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1 nightmorph 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7 nightmorph 1.2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-mips-system.xml,v 1.1 2006/08/30 22:52:28 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 nightmorph 1.1
9     <sections>
10    
11 nightmorph 1.2 <version>7.1</version>
12     <date>2006-10-08</date>
13 nightmorph 1.1
14     <section>
15     <title>Chrooting</title>
16     <!--<subsection> MIPS install media doesn't include mirrorselect
17     <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21     In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
22     mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
23     GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
24     our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
25     for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
26     fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
27     provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
28     </p>
29    
30     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
31     # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
32     </pre>
33    
34     <warn>
35     Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
36     </warn>
37    
38     <p>
39     A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
40     variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
41     tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
42     needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
43     server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
44     </p>
45    
46     <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
47     # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
48     </pre>
49    
50     <p>
51     After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
52     in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
53     </p>
54    
55     </body>
56     </subsection>-->
57     <subsection>
58     <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
59     <body>
60    
61     <p>
62     One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
63     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
64     to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
65     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
66     network.
67     </p>
68    
69     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
70     <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
71     # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
72     </pre>
73    
74     </body>
75     </subsection>
76     <subsection>
77     <title>Mounting the /proc and /dev Filesystems</title>
78     <body>
79    
80     <p>
81     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
82     allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
83     chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> filesystem.
84     </p>
85    
86     <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
87     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
88     # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
89     </pre>
90    
91     </body>
92     </subsection>
93     <subsection>
94     <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
95     <body>
96    
97     <p>
98     Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
99     installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
100     <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
101     installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
102     installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
103     </p>
104    
105     <p>
106     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
107     from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
108     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
109     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
110     Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
111     </p>
112    
113     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
114     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
115     # <i>env-update</i>
116     >> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
117     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
118     # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
119     </pre>
120    
121     <p>
122     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
123     Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
124     has some sections left :-)
125     </p>
126    
127     </body>
128     </subsection>
129     </section>
130    
131     <section>
132     <title>Configuring Portage</title>
133     <subsection>
134     <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
135     <body>
136    
137     <p>
138     You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
139     --sync</c> does this for you.
140     </p>
141    
142     <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
143     # <i>emerge --sync</i>
144     <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
145     console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
146     # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
147     </pre>
148    
149     <p>
150     If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
151     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
152     you.
153     </p>
154    
155     <p>
156     If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
157     update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge portage</c> command.
158     </p>
159    
160     </body>
161     </subsection>
162     <subsection>
163     <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
164     <body>
165    
166     <p>
167     First, a small definition is in place.
168     </p>
169    
170     <p>
171     A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
172     default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
173     the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
174     Gentoo developers.
175     </p>
176    
177     <p>
178     Since 2006.0, there has been a re-shuffle regarding the profiles for MIPS
179     systems. These profiles set various options including USE flags, which affect
180     what patchsets are enabled with various system-critical packages (notably,
181     <c>gcc</c> and <c>mips-sources</c>).
182     </p>
183    
184     <p>
185     Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, x86, hppa
186     and alpha users can choose between two profiles, one for a 2.4 kernel and one
187     for a 2.6 kernel. This requirement has been imposed to improve the integration
188     of the 2.6 kernels. The ppc and ppc64 architectures have several profiles
189     available as well. We will talk about those later.
190     </p>
191    
192     <p>
193     Thus, care needs to be taken to ensure the correct profile is selected for your
194     system type. As of Gentoo/MIPS 2006.1, the profiles are:
195     </p>
196    
197     <table>
198     <tr>
199     <th>System</th>
200     <th>Profile</th>
201     <th>Userland</th>
202     <th>Status/Notes</th>
203     </tr>
204    
205     <tr>
206     <ti>Cobalt Qube/RaQ</ti>
207     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/cobalt/o32</ti>
208     <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
209     <ti>Recommended</ti>
210     </tr>
211     <tr>
212     <ti>"</ti>
213     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/cobalt/o32/nptl</ti>
214     <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
215     <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
216     </tr>
217    
218     <tr>
219     <th>&nbsp;</th>
220     <th>&nbsp;</th>
221     <th>&nbsp;</th>
222     <th>&nbsp;</th>
223     </tr>
224    
225     <tr>
226     <ti>
227     Generic Big Endian<br />
228     <e>Including SGI Indy, Indigo2 (R4x00), Challenge S and O2</e>
229     </ti>
230     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/o32</ti>
231     <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
232     <ti>Recommended</ti>
233     </tr>
234     <tr>
235     <ti>"</ti>
236     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/o32/nptl</ti>
237     <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
238     <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
239     </tr>
240     <tr>
241     <ti>"</ti>
242     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/n32</ti>
243     <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
244     <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
245     </tr>
246     <tr>
247     <ti>"</ti>
248     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/n32/nptl</ti>
249     <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
250     <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
251     </tr>
252     <tr>
253     <ti>"</ti>
254     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/n64</ti>
255     <ti>N64 Linuxthreads</ti>
256     <ti>Unsupported (3)</ti>
257     </tr>
258     <tr>
259     <ti>"</ti>
260     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/n64/nptl</ti>
261     <ti>N64 NPTL</ti>
262     <ti>Unsupported (1) (3)</ti>
263     </tr>
264    
265     <tr>
266     <th>&nbsp;</th>
267     <th>&nbsp;</th>
268     <th>&nbsp;</th>
269     <th>&nbsp;</th>
270     </tr>
271    
272     <tr>
273     <ti>SGI Origin 200/2000</ti>
274     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip27/o32</ti>
275     <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
276     <ti>Recommended</ti>
277     </tr>
278     <tr>
279     <ti>"</ti>
280     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip27/o32/nptl</ti>
281     <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
282     <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
283     </tr>
284     <tr>
285     <ti>"</ti>
286     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip27/n32</ti>
287     <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
288     <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
289     </tr>
290     <tr>
291     <ti>"</ti>
292     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip27/n32/nptl</ti>
293     <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
294     <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
295     </tr>
296    
297     <tr>
298     <th>&nbsp;</th>
299     <th>&nbsp;</th>
300     <th>&nbsp;</th>
301     <th>&nbsp;</th>
302     </tr>
303    
304     <tr>
305     <ti>SGI Indigo2 Impact R10000</ti>
306     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip28/o32</ti>
307     <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
308     <ti>Recommended</ti>
309     </tr>
310     <tr>
311     <ti>"</ti>
312     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip28/o32/nptl</ti>
313     <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
314     <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
315     </tr>
316     <tr>
317     <ti>"</ti>
318     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip28/n32</ti>
319     <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
320     <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
321     </tr>
322     <tr>
323     <ti>"</ti>
324     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip28/n32/nptl</ti>
325     <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
326     <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
327     </tr>
328    
329     <tr>
330     <th>&nbsp;</th>
331     <th>&nbsp;</th>
332     <th>&nbsp;</th>
333     <th>&nbsp;</th>
334     </tr>
335    
336     <tr>
337     <ti>SGI Octane/Octane2</ti>
338     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip30/o32</ti>
339     <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
340     <ti>Recommended</ti>
341     </tr>
342     <tr>
343     <ti>"</ti>
344     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip30/o32/nptl</ti>
345     <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
346     <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
347     </tr>
348     <tr>
349     <ti>"</ti>
350     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip30/n32</ti>
351     <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
352     <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
353     </tr>
354     <tr>
355     <ti>"</ti>
356     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip30/n32/nptl</ti>
357     <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
358     <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
359     </tr>
360     </table>
361    
362     <impo>
363     (1) NPTL is in-testing on MIPS at this stage, requiring
364     <c>gcc-4.1</c> and <c>glibc-2.4</c>. These profiles
365     are a work-in-progress, and are not guaranteed to work. It is recommended that
366     people do not use these profiles until all the issues have been resolved.
367     </impo>
368    
369     <warn>
370     (2) n32 Userland is highly experimental, a lot of software has problems with
371     this ABI, and thus it is practically guaranteed that you will run into stability
372     problems at some point. Work is being done to improve the situation, however,
373     no support is offered if you use this profile, unless you're willing to help
374     fix problems by submitting patches.
375     </warn>
376    
377     <warn>
378     (3) n64 Userland at present is completely unsupported on all systems. At this
379     time there are no stages available that support n64, and this isn't likely to
380     change in the near future.
381     </warn>
382    
383     <p>
384     You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
385     </p>
386    
387     <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
388     # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
389     lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/o32/
390     </pre>
391    
392     <p>
393     Having looked through the profiles above, and decided which one is the most
394     appropriate, you need to adjust your <path>make.profile</path> symlink to
395     reflect this. By default, the profiles are in
396     <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>, so if you've moved your portage tree
397     elsewhere (not recommended), adjust the commands below accordingly.
398     </p>
399    
400     <pre caption="Setting the profile">
401     <comment>(Delete the old profile symlink)</comment>
402     # <i>rm -f /etc/make.profile</i>
403    
404     <comment>(Create a new symlink pointing to your chosen profile )
405     (For example, this is what one would use on an Indy or O2.)</comment>
406     # <i>ln -s /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/o32</i>
407     </pre>
408    
409     <note>
410     A tip for those not familiar with the Bourne Again Shell... If you partially
411     type a filename or command, then hit the TAB key, it will automatically fill out
412     the command/filename until the last common character. E.g. typing
413     <c>/usr/portage/profiles/def&lt;TAB&gt;</c>, <c>bash</c> will automatically put
414     down <c>default-</c>. Pressing TAB a couple of more times will reveal the
415     possibilities, <c>default-linux</c>, <c>default-darwin</c> and
416     <c>default-bsd</c>. Give it a try, you'll find it very handy for navigating the
417     command line.
418     </note>
419    
420     </body>
421     </subsection>
422     <subsection id="configure_USE">
423     <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
424     <body>
425    
426     <p>
427     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
428     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
429     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
430     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
431     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
432     (X-server).
433     </p>
434    
435     <p>
436     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
437     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
438     amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
439     should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
440     </p>
441    
442     <p>
443     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
444     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
445 nightmorph 1.2 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
446     minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt3 -qt4</e> will compile your
447     programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
448     making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
449 nightmorph 1.1 </p>
450    
451     <p>
452     The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
453     files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
454     directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
455     directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
456     settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
457     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
458     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
459     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
460     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
461     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
462     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
463     </p>
464    
465     <p>
466     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
467     Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
468     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
469     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
470     </p>
471    
472     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
473     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
474     <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
475     </pre>
476    
477     <p>
478     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
479     and CD Recording support:
480     </p>
481    
482     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
483     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
484     </pre>
485    
486     <pre caption="USE setting">
487 nightmorph 1.2 USE="-gtk -gnome qt3 qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
488 nightmorph 1.1 </pre>
489    
490     </body>
491     </subsection>
492     <subsection>
493     <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
494     <body>
495    
496     <p>
497     You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
498     specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
499     </p>
500    
501     <pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
502     # <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
503     </pre>
504    
505     <p>
506     The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
507     German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
508     </p>
509    
510     <pre caption="Specify your locales">
511     en_US ISO-8859-1
512     en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
513     de_DE ISO-8859-1
514     de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
515     </pre>
516    
517     <p>
518     The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
519     have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
520     </p>
521    
522     <note>
523     <c>locale-gen</c> is available in <c>glibc-2.3.6-r4</c> and newer. If you have
524     an older version of glibc, you should update it now.
525     </note>
526    
527     <p>
528     Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
529     </p>
530    
531     </body>
532     </subsection>
533     </section>
534     </sections>

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