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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-mips-system.xml,v 1.1 2006/08/30 22:52:28 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>7.1</version>
12 <date>2006-10-08</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 <!--<subsection> MIPS install media doesn't include mirrorselect
17 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
22 mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
23 GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
24 our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
25 for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
26 fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
27 provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
28 </p>
29
30 <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
31 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
32 </pre>
33
34 <warn>
35 Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
36 </warn>
37
38 <p>
39 A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
40 variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
41 tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
42 needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
43 server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
44 </p>
45
46 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
47 # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
48 </pre>
49
50 <p>
51 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
52 in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
53 </p>
54
55 </body>
56 </subsection>-->
57 <subsection>
58 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
59 <body>
60
61 <p>
62 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
63 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
64 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
65 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
66 network.
67 </p>
68
69 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
70 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
71 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
72 </pre>
73
74 </body>
75 </subsection>
76 <subsection>
77 <title>Mounting the /proc and /dev Filesystems</title>
78 <body>
79
80 <p>
81 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
82 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
83 chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> filesystem.
84 </p>
85
86 <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
87 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
88 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
89 </pre>
90
91 </body>
92 </subsection>
93 <subsection>
94 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
95 <body>
96
97 <p>
98 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
99 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
100 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
101 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
102 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
103 </p>
104
105 <p>
106 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
107 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
108 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
109 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
110 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
111 </p>
112
113 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
114 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
115 # <i>env-update</i>
116 >> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
117 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
118 # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
119 </pre>
120
121 <p>
122 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
123 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
124 has some sections left :-)
125 </p>
126
127 </body>
128 </subsection>
129 </section>
130
131 <section>
132 <title>Configuring Portage</title>
133 <subsection>
134 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
135 <body>
136
137 <p>
138 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
139 --sync</c> does this for you.
140 </p>
141
142 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
143 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
144 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
145 console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
146 # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
147 </pre>
148
149 <p>
150 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
151 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
152 you.
153 </p>
154
155 <p>
156 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
157 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge portage</c> command.
158 </p>
159
160 </body>
161 </subsection>
162 <subsection>
163 <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
164 <body>
165
166 <p>
167 First, a small definition is in place.
168 </p>
169
170 <p>
171 A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
172 default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
173 the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
174 Gentoo developers.
175 </p>
176
177 <p>
178 Since 2006.0, there has been a re-shuffle regarding the profiles for MIPS
179 systems. These profiles set various options including USE flags, which affect
180 what patchsets are enabled with various system-critical packages (notably,
181 <c>gcc</c> and <c>mips-sources</c>).
182 </p>
183
184 <p>
185 Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, x86, hppa
186 and alpha users can choose between two profiles, one for a 2.4 kernel and one
187 for a 2.6 kernel. This requirement has been imposed to improve the integration
188 of the 2.6 kernels. The ppc and ppc64 architectures have several profiles
189 available as well. We will talk about those later.
190 </p>
191
192 <p>
193 Thus, care needs to be taken to ensure the correct profile is selected for your
194 system type. As of Gentoo/MIPS 2006.1, the profiles are:
195 </p>
196
197 <table>
198 <tr>
199 <th>System</th>
200 <th>Profile</th>
201 <th>Userland</th>
202 <th>Status/Notes</th>
203 </tr>
204
205 <tr>
206 <ti>Cobalt Qube/RaQ</ti>
207 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/cobalt/o32</ti>
208 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
209 <ti>Recommended</ti>
210 </tr>
211 <tr>
212 <ti>"</ti>
213 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/cobalt/o32/nptl</ti>
214 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
215 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
216 </tr>
217
218 <tr>
219 <th>&nbsp;</th>
220 <th>&nbsp;</th>
221 <th>&nbsp;</th>
222 <th>&nbsp;</th>
223 </tr>
224
225 <tr>
226 <ti>
227 Generic Big Endian<br />
228 <e>Including SGI Indy, Indigo2 (R4x00), Challenge S and O2</e>
229 </ti>
230 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/o32</ti>
231 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
232 <ti>Recommended</ti>
233 </tr>
234 <tr>
235 <ti>"</ti>
236 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/o32/nptl</ti>
237 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
238 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
239 </tr>
240 <tr>
241 <ti>"</ti>
242 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/n32</ti>
243 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
244 <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
245 </tr>
246 <tr>
247 <ti>"</ti>
248 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/n32/nptl</ti>
249 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
250 <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
251 </tr>
252 <tr>
253 <ti>"</ti>
254 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/n64</ti>
255 <ti>N64 Linuxthreads</ti>
256 <ti>Unsupported (3)</ti>
257 </tr>
258 <tr>
259 <ti>"</ti>
260 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/n64/nptl</ti>
261 <ti>N64 NPTL</ti>
262 <ti>Unsupported (1) (3)</ti>
263 </tr>
264
265 <tr>
266 <th>&nbsp;</th>
267 <th>&nbsp;</th>
268 <th>&nbsp;</th>
269 <th>&nbsp;</th>
270 </tr>
271
272 <tr>
273 <ti>SGI Origin 200/2000</ti>
274 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip27/o32</ti>
275 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
276 <ti>Recommended</ti>
277 </tr>
278 <tr>
279 <ti>"</ti>
280 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip27/o32/nptl</ti>
281 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
282 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
283 </tr>
284 <tr>
285 <ti>"</ti>
286 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip27/n32</ti>
287 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
288 <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
289 </tr>
290 <tr>
291 <ti>"</ti>
292 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip27/n32/nptl</ti>
293 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
294 <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
295 </tr>
296
297 <tr>
298 <th>&nbsp;</th>
299 <th>&nbsp;</th>
300 <th>&nbsp;</th>
301 <th>&nbsp;</th>
302 </tr>
303
304 <tr>
305 <ti>SGI Indigo2 Impact R10000</ti>
306 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip28/o32</ti>
307 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
308 <ti>Recommended</ti>
309 </tr>
310 <tr>
311 <ti>"</ti>
312 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip28/o32/nptl</ti>
313 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
314 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
315 </tr>
316 <tr>
317 <ti>"</ti>
318 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip28/n32</ti>
319 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
320 <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
321 </tr>
322 <tr>
323 <ti>"</ti>
324 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip28/n32/nptl</ti>
325 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
326 <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
327 </tr>
328
329 <tr>
330 <th>&nbsp;</th>
331 <th>&nbsp;</th>
332 <th>&nbsp;</th>
333 <th>&nbsp;</th>
334 </tr>
335
336 <tr>
337 <ti>SGI Octane/Octane2</ti>
338 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip30/o32</ti>
339 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
340 <ti>Recommended</ti>
341 </tr>
342 <tr>
343 <ti>"</ti>
344 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip30/o32/nptl</ti>
345 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
346 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
347 </tr>
348 <tr>
349 <ti>"</ti>
350 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip30/n32</ti>
351 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
352 <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
353 </tr>
354 <tr>
355 <ti>"</ti>
356 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip30/n32/nptl</ti>
357 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
358 <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
359 </tr>
360 </table>
361
362 <impo>
363 (1) NPTL is in-testing on MIPS at this stage, requiring
364 <c>gcc-4.1</c> and <c>glibc-2.4</c>. These profiles
365 are a work-in-progress, and are not guaranteed to work. It is recommended that
366 people do not use these profiles until all the issues have been resolved.
367 </impo>
368
369 <warn>
370 (2) n32 Userland is highly experimental, a lot of software has problems with
371 this ABI, and thus it is practically guaranteed that you will run into stability
372 problems at some point. Work is being done to improve the situation, however,
373 no support is offered if you use this profile, unless you're willing to help
374 fix problems by submitting patches.
375 </warn>
376
377 <warn>
378 (3) n64 Userland at present is completely unsupported on all systems. At this
379 time there are no stages available that support n64, and this isn't likely to
380 change in the near future.
381 </warn>
382
383 <p>
384 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
385 </p>
386
387 <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
388 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
389 lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/o32/
390 </pre>
391
392 <p>
393 Having looked through the profiles above, and decided which one is the most
394 appropriate, you need to adjust your <path>make.profile</path> symlink to
395 reflect this. By default, the profiles are in
396 <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>, so if you've moved your portage tree
397 elsewhere (not recommended), adjust the commands below accordingly.
398 </p>
399
400 <pre caption="Setting the profile">
401 <comment>(Delete the old profile symlink)</comment>
402 # <i>rm -f /etc/make.profile</i>
403
404 <comment>(Create a new symlink pointing to your chosen profile )
405 (For example, this is what one would use on an Indy or O2.)</comment>
406 # <i>ln -s /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/o32</i>
407 </pre>
408
409 <note>
410 A tip for those not familiar with the Bourne Again Shell... If you partially
411 type a filename or command, then hit the TAB key, it will automatically fill out
412 the command/filename until the last common character. E.g. typing
413 <c>/usr/portage/profiles/def&lt;TAB&gt;</c>, <c>bash</c> will automatically put
414 down <c>default-</c>. Pressing TAB a couple of more times will reveal the
415 possibilities, <c>default-linux</c>, <c>default-darwin</c> and
416 <c>default-bsd</c>. Give it a try, you'll find it very handy for navigating the
417 command line.
418 </note>
419
420 </body>
421 </subsection>
422 <subsection id="configure_USE">
423 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
424 <body>
425
426 <p>
427 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
428 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
429 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
430 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
431 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
432 (X-server).
433 </p>
434
435 <p>
436 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
437 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
438 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
439 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
440 </p>
441
442 <p>
443 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
444 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
445 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
446 minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt3 -qt4</e> will compile your
447 programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
448 making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
449 </p>
450
451 <p>
452 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
453 files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
454 directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
455 directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
456 settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
457 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
458 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
459 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
460 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
461 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
462 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
463 </p>
464
465 <p>
466 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
467 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
468 the available USE flags can be found on your system in
469 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
470 </p>
471
472 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
473 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
474 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
475 </pre>
476
477 <p>
478 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
479 and CD Recording support:
480 </p>
481
482 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
483 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
484 </pre>
485
486 <pre caption="USE setting">
487 USE="-gtk -gnome qt3 qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
488 </pre>
489
490 </body>
491 </subsection>
492 <subsection>
493 <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
494 <body>
495
496 <p>
497 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
498 specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
499 </p>
500
501 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
502 # <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
503 </pre>
504
505 <p>
506 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
507 German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
508 </p>
509
510 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
511 en_US ISO-8859-1
512 en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
513 de_DE ISO-8859-1
514 de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
515 </pre>
516
517 <p>
518 The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
519 have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
520 </p>
521
522 <note>
523 <c>locale-gen</c> is available in <c>glibc-2.3.6-r4</c> and newer. If you have
524 an older version of glibc, you should update it now.
525 </note>
526
527 <p>
528 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
529 </p>
530
531 </body>
532 </subsection>
533 </section>
534 </sections>

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