/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-mips-disk.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-mips-disk.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.22 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Fri Feb 16 13:45:39 2007 UTC (7 years, 8 months ago) by neysx
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.21: +4 -4 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
Removing -O dir_index was not clever.
It'll have to be removed for 2007.0 though.

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-mips-disk.xml,v 1.21 2006/11/02 20:49:38 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>1.16</version>
12 <date>2007-02-16</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Block Devices</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in
22 general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. Then, once
23 you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems, you'll be
24 guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems for your
25 Gentoo Linux installation.
26 </p>
27
28 <p>
29 To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is
30 probably the one that represents the first SCSI HD in a Linux system, namely
31 <path>/dev/sda</path>.
32 </p>
33
34 <p>
35 The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
36 programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
37 worrying about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program
38 can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
39 randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
40 </p>
41
42 </body>
43 </subsection>
44 <subsection>
45 <title>Partitions</title>
46 <body>
47
48 <p>
49 Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
50 system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
51 are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. These are called
52 <e>partitions</e>.
53 </p>
54
55 </body>
56 </subsection>
57 </section>
58 <section>
59 <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
60 <subsection>
61 <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
62 <body>
63
64 <p>
65 The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
66 if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
67 <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
68 If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
69 should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good
70 choice of filesystem will then maximise your performance. Gameservers will have
71 a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The
72 reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. You will
73 definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big: not only will it contain the
74 majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes around 500 Mbyte
75 excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
76 </p>
77
78 <p>
79 As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
80 partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
81 </p>
82
83 <ul>
84 <li>
85 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
86 </li>
87 <li>
88 Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
89 continuously writing files to a partition or volume
90 </li>
91 <li>
92 If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
93 be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
94 it is with multiple partitions)
95 </li>
96 <li>
97 Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
98 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
99 </li>
100 </ul>
101
102 <p>
103 However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
104 properly, you might result in having a system with lots of free space on one
105 partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and
106 SATA.
107 </p>
108
109 </body>
110 </subsection>
111 </section>
112 <section>
113 <title>Using fdisk on MIPS to Partition your Disk</title>
114 <subsection>
115 <title>SGI Machines: Creating an SGI Disk Label</title>
116 <body>
117
118 <p>
119 All disks in an SGI System require an <e>SGI Disk Label</e>, which serves a
120 similar function as Sun &amp; MS-DOS disklabels -- It stores information about
121 the disk partitions. Creating a new SGI Disk Label will create two special
122 partitions on the disk:
123 </p>
124
125 <ul>
126 <li>
127 <e>SGI Volume Header</e> (9th partition): This partition is important. It
128 is where the bootloader will reside, and in some cases, it will also
129 contain the kernel images.
130 </li>
131 <li>
132 <e>SGI Volume</e> (11th partition): This partition is similar in purpose to
133 the Sun Disklabel's third partition of "Whole Disk". This partition spans
134 the entire disk, and should be left untouched. It serves no special purpose
135 other than to assist the PROM in some undocumented fashion (or it is used
136 by IRIX in some way).
137 </li>
138 </ul>
139
140 <warn>
141 The SGI Volume Header <e>must</e> begin at cylinder 0. Failure to do so means
142 you won't be able to boot from the disk.
143 </warn>
144
145 <p>
146 The following is an example excerpt from an <c>fdisk</c> session. Read and
147 tailor it to your needs...
148 </p>
149
150 <pre caption="Creating an SGI Disklabel">
151 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
152
153 Command (m for help): <i>x</i>
154
155 Expert command (m for help): <i>m</i>
156 Command action
157 b move beginning of data in a partition
158 c change number of cylinders
159 d print the raw data in the partition table
160 e list extended partitions
161 f fix partition order
162 g create an IRIX (SGI) partition table
163 h change number of heads
164 m print this menu
165 p print the partition table
166 q quit without saving changes
167 r return to main menu
168 s change number of sectors/track
169 v verify the partition table
170 w write table to disk and exit
171
172 Expert command (m for help): <i>g</i>
173 Building a new SGI disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
174 until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
175 content will be irrecoverably lost.
176
177 Expert command (m for help): <i>r</i>
178
179 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
180
181 Disk /dev/sda (SGI disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 17482 cylinders
182 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
183
184 ----- partitions -----
185 Pt# Device Info Start End Sectors Id System
186 9: /dev/sda1 0 4 10240 0 SGI volhdr
187 11: /dev/sda2 0 17481 35803136 6 SGI volume
188 ----- Bootinfo -----
189 Bootfile: /unix
190 ----- Directory Entries -----
191
192 Command (m for help):
193 </pre>
194
195 <note>
196 If your disk already has an existing SGI Disklabel, then fdisk will not allow
197 the creation of a new label. There are two ways around this. One is to create a
198 Sun or MS-DOS disklabel, write the changes to disk, and restart fdisk. The
199 second is to overwrite the partition table with null data via the following
200 command: <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda bs=512 count=1</c>.
201 </note>
202 </body>
203 </subsection>
204
205 <subsection>
206 <title>Getting the SGI Volume Header to just the right size</title>
207 <body>
208
209 <impo>
210 This step is often needed, due to a bug in <c>fdisk</c>. For some reason, the
211 volume header isn't created correctly, the end result being it starts and ends
212 on cylinder 0. This prevents multiple partitions from being created. To get
213 around this issue... read on.
214 </impo>
215
216 <p>
217 Now that an SGI Disklabel is created, partitions may now be defined. In the
218 above example, there are already two partitions defined for you. These are the
219 special partitions mentioned above and should not normally be altered. However,
220 for installing Gentoo, we'll need to load a bootloader, and possibly multiple
221 kernel images (depending on system type) directly into the volume header. The
222 volume header itself can hold up to <e>eight</e> images of any size, with each
223 image allowed eight-character names.
224 </p>
225
226 <note>
227 On SGI systems, there are two bootloaders available: <c>arcboot</c> and
228 <c>arcload</c>. Currently, only the Indy, Indigo2 (R4k variety), Challenge S
229 and O2 are capable of using <c>arcboot</c> as a bootloader, whereas
230 <c>arcload</c> runs on all the Linux-supported SGI machines. Unlike
231 <c>arcboot</c> however, <c>arcload</c> cannot presently read EXT2/3 partitions,
232 and thus, loads its kernels from the volume header.
233 </note>
234
235 <p>
236 The process of making the volume header larger isn't exactly straight-forward;
237 there's a bit of a trick to it. One cannot simply delete and re-add the volume
238 header due to odd fdisk behavior. In the example provided below, we'll create a
239 50MB Volume header in conjunction with a 50MB /boot partition. The actual
240 layout of your disk may vary, but this is for illustrative purposes only.
241 </p>
242
243 <pre caption="Resizing the SGI Volume Header correctly">
244 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
245 Partition number (1-16): <i>1</i>
246 First cylinder (5-8682, default 5): <i>51</i>
247 Last cylinder (51-8682, default 8682): <i>101</i>
248
249 <comment>(Notice how fdisk only allows Partition #1 to be re-created starting at a )
250 (minimum of cylinder 5? Had you attempted to delete &amp; re-create the SGI )
251 (Volume Header this way, this is the same issue you would have encountered. )
252 (In our example, we want /boot to be 50MB, so we start it at cylinder 51 (the )
253 (Volume Header needs to start at cylinder 0, remember?), and set its ending )
254 (cylinder to 101, which will roughly be 50MB (+/- 1-5MB). )</comment>
255
256 Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
257 Partition number (1-16): <i>9</i>
258
259 <comment>(Delete Partition #9 (SGI Volume Header))</comment>
260
261 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
262 Partition number (1-16): <i>9</i>
263 First cylinder (0-50, default 0): <i>0</i>
264 Last cylinder (0-50, default 50): <i>50</i>
265
266 <comment>(Re-Create Partition #9, ending just before Partition #1)</comment>
267 </pre>
268
269 <p>
270 If you're unsure how to use <c>fdisk</c> have a look down further at the
271 instructions for partitioning on Cobalts. The concepts are exactly the same --
272 just remember to leave the volume header and whole disk partitions alone.
273 </p>
274
275 <p>
276 Once this is done, you are safe to create the rest of your partitions as you
277 see fit. After all your partitions are laid out, make sure you set the
278 partition ID of your swap partition to <c>82</c>, which is Linux Swap. By
279 default, it will be <c>83</c>, Linux Native.
280 </p>
281
282 <p>
283 Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
284 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
285 </p>
286
287 </body>
288 </subsection>
289
290 <subsection>
291 <title>Cobalt Machines: Partitioning your drive</title>
292 <body>
293
294 <p>
295 On Cobalt machines, the BOOTROM expects to see a MS-DOS MBR, so partitioning
296 the drive is relatively straightforward -- in fact, it's done the same way as
297 you'd do for an Intel x86 machine. <e>However</e> there are some things you
298 need to bear in mind.
299 </p>
300
301 <ul>
302 <li>
303 Cobalt firmware will expect <path>/dev/hda1</path> to be a Linux partition
304 formatted <e>EXT2 Revision 0</e>. <e>EXT2 Revision 1 partitions will NOT
305 WORK!</e> (The Cobalt BOOTROM only understands EXT2r0)
306 </li>
307 <li>
308 The above said partition must contain a gzipped ELF image,
309 <path>vmlinux.gz</path> in the root of that partition, which it loads as
310 the kernel
311 </li>
312 </ul>
313
314 <p>
315 For that reason, I recommend creating a ~20MB <path>/boot</path> partition
316 formatted EXT2r0 upon which you can install CoLo &amp; your kernels. This
317 allows you to run a modern filesystem (EXT3 or ReiserFS) for your root
318 filesystem.
319 </p>
320
321 <p>
322 I will assume you have created <path>/dev/hda1</path> to mount later as a
323 <path>/boot</path> partition. If you wish to make this <path>/</path>, you'll
324 need to keep the PROM's expectations in mind.
325 </p>
326
327 <p>
328 So, continuing on... To create the partitions you type <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> at
329 the prompt. The main commands you need to know are these:
330 </p>
331
332 <ul>
333 <li>
334 <c>o</c>: Wipe out old partition table, starting with an empty MS-DOS
335 partition table
336 </li>
337 <li>
338 <c>n</c>: New Partition
339 </li>
340 <li>
341 <c>t</c>: Change Partition Type
342 <ul>
343 <li>Use type <c>82</c> for Linux Swap, <c>83</c> for Linux FS</li>
344 </ul>
345 </li>
346 <li>
347 <c>d</c>: Delete a partition
348 </li>
349 <li>
350 <c>p</c>: Display (print) Partition Table
351 </li>
352 <li>
353 <c>q</c>: Quit -- leaving old partition table as is.
354 </li>
355 <li>
356 <c>w</c>: Quit -- writing partition table in the process.
357 </li>
358 </ul>
359
360 <pre caption="Partitioning the disk">
361 # <i>fdisk /dev/hda</i>
362
363 The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 19870.
364 There is nothing wrong with that, but this is larger than 1024,
365 and could in certain setups cause problems with:
366 1) software that runs at boot time (e.g., old versions of LILO)
367 2) booting and partitioning software from other OSs
368 (e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)
369
370 <comment>(Start by clearing out any existing partitions)</comment>
371 Command (m for help): <i>o</i>
372 Building a new DOS disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
373 until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
374 content won't be recoverable.
375
376
377 The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 19870.
378 There is nothing wrong with that, but this is larger than 1024,
379 and could in certain setups cause problems with:
380 1) software that runs at boot time (e.g., old versions of LILO)
381 2) booting and partitioning software from other OSs
382 (e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)
383 Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)
384
385 <comment>(You can now verify the partition table is empty using the 'p' command)</comment>
386
387 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
388
389 Disk /dev/hda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
390 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
391 Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
392
393 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
394
395 <comment>(Create the /boot partition)</comment>
396
397 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
398 Command action
399 e extended
400 p primary partition (1-4)
401 <i>p</i>
402 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
403
404 <comment>(Just press ENTER here to accept the default)</comment>
405
406 First cylinder (1-19870, default 1):
407 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-19870, default 19870): <i>+20M</i>
408
409 <comment>(and now if we type 'p' again, we should see the new partition)</comment>
410 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
411
412 Disk /dev/hda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
413 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
414 Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
415
416 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
417 /dev/hda1 1 40 20128+ 83 Linux
418
419 <comment>(The rest, I prefer to put in an extended partition, so I'll create that)</comment>
420
421 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
422 Command action
423 e extended
424 p primary partition (1-4)
425 <i>e</i>
426 Partition number (1-4): <i>2</i>
427
428 <comment>(Again, the default is fine, just press ENTER.)</comment>
429
430 First cylinder (41-19870, default 41):
431 Using default value 41
432
433 <comment>(We want to use the whole disk here, so just press ENTER again)</comment>
434 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (41-19870, default 19870):
435 Using default value 19870
436
437 <comment>(Now, the / partition -- I use separate partitions for /usr, /var,
438 etc... so / can be small. Adjust as per your preference.)</comment>
439
440 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
441 Command action
442 l logical (5 or over)
443 p primary partition (1-4)
444 <i>l</i>
445 First cylinder (41-19870, default 41):<i>&lt;Press ENTER&gt;</i>
446 Using default value 41
447 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (41-19870, default 19870): <i>+500M</i>
448
449 <comment>(... and similar for any other partitions ...)</comment>
450
451 <comment>(Last but not least, the swap space. I recommend at least 250MB swap,
452 preferrably 1GB)</comment>
453
454 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
455 Command action
456 l logical (5 or over)
457 p primary partition (1-4)
458 <i>l</i>
459 First cylinder (17294-19870, default 17294): <i>&lt;Press ENTER&gt;</i>
460 Using default value 17294
461 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1011-19870, default 19870): <i>&lt;Press ENTER&gt;</i>
462 Using default value 19870
463
464 <comment>(Now, if we check our partition table, everything should mostly be ship
465 shape except for one thing...)</comment>
466
467 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
468
469 Disk /dev/hda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
470 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
471 Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
472
473 Device Boot Start End Blocks ID System
474 /dev/hda1 1 21 10552+ 83 Linux
475 /dev/hda2 22 19870 10003896 5 Extended
476 /dev/hda5 22 1037 512032+ 83 Linux
477 /dev/hda6 1038 5101 2048224+ 83 Linux
478 /dev/hda7 5102 9165 2048224+ 83 Linux
479 /dev/hda8 9166 13229 2048224+ 83 Linux
480 /dev/hda9 13230 17293 2048224+ 83 Linux
481 /dev/hda10 17294 19870 1298776+ 83 Linux
482
483 <comment>(Notice how #10, our swap partition is still type 83?)</comment>
484
485 Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
486 Partition number (1-10): <i>10</i>
487 Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>82</i>
488 Changed system type of partition 10 to 82 (Linux swap)
489
490 <comment>(That should fix it... just to verify...)</comment>
491
492 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
493
494 Disk /dev/hda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
495 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
496 Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
497
498 Device Boot Start End Blocks ID System
499 /dev/hda1 1 21 10552+ 83 Linux
500 /dev/hda2 22 19870 10003896 5 Extended
501 /dev/hda5 22 1037 512032+ 83 Linux
502 /dev/hda6 1038 5101 2048224+ 83 Linux
503 /dev/hda7 5102 9165 2048224+ 83 Linux
504 /dev/hda8 9166 13229 2048224+ 83 Linux
505 /dev/hda9 13230 17293 2048224+ 83 Linux
506 /dev/hda10 17294 19870 1298776+ 82 Linux Swap
507
508 <comment>(Now, we write out the new partition table.)</comment>
509
510 Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
511 The partition table has been altered!
512
513 Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
514 Syncing disks.
515
516 #
517 </pre>
518
519 <p>
520 And that's all there is to it. You should now be right to proceed onto the next
521 stage: <uri link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
522 </p>
523
524 </body>
525 </subsection>
526 </section>
527
528 <section id="filesystems">
529 <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
530 <subsection>
531 <title>Introduction</title>
532 <body>
533
534 <p>
535 Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
536 If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we
537 use as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
538 link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>. Otherwise
539 read on to learn about the available filesystems...
540 </p>
541
542 </body>
543 </subsection>
544 <subsection>
545 <title>Filesystems?</title>
546 <body>
547
548 <p>
549 Several filesystems are available. ReiserFS, EXT2 and EXT3 are found stable on
550 the MIPS architectures, others are experimental.
551 </p>
552
553 <p>
554 <b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
555 journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
556 be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
557 journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are
558 thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled
559 filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
560 happens to be in an inconsistent state.
561 </p>
562
563 <p>
564 <b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
565 journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
566 like full data and ordered data journaling. It uses a hashed B*-tree index that
567 enables high performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is a very
568 good and reliable filesystem.
569 </p>
570
571 <p>
572 <b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
573 performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
574 files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
575 extremely well and has metadata journaling. ReiserFS is solid and usable as
576 both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of
577 large filesystems, very large files and directories containing tens of
578 thousands of small files.
579 </p>
580
581 <p>
582 <b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling which comes with a robust
583 feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
584 filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
585 an uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit
586 data in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper
587 precautions when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can
588 lose a good deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
589 </p>
590
591 <p>
592 <b>JFS</b> is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
593 become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
594 comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this point.
595 </p>
596
597 </body>
598 </subsection>
599 <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
600 <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
601 <body>
602
603 <p>
604 To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
605 each possible filesystem:
606 </p>
607
608 <table>
609 <tr>
610 <th>Filesystem</th>
611 <th>Creation Command</th>
612 </tr>
613 <tr>
614 <ti>ext2</ti>
615 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
616 </tr>
617 <tr>
618 <ti>ext3</ti>
619 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
620 </tr>
621 <tr>
622 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
623 <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
624 </tr>
625 <tr>
626 <ti>xfs</ti>
627 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
628 </tr>
629 <tr>
630 <ti>jfs</ti>
631 <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
632 </tr>
633 </table>
634
635 <p>
636 For instance, to have the boot partition (<path>/dev/sda1</path> in our
637 example) in ext2 and the root partition (<path>/dev/sda3</path> in our example)
638 in ext3, you would use:
639 </p>
640
641 <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
642 # <i>mke2fs /dev/sda1</i>
643 # <i>mke2fs -j -O dir_index /dev/sda3</i>
644 </pre>
645
646 <p>
647 Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
648 volumes).
649 </p>
650
651 <warn>
652 If you're installing on a Cobalt server, remember <path>/dev/hda1</path> MUST
653 be of type <e>EXT2 revision 0</e>; Anything else (e.g. EXT2 revision 1, EXT3,
654 ReiserFS, XFS, JFS and others) <e>WILL NOT WORK!</e> You can format the
655 partition using the command: <c>mke2fs -r 0 /dev/hda1</c>.
656 </warn>
657
658 <warn>
659 Also, be aware that arcboot currently is not able to read any filesystem other
660 than EXT2, EXT3 and ISO9660 (recent versions). For that reason,
661 <path>/boot</path> on SGI machines must also reside on an EXT2 or EXT3
662 partition.
663 </warn>
664
665 </body>
666 </subsection>
667 <subsection>
668 <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
669 <body>
670
671 <p>
672 <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to create and initialize swap
673 partitions:
674 </p>
675
676 <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
677 # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2</i>
678 </pre>
679
680 <p>
681 To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
682 </p>
683
684 <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
685 # <i>swapon /dev/sda2</i>
686 </pre>
687
688 <p>
689 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
690 </p>
691
692 </body>
693 </subsection>
694 </section>
695 <section>
696 <title>Mounting</title>
697 <body>
698
699 <p>
700 Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
701 time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
702 create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
703 example we mount the root and boot partition:
704 </p>
705
706 <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
707 # <i>mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
708 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
709 # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
710 </pre>
711
712 <note>
713 If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure
714 to change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>.
715 This also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
716 </note>
717
718 <p>
719 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
720 kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the
721 partitions.
722 </p>
723
724 <p>
725 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo Installation
726 Files</uri>.
727 </p>
728
729 </body>
730 </section>
731 </sections>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20