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Fix bug #449192 (missed a step, or counted a step too much). Fix by Chema Alonso with some minor modification

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-mips-system.xml,v 1.12 2013/01/02 19:28:52 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>14</version>
12 <date>2013-01-08</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
22 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
23 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
24 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
25 network.
26 </p>
27
28 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
29 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
30 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/</i>
31 </pre>
32
33 </body>
34 </subsection>
35 <subsection>
36 <title>Mounting the necessary Filesystems</title>
37 <body>
38
39 <p>
40 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
41 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
42 chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> and
43 <path>/sys</path> filesystems.
44 </p>
45
46 <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
47 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
48 # <i>mount --rbind /sys /mnt/gentoo/sys</i>
49 # <i>mount --rbind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
50 </pre>
51
52 </body>
53 </subsection>
54 <subsection>
55 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
56 <body>
57
58 <p>
59 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
60 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
61 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
62 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
63 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
64 </p>
65
66 <p>
67 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
68 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
69 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will reload some settings, as
70 provided by <path>/etc/profile</path>, in memory using <c>source</c>.
71 The last step is to redefine the primary prompt to help us remember that we are
72 inside a chroot environment.
73 </p>
74
75 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
76 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
77 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
78 # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
79 </pre>
80
81 <p>
82 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
83 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
84 has some sections left :-)
85 </p>
86
87 </body>
88 </subsection>
89 </section>
90
91 <section>
92 <title>Configuring Portage</title>
93 <subsection>
94 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
95 <body>
96
97 <p>
98 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
99 --sync</c> does this for you.
100 </p>
101
102 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
103 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
104 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
105 console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
106 # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
107 </pre>
108
109 <p>
110 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
111 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
112 you.
113 </p>
114
115 <p>
116 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
117 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge --oneshot portage</c>.
118 </p>
119
120 </body>
121 </subsection>
122 <subsection>
123 <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
124 <body>
125
126 <p>
127 First, a small definition is in place.
128 </p>
129
130 <p>
131 A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
132 default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
133 the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
134 Gentoo developers.
135 </p>
136
137 <p>
138 Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, there may be
139 situations in which you may decide a profile change is necessary.
140 </p>
141
142 <p>
143 Since 2006.0, there has been a re-shuffle regarding the profiles for MIPS
144 systems. These profiles set various options including USE flags, which affect
145 what patchsets are enabled with various system-critical packages (notably,
146 <c>gcc</c> and <c>mips-sources</c>).
147 </p>
148
149 <p>
150 Thus, care needs to be taken to ensure the correct profile is selected for your
151 system type. As of Gentoo/MIPS 2007.0, the profiles are:
152 </p>
153
154 <table>
155 <tr>
156 <th>System</th>
157 <th>Profile</th>
158 <th>Userland</th>
159 <th>Status/Notes</th>
160 </tr>
161 <tr>
162 <ti>Cobalt Qube/RaQ</ti>
163 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/cobalt/o32</ti>
164 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
165 <ti>Recommended</ti>
166 </tr>
167 <tr>
168 <ti>"</ti>
169 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/cobalt/o32/nptl</ti>
170 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
171 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
172 </tr>
173 <tr>
174 <th>&nbsp;</th>
175 <th>&nbsp;</th>
176 <th>&nbsp;</th>
177 <th>&nbsp;</th>
178 </tr>
179 <tr>
180 <ti>
181 Generic Big Endian<br />
182 <e>Including SGI Indy, Indigo2 (R4x00), Challenge S and O2</e>
183 </ti>
184 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/o32</ti>
185 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
186 <ti>Recommended</ti>
187 </tr>
188 <tr>
189 <ti>"</ti>
190 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/o32/nptl</ti>
191 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
192 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
193 </tr>
194 <tr>
195 <ti>"</ti>
196 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/n32</ti>
197 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
198 <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
199 </tr>
200 <tr>
201 <ti>"</ti>
202 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/n32/nptl</ti>
203 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
204 <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
205 </tr>
206 <tr>
207 <ti>"</ti>
208 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/n64</ti>
209 <ti>N64 Linuxthreads</ti>
210 <ti>Unsupported (3)</ti>
211 </tr>
212 <tr>
213 <ti>"</ti>
214 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/n64/nptl</ti>
215 <ti>N64 NPTL</ti>
216 <ti>Unsupported (1) (3)</ti>
217 </tr>
218 <tr>
219 <th>&nbsp;</th>
220 <th>&nbsp;</th>
221 <th>&nbsp;</th>
222 <th>&nbsp;</th>
223 </tr>
224 <tr>
225 <ti>SGI Origin 200/2000</ti>
226 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip27/o32</ti>
227 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
228 <ti>Recommended</ti>
229 </tr>
230 <tr>
231 <ti>"</ti>
232 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip27/o32/nptl</ti>
233 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
234 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
235 </tr>
236 <tr>
237 <ti>"</ti>
238 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip27/n32</ti>
239 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
240 <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
241 </tr>
242 <tr>
243 <ti>"</ti>
244 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip27/n32/nptl</ti>
245 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
246 <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
247 </tr>
248
249 <tr>
250 <th>&nbsp;</th>
251 <th>&nbsp;</th>
252 <th>&nbsp;</th>
253 <th>&nbsp;</th>
254 </tr>
255 <tr>
256 <ti>SGI Indigo2 Impact R10000</ti>
257 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip28/o32</ti>
258 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
259 <ti>Recommended</ti>
260 </tr>
261 <tr>
262 <ti>"</ti>
263 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip28/o32/nptl</ti>
264 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
265 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
266 </tr>
267 <tr>
268 <ti>"</ti>
269 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip28/n32</ti>
270 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
271 <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
272 </tr>
273 <tr>
274 <ti>"</ti>
275 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip28/n32/nptl</ti>
276 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
277 <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
278 </tr>
279 <tr>
280 <th>&nbsp;</th>
281 <th>&nbsp;</th>
282 <th>&nbsp;</th>
283 <th>&nbsp;</th>
284 </tr>
285 <tr>
286 <ti>SGI Octane/Octane2</ti>
287 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip30/o32</ti>
288 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
289 <ti>Recommended</ti>
290 </tr>
291 <tr>
292 <ti>"</ti>
293 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip30/o32/nptl</ti>
294 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
295 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
296 </tr>
297 <tr>
298 <ti>"</ti>
299 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip30/n32</ti>
300 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
301 <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
302 </tr>
303 <tr>
304 <ti>"</ti>
305 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip30/n32/nptl</ti>
306 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
307 <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
308 </tr>
309 </table>
310
311 <impo>
312 (1) NPTL is in-testing on MIPS at this stage, requiring <c>gcc-4.1</c> and
313 <c>glibc-2.4</c>. It is believed that NPTL should be safe enough now for people
314 to use, and is planned to be the default in future releases. Brave users are
315 welcomed to try these profiles out and report back.
316 </impo>
317
318 <warn>
319 (2) n32 Userland is highly experimental, a lot of software has problems with
320 this ABI, and thus it is practically guaranteed that you will run into stability
321 problems at some point. Work is being done to improve the situation, however,
322 no support is offered if you use this profile, unless you're willing to help
323 fix problems by submitting patches.
324 </warn>
325
326 <warn>
327 (3) n64 Userland at present is completely unsupported on all systems. At this
328 time there are no stages available that support n64, and this isn't likely to
329 change in the near future.
330 </warn>
331
332 <p>
333 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
334 </p>
335
336 <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
337 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
338 lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/<keyval id="profile"/>
339 </pre>
340
341 <p>
342 Having looked through the profiles above, and decided which one is the most
343 appropriate, you need to adjust your <path>make.profile</path> symlink to
344 reflect this. By default, the profiles are in
345 <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>, so if you've moved your portage tree
346 elsewhere (not recommended), adjust the commands below accordingly.
347 </p>
348
349 <pre caption="Setting the profile">
350 <comment>(Delete the old profile symlink)</comment>
351 # <i>rm -f /etc/make.profile</i>
352
353 <comment>(Create a new symlink pointing to your chosen profile )
354 (For example, this is what one would use on an Indy or O2.)</comment>
355 # <i>ln -s /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/o32</i>
356 </pre>
357
358 <note>
359 A tip for those not familiar with the Bourne Again Shell... If you partially
360 type a filename or command, then hit the TAB key, it will automatically fill out
361 the command/filename until the last common character. E.g. typing
362 <c>/usr/portage/profiles/def&lt;TAB&gt;</c>, <c>bash</c> will automatically put
363 down <c>default-</c>. Pressing TAB a couple of more times will reveal the
364 possibilities, <c>default-linux</c>, <c>default-darwin</c> and
365 <c>default-bsd</c>. Give it a try, you'll find it very handy for navigating the
366 command line.
367 </note>
368
369 </body>
370 </subsection>
371 <subsection id="configure_USE">
372 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
373 <body>
374
375 <p>
376 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
377 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
378 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
379 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
380 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
381 (X-server).
382 </p>
383
384 <p>
385 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
386 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
387 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
388 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
389 </p>
390
391 <p>
392 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
393 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
394 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
395 minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt4</e> will compile your
396 programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
397 making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
398 </p>
399
400 <p>
401 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
402 files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
403 directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
404 directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
405 settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
406 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
407 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
408 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
409 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
410 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
411 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
412 </p>
413
414 <p>
415 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
416 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
417 the available USE flags can be found on your system in
418 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
419 </p>
420
421 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
422 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
423 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
424 </pre>
425
426 <p>
427 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
428 and CD Recording support:
429 </p>
430
431 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
432 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
433 </pre>
434
435 <pre caption="USE setting">
436 USE="-gtk -gnome qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
437 </pre>
438
439 </body>
440 </subsection>
441 <subsection>
442 <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
443 <body>
444
445 <p>
446 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
447 specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
448 </p>
449
450 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
451 # <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
452 </pre>
453
454 <p>
455 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
456 German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
457 </p>
458
459 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
460 en_US ISO-8859-1
461 en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
462 de_DE ISO-8859-1
463 de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
464 </pre>
465
466 <p>
467 The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
468 have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
469 </p>
470
471 <pre caption="Running locale-gen">
472 # <i>locale-gen</i>
473 </pre>
474
475 <p>
476 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
477 </p>
478
479 </body>
480 </subsection>
481 </section>
482 </sections>

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