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Revision 1.5 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Fri Jul 27 06:26:38 2007 UTC (7 years, 1 month ago) by nightmorph
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Changes since 1.4: +4 -4 lines
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just copy the file to the dir rather than specifying the filename again. means fewer possible typos like resolve.conf -- suggested by mark_alec on IRC. also, this is already how it is in the quickinstall guides.

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-mips-system.xml,v 1.4 2007/05/07 18:11:41 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>8.1</version>
12 <date>2007-07-26</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
22 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
23 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
24 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
25 network.
26 </p>
27
28 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
29 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
30 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/</i>
31 </pre>
32
33 </body>
34 </subsection>
35 <subsection>
36 <title>Mounting the /proc and /dev Filesystems</title>
37 <body>
38
39 <p>
40 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
41 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
42 chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> filesystem.
43 </p>
44
45 <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
46 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
47 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
48 </pre>
49
50 </body>
51 </subsection>
52 <subsection>
53 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
54 <body>
55
56 <p>
57 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
58 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
59 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
60 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
61 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
62 </p>
63
64 <p>
65 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
66 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
67 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
68 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
69 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
70 </p>
71
72 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
73 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
74 # <i>env-update</i>
75 >> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
76 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
77 # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
78 </pre>
79
80 <p>
81 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
82 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
83 has some sections left :-)
84 </p>
85
86 </body>
87 </subsection>
88 </section>
89
90 <section>
91 <title>Configuring Portage</title>
92 <subsection>
93 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
94 <body>
95
96 <p>
97 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
98 --sync</c> does this for you.
99 </p>
100
101 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
102 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
103 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
104 console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
105 # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
106 </pre>
107
108 <p>
109 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
110 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
111 you.
112 </p>
113
114 <p>
115 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
116 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge portage</c> command.
117 </p>
118
119 </body>
120 </subsection>
121 <subsection>
122 <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
123 <body>
124
125 <p>
126 First, a small definition is in place.
127 </p>
128
129 <p>
130 A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
131 default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
132 the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
133 Gentoo developers.
134 </p>
135
136 <p>
137 Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, there may be
138 situations in which you may decide a profile change is necessary.
139 </p>
140
141 <p>
142 Since 2006.0, there has been a re-shuffle regarding the profiles for MIPS
143 systems. These profiles set various options including USE flags, which affect
144 what patchsets are enabled with various system-critical packages (notably,
145 <c>gcc</c> and <c>mips-sources</c>).
146 </p>
147
148 <p>
149 Thus, care needs to be taken to ensure the correct profile is selected for your
150 system type. As of Gentoo/MIPS 2007.0, the profiles are:
151 </p>
152
153 <table>
154 <tr>
155 <th>System</th>
156 <th>Profile</th>
157 <th>Userland</th>
158 <th>Status/Notes</th>
159 </tr>
160 <tr>
161 <ti>Cobalt Qube/RaQ</ti>
162 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/cobalt/o32</ti>
163 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
164 <ti>Recommended</ti>
165 </tr>
166 <tr>
167 <ti>"</ti>
168 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/cobalt/o32/nptl</ti>
169 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
170 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
171 </tr>
172 <tr>
173 <th>&nbsp;</th>
174 <th>&nbsp;</th>
175 <th>&nbsp;</th>
176 <th>&nbsp;</th>
177 </tr>
178 <tr>
179 <ti>
180 Generic Big Endian<br />
181 <e>Including SGI Indy, Indigo2 (R4x00), Challenge S and O2</e>
182 </ti>
183 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/o32</ti>
184 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
185 <ti>Recommended</ti>
186 </tr>
187 <tr>
188 <ti>"</ti>
189 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/o32/nptl</ti>
190 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
191 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
192 </tr>
193 <tr>
194 <ti>"</ti>
195 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/n32</ti>
196 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
197 <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
198 </tr>
199 <tr>
200 <ti>"</ti>
201 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/n32/nptl</ti>
202 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
203 <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
204 </tr>
205 <tr>
206 <ti>"</ti>
207 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/n64</ti>
208 <ti>N64 Linuxthreads</ti>
209 <ti>Unsupported (3)</ti>
210 </tr>
211 <tr>
212 <ti>"</ti>
213 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/n64/nptl</ti>
214 <ti>N64 NPTL</ti>
215 <ti>Unsupported (1) (3)</ti>
216 </tr>
217 <tr>
218 <th>&nbsp;</th>
219 <th>&nbsp;</th>
220 <th>&nbsp;</th>
221 <th>&nbsp;</th>
222 </tr>
223 <tr>
224 <ti>SGI Origin 200/2000</ti>
225 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip27/o32</ti>
226 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
227 <ti>Recommended</ti>
228 </tr>
229 <tr>
230 <ti>"</ti>
231 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip27/o32/nptl</ti>
232 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
233 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
234 </tr>
235 <tr>
236 <ti>"</ti>
237 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip27/n32</ti>
238 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
239 <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
240 </tr>
241 <tr>
242 <ti>"</ti>
243 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip27/n32/nptl</ti>
244 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
245 <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
246 </tr>
247
248 <tr>
249 <th>&nbsp;</th>
250 <th>&nbsp;</th>
251 <th>&nbsp;</th>
252 <th>&nbsp;</th>
253 </tr>
254 <tr>
255 <ti>SGI Indigo2 Impact R10000</ti>
256 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip28/o32</ti>
257 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
258 <ti>Recommended</ti>
259 </tr>
260 <tr>
261 <ti>"</ti>
262 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip28/o32/nptl</ti>
263 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
264 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
265 </tr>
266 <tr>
267 <ti>"</ti>
268 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip28/n32</ti>
269 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
270 <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
271 </tr>
272 <tr>
273 <ti>"</ti>
274 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip28/n32/nptl</ti>
275 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
276 <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
277 </tr>
278 <tr>
279 <th>&nbsp;</th>
280 <th>&nbsp;</th>
281 <th>&nbsp;</th>
282 <th>&nbsp;</th>
283 </tr>
284 <tr>
285 <ti>SGI Octane/Octane2</ti>
286 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip30/o32</ti>
287 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
288 <ti>Recommended</ti>
289 </tr>
290 <tr>
291 <ti>"</ti>
292 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip30/o32/nptl</ti>
293 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
294 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
295 </tr>
296 <tr>
297 <ti>"</ti>
298 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip30/n32</ti>
299 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
300 <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
301 </tr>
302 <tr>
303 <ti>"</ti>
304 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip30/n32/nptl</ti>
305 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
306 <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
307 </tr>
308 </table>
309
310 <impo>
311 (1) NPTL is in-testing on MIPS at this stage, requiring <c>gcc-4.1</c> and
312 <c>glibc-2.4</c>. It is believed that NPTL should be safe enough now for people
313 to use, and is planned to be the default in future releases. Brave users are
314 welcomed to try these profiles out and report back.
315 </impo>
316
317 <warn>
318 (2) n32 Userland is highly experimental, a lot of software has problems with
319 this ABI, and thus it is practically guaranteed that you will run into stability
320 problems at some point. Work is being done to improve the situation, however,
321 no support is offered if you use this profile, unless you're willing to help
322 fix problems by submitting patches.
323 </warn>
324
325 <warn>
326 (3) n64 Userland at present is completely unsupported on all systems. At this
327 time there are no stages available that support n64, and this isn't likely to
328 change in the near future.
329 </warn>
330
331 <p>
332 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
333 </p>
334
335 <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
336 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
337 lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/o32/
338 </pre>
339
340 <p>
341 Having looked through the profiles above, and decided which one is the most
342 appropriate, you need to adjust your <path>make.profile</path> symlink to
343 reflect this. By default, the profiles are in
344 <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>, so if you've moved your portage tree
345 elsewhere (not recommended), adjust the commands below accordingly.
346 </p>
347
348 <pre caption="Setting the profile">
349 <comment>(Delete the old profile symlink)</comment>
350 # <i>rm -f /etc/make.profile</i>
351
352 <comment>(Create a new symlink pointing to your chosen profile )
353 (For example, this is what one would use on an Indy or O2.)</comment>
354 # <i>ln -s /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/o32</i>
355 </pre>
356
357 <note>
358 A tip for those not familiar with the Bourne Again Shell... If you partially
359 type a filename or command, then hit the TAB key, it will automatically fill out
360 the command/filename until the last common character. E.g. typing
361 <c>/usr/portage/profiles/def&lt;TAB&gt;</c>, <c>bash</c> will automatically put
362 down <c>default-</c>. Pressing TAB a couple of more times will reveal the
363 possibilities, <c>default-linux</c>, <c>default-darwin</c> and
364 <c>default-bsd</c>. Give it a try, you'll find it very handy for navigating the
365 command line.
366 </note>
367
368 </body>
369 </subsection>
370 <subsection id="configure_USE">
371 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
372 <body>
373
374 <p>
375 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
376 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
377 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
378 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
379 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
380 (X-server).
381 </p>
382
383 <p>
384 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
385 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
386 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
387 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
388 </p>
389
390 <p>
391 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
392 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
393 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
394 minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt3 -qt4</e> will compile your
395 programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
396 making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
397 </p>
398
399 <p>
400 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
401 files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
402 directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
403 directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
404 settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
405 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
406 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
407 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
408 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
409 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
410 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
411 </p>
412
413 <p>
414 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
415 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
416 the available USE flags can be found on your system in
417 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
418 </p>
419
420 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
421 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
422 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
423 </pre>
424
425 <p>
426 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
427 and CD Recording support:
428 </p>
429
430 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
431 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
432 </pre>
433
434 <pre caption="USE setting">
435 USE="-gtk -gnome qt3 qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
436 </pre>
437
438 </body>
439 </subsection>
440 <subsection>
441 <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
442 <body>
443
444 <p>
445 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
446 specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
447 </p>
448
449 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
450 # <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
451 </pre>
452
453 <p>
454 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
455 German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
456 </p>
457
458 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
459 en_US ISO-8859-1
460 en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
461 de_DE ISO-8859-1
462 de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
463 </pre>
464
465 <p>
466 The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
467 have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
468 </p>
469
470 <p>
471 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
472 </p>
473
474 </body>
475 </subsection>
476 </section>
477 </sections>

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