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1 nightmorph 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7 swift 1.12 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-mips-system.xml,v 1.11 2012/06/29 16:12:20 swift Exp $ -->
8 nightmorph 1.1
9     <sections>
10    
11 swift 1.12 <version>13</version>
12     <date>2013-01-03</date>
13 nightmorph 1.1
14     <section>
15     <title>Chrooting</title>
16     <subsection>
17     <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21     One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
22     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
23     to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
24     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
25     network.
26     </p>
27    
28     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
29     <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
30 nightmorph 1.5 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/</i>
31 nightmorph 1.1 </pre>
32    
33     </body>
34     </subsection>
35     <subsection>
36 swift 1.11 <title>Mounting the necessary Filesystems</title>
37 nightmorph 1.1 <body>
38    
39     <p>
40     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
41     allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
42 swift 1.11 chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> and
43     <path>/sys</path> filesystems.
44 nightmorph 1.1 </p>
45    
46     <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
47     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
48 swift 1.11 # <i>mount --rbind /sys /mnt/gentoo/sys</i>
49 nightmorph 1.9 # <i>mount --rbind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
50 nightmorph 1.1 </pre>
51    
52     </body>
53     </subsection>
54     <subsection>
55     <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
56     <body>
57    
58     <p>
59     Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
60     installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
61     <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
62     installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
63     installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
64     </p>
65    
66     <p>
67     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
68     from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
69 swift 1.12 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will reload some settings, as
70     provided by <path>/etc/profile</path>, in memory using <c>source</c>.
71 nightmorph 1.1 </p>
72    
73     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
74     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
75     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
76     # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
77     </pre>
78    
79     <p>
80     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
81     Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
82     has some sections left :-)
83     </p>
84    
85     </body>
86     </subsection>
87     </section>
88    
89     <section>
90     <title>Configuring Portage</title>
91     <subsection>
92     <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
93     <body>
94    
95     <p>
96     You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
97     --sync</c> does this for you.
98     </p>
99    
100     <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
101     # <i>emerge --sync</i>
102     <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
103     console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
104     # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
105     </pre>
106    
107     <p>
108     If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
109     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
110     you.
111     </p>
112    
113     <p>
114     If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
115 nightmorph 1.7 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge --oneshot portage</c>.
116 nightmorph 1.1 </p>
117    
118     </body>
119     </subsection>
120     <subsection>
121     <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
122     <body>
123    
124     <p>
125     First, a small definition is in place.
126     </p>
127    
128     <p>
129     A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
130     default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
131     the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
132     Gentoo developers.
133     </p>
134    
135     <p>
136 nightmorph 1.3 Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, there may be
137     situations in which you may decide a profile change is necessary.
138     </p>
139    
140     <p>
141 nightmorph 1.1 Since 2006.0, there has been a re-shuffle regarding the profiles for MIPS
142     systems. These profiles set various options including USE flags, which affect
143     what patchsets are enabled with various system-critical packages (notably,
144     <c>gcc</c> and <c>mips-sources</c>).
145     </p>
146    
147     <p>
148     Thus, care needs to be taken to ensure the correct profile is selected for your
149 nightmorph 1.4 system type. As of Gentoo/MIPS 2007.0, the profiles are:
150 nightmorph 1.1 </p>
151    
152     <table>
153     <tr>
154     <th>System</th>
155     <th>Profile</th>
156     <th>Userland</th>
157     <th>Status/Notes</th>
158     </tr>
159     <tr>
160     <ti>Cobalt Qube/RaQ</ti>
161 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/cobalt/o32</ti>
162 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
163     <ti>Recommended</ti>
164     </tr>
165     <tr>
166     <ti>"</ti>
167 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/cobalt/o32/nptl</ti>
168 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
169     <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
170     </tr>
171     <tr>
172     <th>&nbsp;</th>
173     <th>&nbsp;</th>
174     <th>&nbsp;</th>
175     <th>&nbsp;</th>
176     </tr>
177     <tr>
178     <ti>
179     Generic Big Endian<br />
180     <e>Including SGI Indy, Indigo2 (R4x00), Challenge S and O2</e>
181     </ti>
182 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/o32</ti>
183 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
184     <ti>Recommended</ti>
185     </tr>
186     <tr>
187     <ti>"</ti>
188 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/o32/nptl</ti>
189 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
190     <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
191     </tr>
192     <tr>
193     <ti>"</ti>
194 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/n32</ti>
195 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
196     <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
197     </tr>
198     <tr>
199     <ti>"</ti>
200 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/n32/nptl</ti>
201 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
202     <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
203     </tr>
204     <tr>
205     <ti>"</ti>
206 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/n64</ti>
207 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>N64 Linuxthreads</ti>
208     <ti>Unsupported (3)</ti>
209     </tr>
210     <tr>
211     <ti>"</ti>
212 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/n64/nptl</ti>
213 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>N64 NPTL</ti>
214     <ti>Unsupported (1) (3)</ti>
215     </tr>
216     <tr>
217     <th>&nbsp;</th>
218     <th>&nbsp;</th>
219     <th>&nbsp;</th>
220     <th>&nbsp;</th>
221     </tr>
222     <tr>
223     <ti>SGI Origin 200/2000</ti>
224 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip27/o32</ti>
225 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
226     <ti>Recommended</ti>
227     </tr>
228     <tr>
229     <ti>"</ti>
230 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip27/o32/nptl</ti>
231 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
232     <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
233     </tr>
234     <tr>
235     <ti>"</ti>
236 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip27/n32</ti>
237 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
238     <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
239     </tr>
240     <tr>
241     <ti>"</ti>
242 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip27/n32/nptl</ti>
243 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
244     <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
245     </tr>
246    
247     <tr>
248     <th>&nbsp;</th>
249     <th>&nbsp;</th>
250     <th>&nbsp;</th>
251     <th>&nbsp;</th>
252     </tr>
253     <tr>
254     <ti>SGI Indigo2 Impact R10000</ti>
255 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip28/o32</ti>
256 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
257     <ti>Recommended</ti>
258     </tr>
259     <tr>
260     <ti>"</ti>
261 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip28/o32/nptl</ti>
262 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
263     <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
264     </tr>
265     <tr>
266     <ti>"</ti>
267 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip28/n32</ti>
268 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
269     <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
270     </tr>
271     <tr>
272     <ti>"</ti>
273 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip28/n32/nptl</ti>
274 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
275     <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
276     </tr>
277     <tr>
278     <th>&nbsp;</th>
279     <th>&nbsp;</th>
280     <th>&nbsp;</th>
281     <th>&nbsp;</th>
282     </tr>
283     <tr>
284     <ti>SGI Octane/Octane2</ti>
285 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip30/o32</ti>
286 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
287     <ti>Recommended</ti>
288     </tr>
289     <tr>
290     <ti>"</ti>
291 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip30/o32/nptl</ti>
292 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
293     <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
294     </tr>
295     <tr>
296     <ti>"</ti>
297 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip30/n32</ti>
298 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
299     <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
300     </tr>
301     <tr>
302     <ti>"</ti>
303 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip30/n32/nptl</ti>
304 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
305     <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
306     </tr>
307     </table>
308    
309     <impo>
310 nightmorph 1.4 (1) NPTL is in-testing on MIPS at this stage, requiring <c>gcc-4.1</c> and
311     <c>glibc-2.4</c>. It is believed that NPTL should be safe enough now for people
312     to use, and is planned to be the default in future releases. Brave users are
313     welcomed to try these profiles out and report back.
314 nightmorph 1.1 </impo>
315    
316     <warn>
317     (2) n32 Userland is highly experimental, a lot of software has problems with
318     this ABI, and thus it is practically guaranteed that you will run into stability
319     problems at some point. Work is being done to improve the situation, however,
320     no support is offered if you use this profile, unless you're willing to help
321     fix problems by submitting patches.
322     </warn>
323    
324     <warn>
325     (3) n64 Userland at present is completely unsupported on all systems. At this
326     time there are no stages available that support n64, and this isn't likely to
327     change in the near future.
328     </warn>
329    
330     <p>
331     You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
332     </p>
333    
334     <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
335     # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
336 neysx 1.6 lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/<keyval id="profile"/>
337 nightmorph 1.1 </pre>
338    
339     <p>
340     Having looked through the profiles above, and decided which one is the most
341     appropriate, you need to adjust your <path>make.profile</path> symlink to
342     reflect this. By default, the profiles are in
343     <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>, so if you've moved your portage tree
344     elsewhere (not recommended), adjust the commands below accordingly.
345     </p>
346    
347     <pre caption="Setting the profile">
348     <comment>(Delete the old profile symlink)</comment>
349     # <i>rm -f /etc/make.profile</i>
350    
351     <comment>(Create a new symlink pointing to your chosen profile )
352     (For example, this is what one would use on an Indy or O2.)</comment>
353 nightmorph 1.4 # <i>ln -s /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/o32</i>
354 nightmorph 1.1 </pre>
355    
356     <note>
357     A tip for those not familiar with the Bourne Again Shell... If you partially
358     type a filename or command, then hit the TAB key, it will automatically fill out
359     the command/filename until the last common character. E.g. typing
360     <c>/usr/portage/profiles/def&lt;TAB&gt;</c>, <c>bash</c> will automatically put
361     down <c>default-</c>. Pressing TAB a couple of more times will reveal the
362     possibilities, <c>default-linux</c>, <c>default-darwin</c> and
363     <c>default-bsd</c>. Give it a try, you'll find it very handy for navigating the
364     command line.
365     </note>
366    
367     </body>
368     </subsection>
369     <subsection id="configure_USE">
370     <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
371     <body>
372    
373     <p>
374     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
375     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
376     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
377     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
378     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
379     (X-server).
380     </p>
381    
382     <p>
383     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
384     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
385     amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
386     should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
387     </p>
388    
389     <p>
390     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
391     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
392 nightmorph 1.2 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
393 nightmorph 1.8 minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt4</e> will compile your
394 nightmorph 1.2 programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
395     making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
396 nightmorph 1.1 </p>
397    
398     <p>
399     The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
400     files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
401     directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
402     directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
403     settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
404     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
405     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
406     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
407     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
408     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
409     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
410     </p>
411    
412     <p>
413     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
414     Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
415     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
416     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
417     </p>
418    
419     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
420     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
421     <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
422     </pre>
423    
424     <p>
425     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
426     and CD Recording support:
427     </p>
428    
429     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
430     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
431     </pre>
432    
433     <pre caption="USE setting">
434 nightmorph 1.8 USE="-gtk -gnome qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
435 nightmorph 1.1 </pre>
436    
437     </body>
438     </subsection>
439     <subsection>
440     <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
441     <body>
442    
443     <p>
444     You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
445     specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
446     </p>
447    
448     <pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
449     # <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
450     </pre>
451    
452     <p>
453     The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
454     German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
455     </p>
456    
457     <pre caption="Specify your locales">
458     en_US ISO-8859-1
459     en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
460     de_DE ISO-8859-1
461     de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
462     </pre>
463    
464     <p>
465     The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
466     have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
467     </p>
468    
469 swift 1.10 <pre caption="Running locale-gen">
470     # <i>locale-gen</i>
471     </pre>
472    
473 nightmorph 1.1 <p>
474     Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
475     </p>
476    
477     </body>
478     </subsection>
479     </section>
480     </sections>

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