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Fix bug #420159 - Add bind-mounting of /sys

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-mips-system.xml,v 1.10 2011/08/22 16:58:02 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>11</version>
12 <date>2012-06-29</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
22 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
23 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
24 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
25 network.
26 </p>
27
28 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
29 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
30 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/</i>
31 </pre>
32
33 </body>
34 </subsection>
35 <subsection>
36 <title>Mounting the necessary Filesystems</title>
37 <body>
38
39 <p>
40 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
41 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
42 chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> and
43 <path>/sys</path> filesystems.
44 </p>
45
46 <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
47 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
48 # <i>mount --rbind /sys /mnt/gentoo/sys</i>
49 # <i>mount --rbind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
50 </pre>
51
52 </body>
53 </subsection>
54 <subsection>
55 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
56 <body>
57
58 <p>
59 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
60 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
61 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
62 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
63 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
64 </p>
65
66 <p>
67 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
68 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
69 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
70 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
71 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
72 </p>
73
74 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
75 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
76 # <i>env-update</i>
77 >> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
78 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
79 # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
80 </pre>
81
82 <p>
83 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
84 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
85 has some sections left :-)
86 </p>
87
88 </body>
89 </subsection>
90 </section>
91
92 <section>
93 <title>Configuring Portage</title>
94 <subsection>
95 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
96 <body>
97
98 <p>
99 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
100 --sync</c> does this for you.
101 </p>
102
103 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
104 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
105 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
106 console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
107 # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
108 </pre>
109
110 <p>
111 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
112 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
113 you.
114 </p>
115
116 <p>
117 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
118 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge --oneshot portage</c>.
119 </p>
120
121 </body>
122 </subsection>
123 <subsection>
124 <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
125 <body>
126
127 <p>
128 First, a small definition is in place.
129 </p>
130
131 <p>
132 A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
133 default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
134 the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
135 Gentoo developers.
136 </p>
137
138 <p>
139 Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, there may be
140 situations in which you may decide a profile change is necessary.
141 </p>
142
143 <p>
144 Since 2006.0, there has been a re-shuffle regarding the profiles for MIPS
145 systems. These profiles set various options including USE flags, which affect
146 what patchsets are enabled with various system-critical packages (notably,
147 <c>gcc</c> and <c>mips-sources</c>).
148 </p>
149
150 <p>
151 Thus, care needs to be taken to ensure the correct profile is selected for your
152 system type. As of Gentoo/MIPS 2007.0, the profiles are:
153 </p>
154
155 <table>
156 <tr>
157 <th>System</th>
158 <th>Profile</th>
159 <th>Userland</th>
160 <th>Status/Notes</th>
161 </tr>
162 <tr>
163 <ti>Cobalt Qube/RaQ</ti>
164 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/cobalt/o32</ti>
165 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
166 <ti>Recommended</ti>
167 </tr>
168 <tr>
169 <ti>"</ti>
170 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/cobalt/o32/nptl</ti>
171 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
172 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
173 </tr>
174 <tr>
175 <th>&nbsp;</th>
176 <th>&nbsp;</th>
177 <th>&nbsp;</th>
178 <th>&nbsp;</th>
179 </tr>
180 <tr>
181 <ti>
182 Generic Big Endian<br />
183 <e>Including SGI Indy, Indigo2 (R4x00), Challenge S and O2</e>
184 </ti>
185 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/o32</ti>
186 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
187 <ti>Recommended</ti>
188 </tr>
189 <tr>
190 <ti>"</ti>
191 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/o32/nptl</ti>
192 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
193 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
194 </tr>
195 <tr>
196 <ti>"</ti>
197 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/n32</ti>
198 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
199 <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
200 </tr>
201 <tr>
202 <ti>"</ti>
203 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/n32/nptl</ti>
204 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
205 <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
206 </tr>
207 <tr>
208 <ti>"</ti>
209 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/n64</ti>
210 <ti>N64 Linuxthreads</ti>
211 <ti>Unsupported (3)</ti>
212 </tr>
213 <tr>
214 <ti>"</ti>
215 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/n64/nptl</ti>
216 <ti>N64 NPTL</ti>
217 <ti>Unsupported (1) (3)</ti>
218 </tr>
219 <tr>
220 <th>&nbsp;</th>
221 <th>&nbsp;</th>
222 <th>&nbsp;</th>
223 <th>&nbsp;</th>
224 </tr>
225 <tr>
226 <ti>SGI Origin 200/2000</ti>
227 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip27/o32</ti>
228 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
229 <ti>Recommended</ti>
230 </tr>
231 <tr>
232 <ti>"</ti>
233 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip27/o32/nptl</ti>
234 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
235 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
236 </tr>
237 <tr>
238 <ti>"</ti>
239 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip27/n32</ti>
240 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
241 <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
242 </tr>
243 <tr>
244 <ti>"</ti>
245 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip27/n32/nptl</ti>
246 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
247 <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
248 </tr>
249
250 <tr>
251 <th>&nbsp;</th>
252 <th>&nbsp;</th>
253 <th>&nbsp;</th>
254 <th>&nbsp;</th>
255 </tr>
256 <tr>
257 <ti>SGI Indigo2 Impact R10000</ti>
258 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip28/o32</ti>
259 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
260 <ti>Recommended</ti>
261 </tr>
262 <tr>
263 <ti>"</ti>
264 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip28/o32/nptl</ti>
265 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
266 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
267 </tr>
268 <tr>
269 <ti>"</ti>
270 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip28/n32</ti>
271 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
272 <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
273 </tr>
274 <tr>
275 <ti>"</ti>
276 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip28/n32/nptl</ti>
277 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
278 <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
279 </tr>
280 <tr>
281 <th>&nbsp;</th>
282 <th>&nbsp;</th>
283 <th>&nbsp;</th>
284 <th>&nbsp;</th>
285 </tr>
286 <tr>
287 <ti>SGI Octane/Octane2</ti>
288 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip30/o32</ti>
289 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
290 <ti>Recommended</ti>
291 </tr>
292 <tr>
293 <ti>"</ti>
294 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip30/o32/nptl</ti>
295 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
296 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
297 </tr>
298 <tr>
299 <ti>"</ti>
300 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip30/n32</ti>
301 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
302 <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
303 </tr>
304 <tr>
305 <ti>"</ti>
306 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip30/n32/nptl</ti>
307 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
308 <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
309 </tr>
310 </table>
311
312 <impo>
313 (1) NPTL is in-testing on MIPS at this stage, requiring <c>gcc-4.1</c> and
314 <c>glibc-2.4</c>. It is believed that NPTL should be safe enough now for people
315 to use, and is planned to be the default in future releases. Brave users are
316 welcomed to try these profiles out and report back.
317 </impo>
318
319 <warn>
320 (2) n32 Userland is highly experimental, a lot of software has problems with
321 this ABI, and thus it is practically guaranteed that you will run into stability
322 problems at some point. Work is being done to improve the situation, however,
323 no support is offered if you use this profile, unless you're willing to help
324 fix problems by submitting patches.
325 </warn>
326
327 <warn>
328 (3) n64 Userland at present is completely unsupported on all systems. At this
329 time there are no stages available that support n64, and this isn't likely to
330 change in the near future.
331 </warn>
332
333 <p>
334 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
335 </p>
336
337 <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
338 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
339 lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/<keyval id="profile"/>
340 </pre>
341
342 <p>
343 Having looked through the profiles above, and decided which one is the most
344 appropriate, you need to adjust your <path>make.profile</path> symlink to
345 reflect this. By default, the profiles are in
346 <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>, so if you've moved your portage tree
347 elsewhere (not recommended), adjust the commands below accordingly.
348 </p>
349
350 <pre caption="Setting the profile">
351 <comment>(Delete the old profile symlink)</comment>
352 # <i>rm -f /etc/make.profile</i>
353
354 <comment>(Create a new symlink pointing to your chosen profile )
355 (For example, this is what one would use on an Indy or O2.)</comment>
356 # <i>ln -s /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/o32</i>
357 </pre>
358
359 <note>
360 A tip for those not familiar with the Bourne Again Shell... If you partially
361 type a filename or command, then hit the TAB key, it will automatically fill out
362 the command/filename until the last common character. E.g. typing
363 <c>/usr/portage/profiles/def&lt;TAB&gt;</c>, <c>bash</c> will automatically put
364 down <c>default-</c>. Pressing TAB a couple of more times will reveal the
365 possibilities, <c>default-linux</c>, <c>default-darwin</c> and
366 <c>default-bsd</c>. Give it a try, you'll find it very handy for navigating the
367 command line.
368 </note>
369
370 </body>
371 </subsection>
372 <subsection id="configure_USE">
373 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
374 <body>
375
376 <p>
377 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
378 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
379 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
380 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
381 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
382 (X-server).
383 </p>
384
385 <p>
386 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
387 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
388 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
389 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
390 </p>
391
392 <p>
393 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
394 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
395 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
396 minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt4</e> will compile your
397 programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
398 making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
399 </p>
400
401 <p>
402 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
403 files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
404 directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
405 directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
406 settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
407 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
408 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
409 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
410 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
411 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
412 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
413 </p>
414
415 <p>
416 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
417 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
418 the available USE flags can be found on your system in
419 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
420 </p>
421
422 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
423 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
424 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
425 </pre>
426
427 <p>
428 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
429 and CD Recording support:
430 </p>
431
432 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
433 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
434 </pre>
435
436 <pre caption="USE setting">
437 USE="-gtk -gnome qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
438 </pre>
439
440 </body>
441 </subsection>
442 <subsection>
443 <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
444 <body>
445
446 <p>
447 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
448 specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
449 </p>
450
451 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
452 # <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
453 </pre>
454
455 <p>
456 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
457 German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
458 </p>
459
460 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
461 en_US ISO-8859-1
462 en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
463 de_DE ISO-8859-1
464 de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
465 </pre>
466
467 <p>
468 The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
469 have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
470 </p>
471
472 <pre caption="Running locale-gen">
473 # <i>locale-gen</i>
474 </pre>
475
476 <p>
477 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
478 </p>
479
480 </body>
481 </subsection>
482 </section>
483 </sections>

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