primary partition (1-4)
386 <i>p</i>
387 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
388
389 <comment>(Just press ENTER here to accept the default)</comment>
390
391 First cylinder (1-19870, default 1):
392 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-19870, default 19870): <i>+20M</i>
393
394 <comment>(and now if we type 'p' again, we should see the new partition)</comment>
395 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
396
397 Disk /dev/hda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
398 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
399 Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
400
401 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
402 /dev/hda1 1 40 20128+ 83 Linux
403
404 <comment>(The rest, I prefer to put in an extended partition, so I'll create that)</comment>
405
406 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
407 Command action
408 e extended
409 p primary partition (1-4)
410 <i>e</i>
411 Partition number (1-4): <i>2</i>
412
413 <comment>(Again, the default is fine, just press ENTER.)</comment>
414
415 First cylinder (41-19870, default 41):
416 Using default value 41
417
418 <comment>(We want to use the whole disk here, so just press ENTER again)</comment>
419 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (41-19870, default 19870):
420 Using default value 19870
421
422 <comment>(Now, the / partition -- I use separate partitions for /usr, /var,
423 etc... so / can be small. Adjust as per your preference.)</comment>
424
425 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
426 Command action
427 l logical (5 or over)
428 p primary partition (1-4)
429 <i>l</i>
430 First cylinder (41-19870, default 41):<i>&lt;Press ENTER&gt;</i>
431 Using default value 41
432 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (41-19870, default 19870): <i>+500M</i>
433
434 <comment>(... and similar for any other partitions ...)</comment>
435
436 <comment>(Last but not least, the swap space. I recommend at least 250MB swap,
437 preferrably 1GB)</comment>
438
439 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
440 Command action
441 l logical (5 or over)
442 p primary partition (1-4)
443 <i>l</i>
444 First cylinder (17294-19870, default 17294): <i>&lt;Press ENTER&gt;</i>
445 Using default value 17294
446 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1011-19870, default 19870): <i>&lt;Press ENTER&gt;</i>
447 Using default value 19870
448
449 <comment>(Now, if we check our partition table, everything should mostly be ship
450 shape except for one thing...)</comment>
451
452 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
453
454 Disk /dev/hda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
455 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
456 Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
457
458 Device Boot Start End Blocks ID System
459 /dev/hda1 1 21 10552+ 83 Linux
460 /dev/hda2 22 19870 10003896 5 Extended
461 /dev/hda5 22 1037 512032+ 83 Linux
462 /dev/hda6 1038 5101 2048224+ 83 Linux
463 /dev/hda7 5102 9165 2048224+ 83 Linux
464 /dev/hda8 9166 13229 2048224+ 83 Linux
465 /dev/hda9 13230 17293 2048224+ 83 Linux
466 /dev/hda10 17294 19870 1298776+ 83 Linux
467
468 <comment>(Notice how #10, our swap partition is still type 83?)</comment>
469
470 Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
471 Partition number (1-10): <i>10</i>
472 Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>82</i>
473 Changed system type of partition 10 to 82 (Linux swap)
474
475 <comment>(That should fix it... just to verify...)</comment>
476
477 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
478
479 Disk /dev/hda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
480 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
481 Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
482
483 Device Boot Start End Blocks ID System
484 /dev/hda1 1 21 10552+ 83 Linux
485 /dev/hda2 22 19870 10003896 5 Extended
486 /dev/hda5 22 1037 512032+ 83 Linux
487 /dev/hda6 1038 5101 2048224+ 83 Linux
488 /dev/hda7 5102 9165 2048224+ 83 Linux
489 /dev/hda8 9166 13229 2048224+ 83 Linux
490 /dev/hda9 13230 17293 2048224+ 83 Linux
491 /dev/hda10 17294 19870 1298776+ 82 Linux Swap
492
493 <comment>(Now, we write out the new partition table.)</comment>
494
495 Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
496 The partition table has been altered!
497
498 Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
499 Syncing disks.
500
501 #
502 </pre>
503
504 <p>
505 And that's all there is to it. You should now be right to proceed onto the
506 next stage: <uri link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
507 </p>
508
509 </body>
510 </subsection>
511 </section>
512
513 <section id="filesystems">
514 <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
515 <subsection>
516 <title>Introduction</title>
517 <body>
518
519 <p>
520 Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
521 If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
522 as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
523 link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
524 Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
525 </p>
526
527 </body>
528 </subsection>
529 <subsection>
530 <title>Filesystems?</title>
531 <body>
532
533 <p>
534 Several filesystems are available. ReiserFS, EXT2 and EXT3 are found stable
535 on the MIPS architectures, others are experimental.
536 </p>
537
538 <p>
539 <b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
540 journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
541 be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
542 journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are
543 thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled
544 filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
545 happens to be in an inconsistent state.
546 </p>
547
548 <p>
549 <b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
550 journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like
551 full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
552 filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables
553 high performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is an excellent
554 filesystem.
555 </p>
556
557 <p>
558 <b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
559 performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
560 files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
561 extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
562 solid and usable as both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such
563 as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large
564 files and directories containing tens of thousands of files.
565 </p>
566
567 <p>
568 <b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling which comes with a robust
569 feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
570 filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
571 an uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
572 in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
573 when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
574 deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
575 </p>
576
577 <p>
578 <b>JFS</b> is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
579 become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
580 comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this point.
581 </p>
582
583 </body>
584 </subsection>
585 <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
586 <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
587 <body>
588
589 <p>
590 To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
591 each possible filesystem:
592 </p>
593
594 <table>
595 <tr>
596 <th>Filesystem</th>
597 <th>Creation Command</th>
598 </tr>
599 <tr>
600 <ti>ext2</ti>
601 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
602 </tr>
603 <tr>
604 <ti>ext3</ti>
605 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
606 </tr>
607 <tr>
608 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
609 <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
610 </tr>
611 <tr>
612 <ti>xfs</ti>
613 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
614 </tr>
615 <tr>
616 <ti>jfs</ti>
617 <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
618 </tr>
619 </table>
620
621 <p>
622 For instance, to have the boot partition (<path>/dev/sda1</path> in our
623 example) in ext2 and the root partition (<path>/dev/sda3</path> in our example)
624 in ext3, you would use:
625 </p>
626
627 <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
628 # <i>mke2fs /dev/sda1</i>
629 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda3</i>
630 </pre>
631
632 <p>
633 Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
634 volumes).
635 </p>
636
637 <warn>
638 If you're installing on a Cobalt server, remember <path>/dev/hda1</path> MUST be
639 of type <e>EXT2 revision 0</e>; Anything else (e.g. EXT2 revision 1, EXT3,
640 ReiserFS, XFS, JFS and others) <e>WILL NOT WORK!</e>
641 You can format the partition using the command: <c>mke2fs -r 0 /dev/hda1</c>.
642 </warn>
643
644 <warn>
645 Also, be aware that arcboot currently is not able to read any filesystem other
646 than EXT2, EXT3 and ISO9660 (recent versions). For that reason,
647 <path>/boot</path> on SGI machines must also reside on an EXT2 or EXT3 partition.
648 </warn>
649
650 </body>
651 </subsection>
652 <subsection>
653 <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
654 <body>
655
656 <p>
657 <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to create and initialize swap partitions:
658 </p>
659
660 <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
661 # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2</i>
662 </pre>
663
664 <p>
665 To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
666 </p>
667
668 <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
669 # <i>swapon /dev/sda2</i>
670 </pre>
671
672 <p>
673 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
674 </p>
675
676 </body>
677 </subsection>
678 </section>
679 <section>
680 <title>Mounting</title>
681 <body>
682
683 <p>
684 Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
685 time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
686 create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
687 example we mount the root and boot partition:
688 </p>
689
690 <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
691 # <i>mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
692 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
693 # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
694 </pre>
695
696 <note>
697 If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
698 change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
699 also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
700 </note>
701
702 <p>
703 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
704 kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
705 </p>
706
707 <p>
708 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
709 Installation Files</uri>.
710 </p>
711
712 </body>
713 </section>
714 </sections>

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