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more cross-arch cleanups for the mips handbook

1 nightmorph 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7 nightmorph 1.3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-mips-system.xml,v 1.2 2006/10/08 19:38:11 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 nightmorph 1.1
9     <sections>
10    
11 nightmorph 1.3 <version>7.2</version>
12     <date>2006-11-08</date>
13 nightmorph 1.1
14     <section>
15     <title>Chrooting</title>
16     <!--<subsection> MIPS install media doesn't include mirrorselect
17     <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21     In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
22     mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
23     GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
24     our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
25     for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
26     fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
27     provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
28     </p>
29    
30     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
31     # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
32     </pre>
33    
34     <warn>
35     Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
36     </warn>
37    
38     <p>
39     A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
40     variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
41     tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
42     needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
43     server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
44     </p>
45    
46     <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
47     # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
48     </pre>
49    
50     <p>
51     After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
52     in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
53     </p>
54    
55     </body>
56     </subsection>-->
57     <subsection>
58     <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
59     <body>
60    
61     <p>
62     One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
63     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
64     to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
65     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
66     network.
67     </p>
68    
69     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
70     <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
71     # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
72     </pre>
73    
74     </body>
75     </subsection>
76     <subsection>
77     <title>Mounting the /proc and /dev Filesystems</title>
78     <body>
79    
80     <p>
81     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
82     allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
83     chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> filesystem.
84     </p>
85    
86     <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
87     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
88     # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
89     </pre>
90    
91     </body>
92     </subsection>
93     <subsection>
94     <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
95     <body>
96    
97     <p>
98     Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
99     installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
100     <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
101     installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
102     installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
103     </p>
104    
105     <p>
106     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
107     from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
108     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
109     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
110     Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
111     </p>
112    
113     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
114     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
115     # <i>env-update</i>
116     >> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
117     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
118     # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
119     </pre>
120    
121     <p>
122     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
123     Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
124     has some sections left :-)
125     </p>
126    
127     </body>
128     </subsection>
129     </section>
130    
131     <section>
132     <title>Configuring Portage</title>
133     <subsection>
134     <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
135     <body>
136    
137     <p>
138     You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
139     --sync</c> does this for you.
140     </p>
141    
142     <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
143     # <i>emerge --sync</i>
144     <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
145     console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
146     # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
147     </pre>
148    
149     <p>
150     If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
151     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
152     you.
153     </p>
154    
155     <p>
156     If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
157     update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge portage</c> command.
158     </p>
159    
160     </body>
161     </subsection>
162     <subsection>
163     <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
164     <body>
165    
166     <p>
167     First, a small definition is in place.
168     </p>
169    
170     <p>
171     A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
172     default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
173     the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
174     Gentoo developers.
175     </p>
176    
177     <p>
178 nightmorph 1.3 Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, there may be
179     situations in which you may decide a profile change is necessary.
180     </p>
181    
182     <p>
183 nightmorph 1.1 Since 2006.0, there has been a re-shuffle regarding the profiles for MIPS
184     systems. These profiles set various options including USE flags, which affect
185     what patchsets are enabled with various system-critical packages (notably,
186     <c>gcc</c> and <c>mips-sources</c>).
187     </p>
188    
189     <p>
190     Thus, care needs to be taken to ensure the correct profile is selected for your
191     system type. As of Gentoo/MIPS 2006.1, the profiles are:
192     </p>
193    
194     <table>
195     <tr>
196     <th>System</th>
197     <th>Profile</th>
198     <th>Userland</th>
199     <th>Status/Notes</th>
200     </tr>
201    
202     <tr>
203     <ti>Cobalt Qube/RaQ</ti>
204     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/cobalt/o32</ti>
205     <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
206     <ti>Recommended</ti>
207     </tr>
208     <tr>
209     <ti>"</ti>
210     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/cobalt/o32/nptl</ti>
211     <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
212     <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
213     </tr>
214    
215     <tr>
216     <th>&nbsp;</th>
217     <th>&nbsp;</th>
218     <th>&nbsp;</th>
219     <th>&nbsp;</th>
220     </tr>
221    
222     <tr>
223     <ti>
224     Generic Big Endian<br />
225     <e>Including SGI Indy, Indigo2 (R4x00), Challenge S and O2</e>
226     </ti>
227     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/o32</ti>
228     <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
229     <ti>Recommended</ti>
230     </tr>
231     <tr>
232     <ti>"</ti>
233     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/o32/nptl</ti>
234     <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
235     <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
236     </tr>
237     <tr>
238     <ti>"</ti>
239     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/n32</ti>
240     <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
241     <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
242     </tr>
243     <tr>
244     <ti>"</ti>
245     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/n32/nptl</ti>
246     <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
247     <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
248     </tr>
249     <tr>
250     <ti>"</ti>
251     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/n64</ti>
252     <ti>N64 Linuxthreads</ti>
253     <ti>Unsupported (3)</ti>
254     </tr>
255     <tr>
256     <ti>"</ti>
257     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/n64/nptl</ti>
258     <ti>N64 NPTL</ti>
259     <ti>Unsupported (1) (3)</ti>
260     </tr>
261    
262     <tr>
263     <th>&nbsp;</th>
264     <th>&nbsp;</th>
265     <th>&nbsp;</th>
266     <th>&nbsp;</th>
267     </tr>
268    
269     <tr>
270     <ti>SGI Origin 200/2000</ti>
271     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip27/o32</ti>
272     <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
273     <ti>Recommended</ti>
274     </tr>
275     <tr>
276     <ti>"</ti>
277     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip27/o32/nptl</ti>
278     <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
279     <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
280     </tr>
281     <tr>
282     <ti>"</ti>
283     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip27/n32</ti>
284     <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
285     <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
286     </tr>
287     <tr>
288     <ti>"</ti>
289     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip27/n32/nptl</ti>
290     <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
291     <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
292     </tr>
293    
294     <tr>
295     <th>&nbsp;</th>
296     <th>&nbsp;</th>
297     <th>&nbsp;</th>
298     <th>&nbsp;</th>
299     </tr>
300    
301     <tr>
302     <ti>SGI Indigo2 Impact R10000</ti>
303     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip28/o32</ti>
304     <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
305     <ti>Recommended</ti>
306     </tr>
307     <tr>
308     <ti>"</ti>
309     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip28/o32/nptl</ti>
310     <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
311     <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
312     </tr>
313     <tr>
314     <ti>"</ti>
315     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip28/n32</ti>
316     <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
317     <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
318     </tr>
319     <tr>
320     <ti>"</ti>
321     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip28/n32/nptl</ti>
322     <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
323     <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
324     </tr>
325    
326     <tr>
327     <th>&nbsp;</th>
328     <th>&nbsp;</th>
329     <th>&nbsp;</th>
330     <th>&nbsp;</th>
331     </tr>
332    
333     <tr>
334     <ti>SGI Octane/Octane2</ti>
335     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip30/o32</ti>
336     <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
337     <ti>Recommended</ti>
338     </tr>
339     <tr>
340     <ti>"</ti>
341     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip30/o32/nptl</ti>
342     <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
343     <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
344     </tr>
345     <tr>
346     <ti>"</ti>
347     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip30/n32</ti>
348     <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
349     <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
350     </tr>
351     <tr>
352     <ti>"</ti>
353     <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip30/n32/nptl</ti>
354     <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
355     <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
356     </tr>
357     </table>
358    
359     <impo>
360     (1) NPTL is in-testing on MIPS at this stage, requiring
361     <c>gcc-4.1</c> and <c>glibc-2.4</c>. These profiles
362     are a work-in-progress, and are not guaranteed to work. It is recommended that
363     people do not use these profiles until all the issues have been resolved.
364     </impo>
365    
366     <warn>
367     (2) n32 Userland is highly experimental, a lot of software has problems with
368     this ABI, and thus it is practically guaranteed that you will run into stability
369     problems at some point. Work is being done to improve the situation, however,
370     no support is offered if you use this profile, unless you're willing to help
371     fix problems by submitting patches.
372     </warn>
373    
374     <warn>
375     (3) n64 Userland at present is completely unsupported on all systems. At this
376     time there are no stages available that support n64, and this isn't likely to
377     change in the near future.
378     </warn>
379    
380     <p>
381     You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
382     </p>
383    
384     <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
385     # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
386     lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/o32/
387     </pre>
388    
389     <p>
390     Having looked through the profiles above, and decided which one is the most
391     appropriate, you need to adjust your <path>make.profile</path> symlink to
392     reflect this. By default, the profiles are in
393     <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>, so if you've moved your portage tree
394     elsewhere (not recommended), adjust the commands below accordingly.
395     </p>
396    
397     <pre caption="Setting the profile">
398     <comment>(Delete the old profile symlink)</comment>
399     # <i>rm -f /etc/make.profile</i>
400    
401     <comment>(Create a new symlink pointing to your chosen profile )
402     (For example, this is what one would use on an Indy or O2.)</comment>
403     # <i>ln -s /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/o32</i>
404     </pre>
405    
406     <note>
407     A tip for those not familiar with the Bourne Again Shell... If you partially
408     type a filename or command, then hit the TAB key, it will automatically fill out
409     the command/filename until the last common character. E.g. typing
410     <c>/usr/portage/profiles/def&lt;TAB&gt;</c>, <c>bash</c> will automatically put
411     down <c>default-</c>. Pressing TAB a couple of more times will reveal the
412     possibilities, <c>default-linux</c>, <c>default-darwin</c> and
413     <c>default-bsd</c>. Give it a try, you'll find it very handy for navigating the
414     command line.
415     </note>
416    
417     </body>
418     </subsection>
419     <subsection id="configure_USE">
420     <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
421     <body>
422    
423     <p>
424     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
425     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
426     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
427     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
428     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
429     (X-server).
430     </p>
431    
432     <p>
433     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
434     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
435     amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
436     should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
437     </p>
438    
439     <p>
440     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
441     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
442 nightmorph 1.2 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
443     minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt3 -qt4</e> will compile your
444     programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
445     making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
446 nightmorph 1.1 </p>
447    
448     <p>
449     The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
450     files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
451     directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
452     directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
453     settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
454     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
455     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
456     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
457     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
458     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
459     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
460     </p>
461    
462     <p>
463     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
464     Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
465     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
466     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
467     </p>
468    
469     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
470     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
471     <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
472     </pre>
473    
474     <p>
475     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
476     and CD Recording support:
477     </p>
478    
479     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
480     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
481     </pre>
482    
483     <pre caption="USE setting">
484 nightmorph 1.2 USE="-gtk -gnome qt3 qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
485 nightmorph 1.1 </pre>
486    
487     </body>
488     </subsection>
489     <subsection>
490     <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
491     <body>
492    
493     <p>
494     You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
495     specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
496     </p>
497    
498     <pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
499     # <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
500     </pre>
501    
502     <p>
503     The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
504     German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
505     </p>
506    
507     <pre caption="Specify your locales">
508     en_US ISO-8859-1
509     en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
510     de_DE ISO-8859-1
511     de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
512     </pre>
513    
514     <p>
515     The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
516     have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
517     </p>
518    
519     <note>
520     <c>locale-gen</c> is available in <c>glibc-2.3.6-r4</c> and newer. If you have
521     an older version of glibc, you should update it now.
522     </note>
523    
524     <p>
525     Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
526     </p>
527    
528     </body>
529     </subsection>
530     </section>
531     </sections>

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