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Fix bug #449192 (missed a step, or counted a step too much). Fix by Chema Alonso with some minor modification

1 nightmorph 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7 swift 1.13 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-mips-system.xml,v 1.12 2013/01/02 19:28:52 swift Exp $ -->
8 nightmorph 1.1
9     <sections>
10    
11 swift 1.13 <version>14</version>
12     <date>2013-01-08</date>
13 nightmorph 1.1
14     <section>
15     <title>Chrooting</title>
16     <subsection>
17     <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21     One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
22     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
23     to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
24     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
25     network.
26     </p>
27    
28     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
29     <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
30 nightmorph 1.5 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/</i>
31 nightmorph 1.1 </pre>
32    
33     </body>
34     </subsection>
35     <subsection>
36 swift 1.11 <title>Mounting the necessary Filesystems</title>
37 nightmorph 1.1 <body>
38    
39     <p>
40     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
41     allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
42 swift 1.11 chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> and
43     <path>/sys</path> filesystems.
44 nightmorph 1.1 </p>
45    
46     <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
47     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
48 swift 1.11 # <i>mount --rbind /sys /mnt/gentoo/sys</i>
49 nightmorph 1.9 # <i>mount --rbind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
50 nightmorph 1.1 </pre>
51    
52     </body>
53     </subsection>
54     <subsection>
55     <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
56     <body>
57    
58     <p>
59     Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
60     installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
61     <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
62     installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
63     installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
64     </p>
65    
66     <p>
67     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
68     from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
69 swift 1.12 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will reload some settings, as
70     provided by <path>/etc/profile</path>, in memory using <c>source</c>.
71 swift 1.13 The last step is to redefine the primary prompt to help us remember that we are
72     inside a chroot environment.
73 nightmorph 1.1 </p>
74    
75     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
76     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
77     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
78     # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
79     </pre>
80    
81     <p>
82     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
83     Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
84     has some sections left :-)
85     </p>
86    
87     </body>
88     </subsection>
89     </section>
90    
91     <section>
92     <title>Configuring Portage</title>
93     <subsection>
94     <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
95     <body>
96    
97     <p>
98     You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
99     --sync</c> does this for you.
100     </p>
101    
102     <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
103     # <i>emerge --sync</i>
104     <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
105     console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
106     # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
107     </pre>
108    
109     <p>
110     If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
111     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
112     you.
113     </p>
114    
115     <p>
116     If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
117 nightmorph 1.7 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge --oneshot portage</c>.
118 nightmorph 1.1 </p>
119    
120     </body>
121     </subsection>
122     <subsection>
123     <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
124     <body>
125    
126     <p>
127     First, a small definition is in place.
128     </p>
129    
130     <p>
131     A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
132     default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
133     the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
134     Gentoo developers.
135     </p>
136    
137     <p>
138 nightmorph 1.3 Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, there may be
139     situations in which you may decide a profile change is necessary.
140     </p>
141    
142     <p>
143 nightmorph 1.1 Since 2006.0, there has been a re-shuffle regarding the profiles for MIPS
144     systems. These profiles set various options including USE flags, which affect
145     what patchsets are enabled with various system-critical packages (notably,
146     <c>gcc</c> and <c>mips-sources</c>).
147     </p>
148    
149     <p>
150     Thus, care needs to be taken to ensure the correct profile is selected for your
151 nightmorph 1.4 system type. As of Gentoo/MIPS 2007.0, the profiles are:
152 nightmorph 1.1 </p>
153    
154     <table>
155     <tr>
156     <th>System</th>
157     <th>Profile</th>
158     <th>Userland</th>
159     <th>Status/Notes</th>
160     </tr>
161     <tr>
162     <ti>Cobalt Qube/RaQ</ti>
163 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/cobalt/o32</ti>
164 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
165     <ti>Recommended</ti>
166     </tr>
167     <tr>
168     <ti>"</ti>
169 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/cobalt/o32/nptl</ti>
170 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
171     <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
172     </tr>
173     <tr>
174     <th>&nbsp;</th>
175     <th>&nbsp;</th>
176     <th>&nbsp;</th>
177     <th>&nbsp;</th>
178     </tr>
179     <tr>
180     <ti>
181     Generic Big Endian<br />
182     <e>Including SGI Indy, Indigo2 (R4x00), Challenge S and O2</e>
183     </ti>
184 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/o32</ti>
185 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
186     <ti>Recommended</ti>
187     </tr>
188     <tr>
189     <ti>"</ti>
190 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/o32/nptl</ti>
191 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
192     <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
193     </tr>
194     <tr>
195     <ti>"</ti>
196 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/n32</ti>
197 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
198     <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
199     </tr>
200     <tr>
201     <ti>"</ti>
202 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/n32/nptl</ti>
203 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
204     <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
205     </tr>
206     <tr>
207     <ti>"</ti>
208 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/n64</ti>
209 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>N64 Linuxthreads</ti>
210     <ti>Unsupported (3)</ti>
211     </tr>
212     <tr>
213     <ti>"</ti>
214 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/n64/nptl</ti>
215 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>N64 NPTL</ti>
216     <ti>Unsupported (1) (3)</ti>
217     </tr>
218     <tr>
219     <th>&nbsp;</th>
220     <th>&nbsp;</th>
221     <th>&nbsp;</th>
222     <th>&nbsp;</th>
223     </tr>
224     <tr>
225     <ti>SGI Origin 200/2000</ti>
226 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip27/o32</ti>
227 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
228     <ti>Recommended</ti>
229     </tr>
230     <tr>
231     <ti>"</ti>
232 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip27/o32/nptl</ti>
233 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
234     <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
235     </tr>
236     <tr>
237     <ti>"</ti>
238 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip27/n32</ti>
239 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
240     <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
241     </tr>
242     <tr>
243     <ti>"</ti>
244 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip27/n32/nptl</ti>
245 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
246     <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
247     </tr>
248    
249     <tr>
250     <th>&nbsp;</th>
251     <th>&nbsp;</th>
252     <th>&nbsp;</th>
253     <th>&nbsp;</th>
254     </tr>
255     <tr>
256     <ti>SGI Indigo2 Impact R10000</ti>
257 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip28/o32</ti>
258 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
259     <ti>Recommended</ti>
260     </tr>
261     <tr>
262     <ti>"</ti>
263 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip28/o32/nptl</ti>
264 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
265     <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
266     </tr>
267     <tr>
268     <ti>"</ti>
269 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip28/n32</ti>
270 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
271     <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
272     </tr>
273     <tr>
274     <ti>"</ti>
275 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip28/n32/nptl</ti>
276 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
277     <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
278     </tr>
279     <tr>
280     <th>&nbsp;</th>
281     <th>&nbsp;</th>
282     <th>&nbsp;</th>
283     <th>&nbsp;</th>
284     </tr>
285     <tr>
286     <ti>SGI Octane/Octane2</ti>
287 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip30/o32</ti>
288 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
289     <ti>Recommended</ti>
290     </tr>
291     <tr>
292     <ti>"</ti>
293 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip30/o32/nptl</ti>
294 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
295     <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
296     </tr>
297     <tr>
298     <ti>"</ti>
299 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip30/n32</ti>
300 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
301     <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
302     </tr>
303     <tr>
304     <ti>"</ti>
305 nightmorph 1.4 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip30/n32/nptl</ti>
306 nightmorph 1.1 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
307     <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
308     </tr>
309     </table>
310    
311     <impo>
312 nightmorph 1.4 (1) NPTL is in-testing on MIPS at this stage, requiring <c>gcc-4.1</c> and
313     <c>glibc-2.4</c>. It is believed that NPTL should be safe enough now for people
314     to use, and is planned to be the default in future releases. Brave users are
315     welcomed to try these profiles out and report back.
316 nightmorph 1.1 </impo>
317    
318     <warn>
319     (2) n32 Userland is highly experimental, a lot of software has problems with
320     this ABI, and thus it is practically guaranteed that you will run into stability
321     problems at some point. Work is being done to improve the situation, however,
322     no support is offered if you use this profile, unless you're willing to help
323     fix problems by submitting patches.
324     </warn>
325    
326     <warn>
327     (3) n64 Userland at present is completely unsupported on all systems. At this
328     time there are no stages available that support n64, and this isn't likely to
329     change in the near future.
330     </warn>
331    
332     <p>
333     You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
334     </p>
335    
336     <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
337     # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
338 neysx 1.6 lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/<keyval id="profile"/>
339 nightmorph 1.1 </pre>
340    
341     <p>
342     Having looked through the profiles above, and decided which one is the most
343     appropriate, you need to adjust your <path>make.profile</path> symlink to
344     reflect this. By default, the profiles are in
345     <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>, so if you've moved your portage tree
346     elsewhere (not recommended), adjust the commands below accordingly.
347     </p>
348    
349     <pre caption="Setting the profile">
350     <comment>(Delete the old profile symlink)</comment>
351     # <i>rm -f /etc/make.profile</i>
352    
353     <comment>(Create a new symlink pointing to your chosen profile )
354     (For example, this is what one would use on an Indy or O2.)</comment>
355 nightmorph 1.4 # <i>ln -s /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/o32</i>
356 nightmorph 1.1 </pre>
357    
358     <note>
359     A tip for those not familiar with the Bourne Again Shell... If you partially
360     type a filename or command, then hit the TAB key, it will automatically fill out
361     the command/filename until the last common character. E.g. typing
362     <c>/usr/portage/profiles/def&lt;TAB&gt;</c>, <c>bash</c> will automatically put
363     down <c>default-</c>. Pressing TAB a couple of more times will reveal the
364     possibilities, <c>default-linux</c>, <c>default-darwin</c> and
365     <c>default-bsd</c>. Give it a try, you'll find it very handy for navigating the
366     command line.
367     </note>
368    
369     </body>
370     </subsection>
371     <subsection id="configure_USE">
372     <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
373     <body>
374    
375     <p>
376     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
377     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
378     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
379     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
380     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
381     (X-server).
382     </p>
383    
384     <p>
385     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
386     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
387     amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
388     should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
389     </p>
390    
391     <p>
392     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
393     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
394 nightmorph 1.2 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
395 nightmorph 1.8 minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt4</e> will compile your
396 nightmorph 1.2 programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
397     making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
398 nightmorph 1.1 </p>
399    
400     <p>
401     The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
402     files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
403     directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
404     directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
405     settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
406     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
407     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
408     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
409     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
410     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
411     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
412     </p>
413    
414     <p>
415     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
416     Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
417     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
418     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
419     </p>
420    
421     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
422     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
423     <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
424     </pre>
425    
426     <p>
427     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
428     and CD Recording support:
429     </p>
430    
431     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
432     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
433     </pre>
434    
435     <pre caption="USE setting">
436 nightmorph 1.8 USE="-gtk -gnome qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
437 nightmorph 1.1 </pre>
438    
439     </body>
440     </subsection>
441     <subsection>
442     <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
443     <body>
444    
445     <p>
446     You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
447     specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
448     </p>
449    
450     <pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
451     # <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
452     </pre>
453    
454     <p>
455     The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
456     German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
457     </p>
458    
459     <pre caption="Specify your locales">
460     en_US ISO-8859-1
461     en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
462     de_DE ISO-8859-1
463     de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
464     </pre>
465    
466     <p>
467     The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
468     have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
469     </p>
470    
471 swift 1.10 <pre caption="Running locale-gen">
472     # <i>locale-gen</i>
473     </pre>
474    
475 nightmorph 1.1 <p>
476     Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
477     </p>
478    
479     </body>
480     </subsection>
481     </section>
482     </sections>

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