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#98796: re-adding Kumba's section on resizing partitions. Translators please take a look at info iin http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=98796#c2

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo-doc/en/handbook/hb-install-mips-disk.xml,v 1.24 2005/07/25 13:58:58 stuartl Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>1.11</version>
12 <date>2005-10-02</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Block Devices</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
22 and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices.
23 Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems,
24 you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
25 for your Gentoo Linux installation.
26 </p>
27
28 <p>
29 To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is
30 probably the one that represents the first SCSI HD in a Linux system, namely
31 <path>/dev/sda</path>.
32 </p>
33
34 <p>
35 The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
36 programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
37 about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program can
38 simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
39 randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
40 </p>
41
42 </body>
43 </subsection>
44 <subsection>
45 <title>Partitions</title>
46 <body>
47
48 <p>
49 Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
50 system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
51 are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. These are called
52 <e>partitions</e>.
53 </p>
54
55 </body>
56 </subsection>
57 </section>
58 <section>
59 <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
60 <subsection>
61 <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
62 <body>
63
64 <p>
65 The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
66 if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
67 <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
68 If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your
69 <path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside
70 <path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your
71 performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming
72 servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>:
73 security and backups. You will definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big:
74 not only will it contain the majority of applications, the Portage tree alone
75 takes around 500 Mbyte excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
76 </p>
77
78 <p>
79 As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
80 partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
81 </p>
82
83 <ul>
84 <li>
85 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
86 </li>
87 <li>
88 Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
89 continuously writing files to a partition or volume
90 </li>
91 <li>
92 If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
93 be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
94 it is with multiple partitions)
95 </li>
96 <li>
97 Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
98 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
99 </li>
100 </ul>
101
102 <p>
103 However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
104 properly, you might result in having a system with lots
105 of free space on one partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition
106 limit for SCSI and SATA.
107 </p>
108
109 </body>
110 </subsection>
111 </section>
112 <section>
113 <title>Using fdisk on MIPS to Partition your Disk</title>
114 <subsection>
115 <title>SGI Machines: Creating an SGI Disk Label</title>
116 <body>
117
118 <p>
119 All disks in an SGI System require an <e>SGI Disk Label</e>, which serves a
120 similar function as Sun &amp; MS-DOS disklabels -- It stores information about
121 the disk partitions. Creating a new SGI Disk Label will create two special
122 partitions on the disk:
123 </p>
124
125 <ul>
126 <li>
127 <e>SGI Volume Header</e> (9th partition): This partition is important. It
128 is where the bootloader, and in some cases, will also contain the kernel
129 images.
130 </li>
131 <li>
132 <e>SGI Volume</e> (11th partition): This partition is similar in purpose to
133 the Sun Disklabel's third partition of "Whole Disk". This partition spans
134 the entire disk, and should be left untouched. It serves no special purpose
135 other than to assist the PROM in some undocumented fashion (or it is used by
136 IRIX in some way).
137 </li>
138 </ul>
139
140 <warn>
141 The SGI Volume Header <e>must</e> begin at cylinder 0. Failure to do so means
142 you won't be able to boot from the disk.
143 </warn>
144
145 <p>
146 The following is an example excerpt from an <c>fdisk</c> session. Read and
147 tailor it to your needs...
148 </p>
149
150 <pre caption="Creating an SGI Disklabel">
151 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
152
153 Command (m for help): <i>x</i>
154
155 Expert command (m for help): <i>m</i>
156 Command action
157 b move beginning of data in a partition
158 c change number of cylinders
159 d print the raw data in the partition table
160 e list extended partitions
161 f fix partition order
162 g create an IRIX (SGI) partition table
163 h change number of heads
164 m print this menu
165 p print the partition table
166 q quit without saving changes
167 r return to main menu
168 s change number of sectors/track
169 v verify the partition table
170 w write table to disk and exit
171
172 Expert command (m for help): <i>g</i>
173 Building a new SGI disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
174 until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
175 content will be unrecoverably lost.
176
177 Expert command (m for help): <i>r</i>
178
179 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
180
181 Disk /dev/sda (SGI disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 17482 cylinders
182 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
183
184 ----- partitions -----
185 Pt# Device Info Start End Sectors Id System
186 9: /dev/sda1 0 4 10240 0 SGI volhdr
187 11: /dev/sda2 0 17481 35803136 6 SGI volume
188 ----- Bootinfo -----
189 Bootfile: /unix
190 ----- Directory Entries -----
191
192 Command (m for help):
193 </pre>
194
195 <note>
196 If your disk already has an existing SGI Disklabel, then fdisk will not allow
197 the creation of a new label. There are two ways around this. One is to create a
198 Sun or MS-DOS disklabel, write the changes to disk, and restart fdisk. The
199 second is to overwrite the partition table with null data via the following
200 command: <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda bs=512 count=1</c>.
201 </note>
202 </body>
203 </subsection>
204
205 <subsection>
206 <title>Getting the SGI Volume Header to just the right size</title>
207 <body>
208
209 <impo>
210 This step is often needed, due to a bug in <c>fdisk</c>. For some reason, the
211 volume header isn't created correctly, the end result being it starts and ends
212 on cylinder 0. This prevents multiple partitions from being created. To get
213 around this issue... read on.
214 </impo>
215
216 <p>
217 Now that an SGI Disklabel is created, partitions may now be defined. In the
218 above example, there are already two partitions defined for you. These are the
219 special partitions mentioned above and should not normally be altered. However,
220 for installing Gentoo, we'll need to load a bootloader, and possibly multiple
221 kernel images (depending on system type) directly into the volume header.
222 The volume header itself can hold up to <e>eight</e> images of any size,
223 with each image allowed eight-character names.
224 </p>
225
226 <p>
227 The process of making the volume header larger isn't exactly straight-forward;
228 there's a bit of a trick to it. One cannot simply delete and re-add the volume
229 header due to odd fdisk behavior. In the example provided below, we'll create a
230 50MB Volume header in conjunction with a 50MB /boot partition. The actual layout
231 of your disk may vary, but this is for illustrative purposes only.
232 </p>
233
234 <pre caption="Resizing the SGI Volume Header correctly">
235 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
236 Partition number (1-16): <i>1</i>
237 First cylinder (5-8682, default 5): <i>51</i>
238 Last cylinder (51-8682, default 8682): <i>101</i>
239
240 <comment>(Notice how fdisk only allows Partition #1 to be re-created starting at a )
241 (minimum of cylinder 5? Had you attempted to delete &amp; re-create the SGI )
242 (Volume Header this way, this is the same issue you would have encountered. )
243 (In our example, we want /boot to be 50MB, so we start it at cylinder 51 (the )
244 (Volume Header needs to start at cylinder 0, remember?), and set its ending )
245 (cylinder to 101, which will roughly be 50MB (+/- 1-5MB). )</comment>
246
247 Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
248 Partition number (1-16): <i>9</i>
249
250 <comment>(Delete Partition #9 (SGI Volume Header))</comment>
251
252 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
253 Partition number (1-16): <i>9</i>
254 First cylinder (0-50, default 0): <i>0</i>
255 Last cylinder (0-50, default 50): <i>50</i>
256
257 <comment>(Re-Create Partition #9, ending just before Partition #1)</comment>
258 </pre>
259
260 <p>
261 If you're unsure how to use <c>fdisk</c> have a look down further at the
262 instructions for partitioning on Cobalts. The concepts are exactly the same --
263 just remember to leave the volume header and whole disk partitions alone.
264 </p>
265
266 <p>
267 Once this is done, you are safe to create the rest of your partitions as you see
268 fit. After all your partitions are laid out, make sure you set the partition ID
269 of your swap partition to <c>82</c>, which is Linux Swap. By default, it will be
270 <c>83</c>, Linux Native.
271 </p>
272
273 <p>
274 Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
275 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
276 </p>
277
278 </body>
279 </subsection>
280
281 <subsection>
282 <title>Cobalt Machines: Partitioning your drive</title>
283 <body>
284
285 <p>
286 On Cobalt machines, the BOOTROM expects to see a MS-DOS MBR, so partitioning the
287 drive is relatively straightforward -- in fact, it's done the same way as you'd
288 do for an Intel x86 machine. <e>However</e> there are some things you need to
289 bear in mind.
290 </p>
291
292 <ul>
293 <li>
294 Cobalt firmware will expect <path>/dev/hda1</path> to be a Linux partition
295 formatted <e>EXT2 Revision 0</e>. <e>EXT2 Revision 1 partitions will NOT
296 WORK!</e> (The Cobalt BOOTROM only understands EXT2r0)
297 </li>
298 <li>
299 The above said partition must contain a gzipped ELF image,
300 <path>vmlinux.gz</path> in the root of that partition, which it loads as the
301 kernel
302 </li>
303 </ul>
304
305 <p>
306 For that reason, I recommend creating a ~20MB <path>/boot</path> partition
307 formatted EXT2r0 upon which you can install CoLo &amp; your kernels. This
308 allows you to run a modern filesystem (EXT3 or ReiserFS) for your root
309 filesystem.
310 </p>
311
312 <p>
313 I will assume you have created <path>/dev/hda1</path> to mount later as a
314 <path>/boot</path> partition. If you wish to make this <path>/</path>, you'll
315 need to keep the PROM's expectations in mind.
316 </p>
317
318 <p>
319 So, continuing on... To create the partitions you type <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> at
320 the prompt. The main commands you need to know are these:
321 </p>
322
323 <ul>
324 <li>
325 <c>o</c>: Wipe out old partition table, starting with an empty MS-DOS
326 partition table
327 </li>
328 <li>
329 <c>n</c>: New Partition
330 </li>
331 <li>
332 <c>t</c>: Change Partition Type
333 <ul>
334 <li>Use type <c>82</c> for Linux Swap, <c>83</c> for Linux FS</li>
335 </ul>
336 </li>
337 <li>
338 <c>d</c>: Delete a partition
339 </li>
340 <li>
341 <c>p</c>: Display (print) Partition Table
342 </li>
343 <li>
344 <c>q</c>: Quit -- leaving old partition table as is.
345 </li>
346 <li>
347 <c>w</c>: Quit -- writing partition table in the process.
348 </li>
349 </ul>
350
351 <pre caption="Partitioning the disk">
352 # <i>fdisk /dev/hda</i>
353
354 The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 19870.
355 There is nothing wrong with that, but this is larger than 1024,
356 and could in certain setups cause problems with:
357 1) software that runs at boot time (e.g., old versions of LILO)
358 2) booting and partitioning software from other OSs
359 (e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)
360
361 <comment>(Start by clearing out any existing partitions)</comment>
362 Command (m for help): <i>o</i>
363 Building a new DOS disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
364 until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
365 content won't be recoverable.
366
367
368 The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 19870.
369 There is nothing wrong with that, but this is larger than 1024,
370 and could in certain setups cause problems with:
371 1) software that runs at boot time (e.g., old versions of LILO)
372 2) booting and partitioning software from other OSs
373 (e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)
374 Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)
375
376 <comment>(You can now verify the partition table is empty using the 'p' command)</comment>
377
378 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
379
380 Disk /dev/hda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
381 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
382 Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
383
384 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
385
386 <comment>(Create the /boot partition)</comment>
387
388 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
389 Command action
390 e extended
391 p primary partition (1-4)
392 <i>p</i>
393 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
394
395 <comment>(Just press ENTER here to accept the default)</comment>
396
397 First cylinder (1-19870, default 1):
398 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-19870, default 19870): <i>+20M</i>
399
400 <comment>(and now if we type 'p' again, we should see the new partition)</comment>
401 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
402
403 Disk /dev/hda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
404 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
405 Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
406
407 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
408 /dev/hda1 1 40 20128+ 83 Linux
409
410 <comment>(The rest, I prefer to put in an extended partition, so I'll create that)</comment>
411
412 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
413 Command action
414 e extended
415 p primary partition (1-4)
416 <i>e</i>
417 Partition number (1-4): <i>2</i>
418
419 <comment>(Again, the default is fine, just press ENTER.)</comment>
420
421 First cylinder (41-19870, default 41):
422 Using default value 41
423
424 <comment>(We want to use the whole disk here, so just press ENTER again)</comment>
425 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (41-19870, default 19870):
426 Using default value 19870
427
428 <comment>(Now, the / partition -- I use separate partitions for /usr, /var,
429 etc... so / can be small. Adjust as per your preference.)</comment>
430
431 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
432 Command action
433 l logical (5 or over)
434 p primary partition (1-4)
435 <i>l</i>
436 First cylinder (41-19870, default 41):<i>&lt;Press ENTER&gt;</i>
437 Using default value 41
438 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (41-19870, default 19870): <i>+500M</i>
439
440 <comment>(... and similar for any other partitions ...)</comment>
441
442 <comment>(Last but not least, the swap space. I recommend at least 250MB swap,
443 preferrably 1GB)</comment>
444
445 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
446 Command action
447 l logical (5 or over)
448 p primary partition (1-4)
449 <i>l</i>
450 First cylinder (17294-19870, default 17294): <i>&lt;Press ENTER&gt;</i>
451 Using default value 17294
452 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1011-19870, default 19870): <i>&lt;Press ENTER&gt;</i>
453 Using default value 19870
454
455 <comment>(Now, if we check our partition table, everything should mostly be ship
456 shape except for one thing...)</comment>
457
458 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
459
460 Disk /dev/hda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
461 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
462 Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
463
464 Device Boot Start End Blocks ID System
465 /dev/hda1 1 21 10552+ 83 Linux
466 /dev/hda2 22 19870 10003896 5 Extended
467 /dev/hda5 22 1037 512032+ 83 Linux
468 /dev/hda6 1038 5101 2048224+ 83 Linux
469 /dev/hda7 5102 9165 2048224+ 83 Linux
470 /dev/hda8 9166 13229 2048224+ 83 Linux
471 /dev/hda9 13230 17293 2048224+ 83 Linux
472 /dev/hda10 17294 19870 1298776+ 83 Linux
473
474 <comment>(Notice how #10, our swap partition is still type 83?)</comment>
475
476 Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
477 Partition number (1-10): <i>10</i>
478 Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>82</i>
479 Changed system type of partition 10 to 82 (Linux swap)
480
481 <comment>(That should fix it... just to verify...)</comment>
482
483 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
484
485 Disk /dev/hda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
486 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
487 Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
488
489 Device Boot Start End Blocks ID System
490 /dev/hda1 1 21 10552+ 83 Linux
491 /dev/hda2 22 19870 10003896 5 Extended
492 /dev/hda5 22 1037 512032+ 83 Linux
493 /dev/hda6 1038 5101 2048224+ 83 Linux
494 /dev/hda7 5102 9165 2048224+ 83 Linux
495 /dev/hda8 9166 13229 2048224+ 83 Linux
496 /dev/hda9 13230 17293 2048224+ 83 Linux
497 /dev/hda10 17294 19870 1298776+ 82 Linux Swap
498
499 <comment>(Now, we write out the new partition table.)</comment>
500
501 Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
502 The partition table has been altered!
503
504 Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
505 Syncing disks.
506
507 #
508 </pre>
509
510 <p>
511 And that's all there is to it. You should now be right to proceed onto the
512 next stage: <uri link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
513 </p>
514
515 </body>
516 </subsection>
517 </section>
518
519 <section id="filesystems">
520 <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
521 <subsection>
522 <title>Introduction</title>
523 <body>
524
525 <p>
526 Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
527 If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
528 as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
529 link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
530 Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
531 </p>
532
533 </body>
534 </subsection>
535 <subsection>
536 <title>Filesystems?</title>
537 <body>
538
539 <p>
540 Several filesystems are available. ReiserFS, EXT2 and EXT3 are found stable
541 on the MIPS architectures, others are experimental.
542 </p>
543
544 <p>
545 <b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
546 journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
547 be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
548 journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are
549 thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled
550 filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
551 happens to be in an inconsistent state.
552 </p>
553
554 <p>
555 <b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
556 journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like
557 full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
558 filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables
559 high performance in almost all situations. You can enable this indexing by
560 adding <c>-O dir_index</c> to the <c>mke2fs</c> command. In short, ext3 is an
561 excellent filesystem.
562 </p>
563
564 <p>
565 <b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
566 performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
567 files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
568 extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
569 solid and usable as both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such
570 as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large
571 files and directories containing tens of thousands of files.
572 </p>
573
574 <p>
575 <b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling which comes with a robust
576 feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
577 filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
578 an uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
579 in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
580 when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
581 deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
582 </p>
583
584 <p>
585 <b>JFS</b> is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
586 become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
587 comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this point.
588 </p>
589
590 </body>
591 </subsection>
592 <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
593 <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
594 <body>
595
596 <p>
597 To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
598 each possible filesystem:
599 </p>
600
601 <table>
602 <tr>
603 <th>Filesystem</th>
604 <th>Creation Command</th>
605 </tr>
606 <tr>
607 <ti>ext2</ti>
608 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
609 </tr>
610 <tr>
611 <ti>ext3</ti>
612 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
613 </tr>
614 <tr>
615 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
616 <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
617 </tr>
618 <tr>
619 <ti>xfs</ti>
620 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
621 </tr>
622 <tr>
623 <ti>jfs</ti>
624 <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
625 </tr>
626 </table>
627
628 <p>
629 For instance, to have the boot partition (<path>/dev/sda1</path> in our
630 example) in ext2 and the root partition (<path>/dev/sda3</path> in our example)
631 in ext3, you would use:
632 </p>
633
634 <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
635 # <i>mke2fs /dev/sda1</i>
636 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda3</i>
637 </pre>
638
639 <p>
640 Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
641 volumes).
642 </p>
643
644 <warn>
645 If you're installing on a Cobalt server, remember <path>/dev/hda1</path> MUST be
646 of type <e>EXT2 revision 0</e>; Anything else (e.g. EXT2 revision 1, EXT3,
647 ReiserFS, XFS, JFS and others) <e>WILL NOT WORK!</e>
648 You can format the partition using the command: <c>mke2fs -r 0 /dev/hda1</c>.
649 </warn>
650
651 <warn>
652 Also, be aware that arcboot currently is not able to read any filesystem other
653 than EXT2, EXT3 and ISO9660 (recent versions). For that reason,
654 <path>/boot</path> on SGI machines must also reside on an EXT2 or EXT3 partition.
655 </warn>
656
657 </body>
658 </subsection>
659 <subsection>
660 <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
661 <body>
662
663 <p>
664 <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to create and initialize swap partitions:
665 </p>
666
667 <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
668 # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2</i>
669 </pre>
670
671 <p>
672 To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
673 </p>
674
675 <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
676 # <i>swapon /dev/sda2</i>
677 </pre>
678
679 <p>
680 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
681 </p>
682
683 </body>
684 </subsection>
685 </section>
686 <section>
687 <title>Mounting</title>
688 <body>
689
690 <p>
691 Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
692 time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
693 create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
694 example we mount the root and boot partition:
695 </p>
696
697 <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
698 # <i>mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
699 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
700 # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
701 </pre>
702
703 <note>
704 If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
705 change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
706 also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
707 </note>
708
709 <p>
710 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
711 kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
712 </p>
713
714 <p>
715 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
716 Installation Files</uri>.
717 </p>
718
719 </body>
720 </section>
721 </sections>

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