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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-mips-system.xml,v 1.2 2006/10/08 19:38:11 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>7.2</version>
12 <date>2006-11-08</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 <!--<subsection> MIPS install media doesn't include mirrorselect
17 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
22 mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
23 GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
24 our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
25 for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
26 fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
27 provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
28 </p>
29
30 <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
31 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
32 </pre>
33
34 <warn>
35 Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
36 </warn>
37
38 <p>
39 A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
40 variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
41 tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
42 needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
43 server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
44 </p>
45
46 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
47 # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
48 </pre>
49
50 <p>
51 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
52 in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
53 </p>
54
55 </body>
56 </subsection>-->
57 <subsection>
58 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
59 <body>
60
61 <p>
62 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
63 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
64 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
65 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
66 network.
67 </p>
68
69 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
70 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
71 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
72 </pre>
73
74 </body>
75 </subsection>
76 <subsection>
77 <title>Mounting the /proc and /dev Filesystems</title>
78 <body>
79
80 <p>
81 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
82 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
83 chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> filesystem.
84 </p>
85
86 <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
87 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
88 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
89 </pre>
90
91 </body>
92 </subsection>
93 <subsection>
94 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
95 <body>
96
97 <p>
98 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
99 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
100 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
101 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
102 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
103 </p>
104
105 <p>
106 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
107 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
108 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
109 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
110 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
111 </p>
112
113 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
114 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
115 # <i>env-update</i>
116 >> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
117 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
118 # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
119 </pre>
120
121 <p>
122 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
123 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
124 has some sections left :-)
125 </p>
126
127 </body>
128 </subsection>
129 </section>
130
131 <section>
132 <title>Configuring Portage</title>
133 <subsection>
134 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
135 <body>
136
137 <p>
138 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
139 --sync</c> does this for you.
140 </p>
141
142 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
143 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
144 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
145 console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
146 # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
147 </pre>
148
149 <p>
150 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
151 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
152 you.
153 </p>
154
155 <p>
156 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
157 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge portage</c> command.
158 </p>
159
160 </body>
161 </subsection>
162 <subsection>
163 <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
164 <body>
165
166 <p>
167 First, a small definition is in place.
168 </p>
169
170 <p>
171 A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
172 default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
173 the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
174 Gentoo developers.
175 </p>
176
177 <p>
178 Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, there may be
179 situations in which you may decide a profile change is necessary.
180 </p>
181
182 <p>
183 Since 2006.0, there has been a re-shuffle regarding the profiles for MIPS
184 systems. These profiles set various options including USE flags, which affect
185 what patchsets are enabled with various system-critical packages (notably,
186 <c>gcc</c> and <c>mips-sources</c>).
187 </p>
188
189 <p>
190 Thus, care needs to be taken to ensure the correct profile is selected for your
191 system type. As of Gentoo/MIPS 2006.1, the profiles are:
192 </p>
193
194 <table>
195 <tr>
196 <th>System</th>
197 <th>Profile</th>
198 <th>Userland</th>
199 <th>Status/Notes</th>
200 </tr>
201
202 <tr>
203 <ti>Cobalt Qube/RaQ</ti>
204 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/cobalt/o32</ti>
205 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
206 <ti>Recommended</ti>
207 </tr>
208 <tr>
209 <ti>"</ti>
210 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/cobalt/o32/nptl</ti>
211 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
212 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
213 </tr>
214
215 <tr>
216 <th>&nbsp;</th>
217 <th>&nbsp;</th>
218 <th>&nbsp;</th>
219 <th>&nbsp;</th>
220 </tr>
221
222 <tr>
223 <ti>
224 Generic Big Endian<br />
225 <e>Including SGI Indy, Indigo2 (R4x00), Challenge S and O2</e>
226 </ti>
227 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/o32</ti>
228 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
229 <ti>Recommended</ti>
230 </tr>
231 <tr>
232 <ti>"</ti>
233 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/o32/nptl</ti>
234 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
235 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
236 </tr>
237 <tr>
238 <ti>"</ti>
239 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/n32</ti>
240 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
241 <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
242 </tr>
243 <tr>
244 <ti>"</ti>
245 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/n32/nptl</ti>
246 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
247 <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
248 </tr>
249 <tr>
250 <ti>"</ti>
251 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/n64</ti>
252 <ti>N64 Linuxthreads</ti>
253 <ti>Unsupported (3)</ti>
254 </tr>
255 <tr>
256 <ti>"</ti>
257 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/n64/nptl</ti>
258 <ti>N64 NPTL</ti>
259 <ti>Unsupported (1) (3)</ti>
260 </tr>
261
262 <tr>
263 <th>&nbsp;</th>
264 <th>&nbsp;</th>
265 <th>&nbsp;</th>
266 <th>&nbsp;</th>
267 </tr>
268
269 <tr>
270 <ti>SGI Origin 200/2000</ti>
271 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip27/o32</ti>
272 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
273 <ti>Recommended</ti>
274 </tr>
275 <tr>
276 <ti>"</ti>
277 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip27/o32/nptl</ti>
278 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
279 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
280 </tr>
281 <tr>
282 <ti>"</ti>
283 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip27/n32</ti>
284 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
285 <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
286 </tr>
287 <tr>
288 <ti>"</ti>
289 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip27/n32/nptl</ti>
290 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
291 <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
292 </tr>
293
294 <tr>
295 <th>&nbsp;</th>
296 <th>&nbsp;</th>
297 <th>&nbsp;</th>
298 <th>&nbsp;</th>
299 </tr>
300
301 <tr>
302 <ti>SGI Indigo2 Impact R10000</ti>
303 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip28/o32</ti>
304 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
305 <ti>Recommended</ti>
306 </tr>
307 <tr>
308 <ti>"</ti>
309 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip28/o32/nptl</ti>
310 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
311 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
312 </tr>
313 <tr>
314 <ti>"</ti>
315 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip28/n32</ti>
316 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
317 <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
318 </tr>
319 <tr>
320 <ti>"</ti>
321 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip28/n32/nptl</ti>
322 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
323 <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
324 </tr>
325
326 <tr>
327 <th>&nbsp;</th>
328 <th>&nbsp;</th>
329 <th>&nbsp;</th>
330 <th>&nbsp;</th>
331 </tr>
332
333 <tr>
334 <ti>SGI Octane/Octane2</ti>
335 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip30/o32</ti>
336 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
337 <ti>Recommended</ti>
338 </tr>
339 <tr>
340 <ti>"</ti>
341 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip30/o32/nptl</ti>
342 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
343 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
344 </tr>
345 <tr>
346 <ti>"</ti>
347 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip30/n32</ti>
348 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
349 <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
350 </tr>
351 <tr>
352 <ti>"</ti>
353 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip30/n32/nptl</ti>
354 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
355 <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
356 </tr>
357 </table>
358
359 <impo>
360 (1) NPTL is in-testing on MIPS at this stage, requiring
361 <c>gcc-4.1</c> and <c>glibc-2.4</c>. These profiles
362 are a work-in-progress, and are not guaranteed to work. It is recommended that
363 people do not use these profiles until all the issues have been resolved.
364 </impo>
365
366 <warn>
367 (2) n32 Userland is highly experimental, a lot of software has problems with
368 this ABI, and thus it is practically guaranteed that you will run into stability
369 problems at some point. Work is being done to improve the situation, however,
370 no support is offered if you use this profile, unless you're willing to help
371 fix problems by submitting patches.
372 </warn>
373
374 <warn>
375 (3) n64 Userland at present is completely unsupported on all systems. At this
376 time there are no stages available that support n64, and this isn't likely to
377 change in the near future.
378 </warn>
379
380 <p>
381 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
382 </p>
383
384 <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
385 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
386 lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/o32/
387 </pre>
388
389 <p>
390 Having looked through the profiles above, and decided which one is the most
391 appropriate, you need to adjust your <path>make.profile</path> symlink to
392 reflect this. By default, the profiles are in
393 <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>, so if you've moved your portage tree
394 elsewhere (not recommended), adjust the commands below accordingly.
395 </p>
396
397 <pre caption="Setting the profile">
398 <comment>(Delete the old profile symlink)</comment>
399 # <i>rm -f /etc/make.profile</i>
400
401 <comment>(Create a new symlink pointing to your chosen profile )
402 (For example, this is what one would use on an Indy or O2.)</comment>
403 # <i>ln -s /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/o32</i>
404 </pre>
405
406 <note>
407 A tip for those not familiar with the Bourne Again Shell... If you partially
408 type a filename or command, then hit the TAB key, it will automatically fill out
409 the command/filename until the last common character. E.g. typing
410 <c>/usr/portage/profiles/def&lt;TAB&gt;</c>, <c>bash</c> will automatically put
411 down <c>default-</c>. Pressing TAB a couple of more times will reveal the
412 possibilities, <c>default-linux</c>, <c>default-darwin</c> and
413 <c>default-bsd</c>. Give it a try, you'll find it very handy for navigating the
414 command line.
415 </note>
416
417 </body>
418 </subsection>
419 <subsection id="configure_USE">
420 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
421 <body>
422
423 <p>
424 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
425 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
426 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
427 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
428 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
429 (X-server).
430 </p>
431
432 <p>
433 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
434 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
435 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
436 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
437 </p>
438
439 <p>
440 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
441 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
442 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
443 minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt3 -qt4</e> will compile your
444 programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
445 making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
446 </p>
447
448 <p>
449 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
450 files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
451 directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
452 directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
453 settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
454 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
455 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
456 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
457 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
458 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
459 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
460 </p>
461
462 <p>
463 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
464 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
465 the available USE flags can be found on your system in
466 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
467 </p>
468
469 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
470 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
471 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
472 </pre>
473
474 <p>
475 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
476 and CD Recording support:
477 </p>
478
479 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
480 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
481 </pre>
482
483 <pre caption="USE setting">
484 USE="-gtk -gnome qt3 qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
485 </pre>
486
487 </body>
488 </subsection>
489 <subsection>
490 <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
491 <body>
492
493 <p>
494 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
495 specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
496 </p>
497
498 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
499 # <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
500 </pre>
501
502 <p>
503 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
504 German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
505 </p>
506
507 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
508 en_US ISO-8859-1
509 en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
510 de_DE ISO-8859-1
511 de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
512 </pre>
513
514 <p>
515 The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
516 have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
517 </p>
518
519 <note>
520 <c>locale-gen</c> is available in <c>glibc-2.3.6-r4</c> and newer. If you have
521 an older version of glibc, you should update it now.
522 </note>
523
524 <p>
525 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
526 </p>
527
528 </body>
529 </subsection>
530 </section>
531 </sections>

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