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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.15 2004/08/29 12:17:07 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>Block Devices</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
18 and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices.
19 Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems,
20 you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
21 for your Gentoo Linux installation.
22 </p>
23
24 <p>
25 To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is
26 probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system, namely
27 <path>/dev/hda</path>. If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard
28 drive would be <path>/dev/sda</path>.
29 </p>
30
31 <p>
32 The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
33 programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
34 about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program can
35 simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
36 randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
37 </p>
38
39 </body>
40 </subsection>
41 <subsection>
42 <title>Partitions and Slices</title>
43 <body>
44
45 <p>
46 Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
47 system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
48 are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems,
49 these are called <e>partitions</e>. Other architectures use a similar technique,
50 called <e>slices</e>.
51 </p>
52
53 </body>
54 </subsection>
55 </section>
56 <section>
57 <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
58 <subsection>
59 <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
60 <body>
61
62 <p>
63 If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system,
64 you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book:
65 </p>
66
67 <table>
68 <tr>
69 <th>Partition NewWorld</th>
70 <th>Partition OldWorld</th>
71 <th>Partition Pegasos</th>
72 <th>Filesystem</th>
73 <th>Size</th>
74 <th>Description</th>
75 </tr>
76 <tr>
77 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
78 <ti>(Not needed)</ti>
79 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
80 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti>
81 <ti>800k</ti>
82 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti>
83 </tr>
84 <tr>
85 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
86 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
87 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
88 <ti>(swap)</ti>
89 <ti>512M</ti>
90 <ti>Swap partition</ti>
91 </tr>
92 <tr>
93 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
94 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
95 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
96 <ti>ext3</ti>
97 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti>
98 <ti>Root partition</ti>
99 </tr>
100 </table>
101
102 <p>
103 If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how
104 many partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
105 <uri link="#fdisk">Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple/IBM) to Partition your
106 Disk</uri> or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (especially Pegasos) to
107 Partition your Disk</uri>.
108 </p>
109
110 </body>
111 </subsection>
112 <subsection>
113 <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
114 <body>
115
116 <p>
117 The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
118 if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
119 <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
120 If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your
121 <path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside
122 <path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your
123 performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming
124 servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>:
125 security and backups.
126 </p>
127
128 <p>
129 As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
130 partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
131 </p>
132
133 <ul>
134 <li>
135 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
136 </li>
137 <li>
138 Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
139 continuously writing files to a partition or volume
140 </li>
141 <li>
142 If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
143 be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
144 it is with multiple partitions)
145 </li>
146 <li>
147 Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
148 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
149 </li>
150 </ul>
151
152 <p>
153 However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
154 properly, you might result in having a system with lots
155 of free space on one partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition
156 limit for SCSI and SATA.
157 </p>
158
159 </body>
160 </subsection>
161 </section>
162 <section id="fdisk">
163 <title>Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple/IBM) Partition your Disk</title>
164 <body>
165
166 <p>
167 At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>:
168 </p>
169
170 <pre caption="Starting mac-fdisk">
171 # <i>mac-fdisk /dev/hda</i>
172 </pre>
173
174 <p>
175 First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your
176 Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s).
177 It will ask for the partition number to delete.
178 </p>
179
180 <p>
181 Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will
182 ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free
183 partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>1p</c>.
184 </p>
185
186 <note>
187 This partition is <e>not</e> a "boot" partition. It is not used by Linux at all;
188 you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never mount it. PPC
189 users don't need a an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>.
190 </note>
191
192 <p>
193 Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
194 ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>1</c>
195 before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
196 <c>2p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
197 you want -- 512MB is recommended though). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c>
198 (mandatory).
199 </p>
200
201 <p>
202 To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>3p</c> to select
203 from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
204 <c>3p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available
205 space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory).
206 </p>
207
208 <p>
209 To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to
210 quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>.
211 </p>
212
213 <p>
214 Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
215 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
216 </p>
217
218 </body>
219 </section>
220 <section id="parted">
221 <title>Using parted (especially Pegasos) to Partition your Disk</title>
222 <body>
223
224 <p>
225 <c>parted</c>, the Partition Editor, can now handle HFS+ partitions used by
226 Mac OS and Mac OS X. With this tool you can shrink your Mac-partitions and
227 create space for your Linux partitions. Nevertheless, the example below
228 describes partitioning for Pegasos machines only.
229 </p>
230
231 <p>
232 To begin let's fire up <c>parted</c>:
233 </p>
234
235 <pre caption="Starting parted">
236 # <i>parted /dev/hda</i>
237 </pre>
238
239 <p>
240 If the drive is unpartitioned, run <c>mklabel amiga</c> to create a new
241 disklabel for the drive.
242 </p>
243
244 <p>
245 You can type <c>print</c> at any time in parted to display the current partition
246 table. Your changes aren't saved until you quit the application; if at any time
247 you change your mind or made a mistake you can press <c>Ctrl-c</c> to abort
248 parted.
249 </p>
250
251 <p>
252 If you intend to also install MorphOS on your Pegasos create an affs1 filesystem
253 named "BI0" (BI zero) at the start of the drive. 50MB should be more than enough
254 to store the MorphOS kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use reiserfs or
255 xfs, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the
256 Pegasos II can boot from ext2/ext3 drives). To create the partition run
257 <c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> should
258 be replaced with the megabyte range (f.i. <c>5 55</c> creates a 50 MB partition
259 starting at 5MB and ending at 55MB.
260 </p>
261
262 <p>
263 You need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem for all your
264 program files etc, and one swap partition. To create the root filesystem you
265 must first decide which filesystem to use. Possible options are ext2, ext3,
266 reiserfs and xfs. Unless you know what you are doing, use ext3. Run
267 <c>mkpart primary ext3 START END</c> to create an ext3 partition. Again, replace
268 <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> with the megabyte start and stop marks for the
269 partition.
270 </p>
271
272 <p>
273 It is generally recommended that you create a swap partition the same size as
274 the amount of RAM in your computer times two. You will probably get away with a
275 smaller swap partition unless you intend to run a lot of applications at the
276 same time (although at least 512MB is recommended). To create the swap
277 partition, run <c>mkpart primary linux-swap START END</c>.
278 </p>
279
280 <p>
281 Write down the partition minor numbers as they are required during the
282 installation process. To dislay the minor numbers run <c>print</c>. Your drives
283 are accessed as <path>/dev/hdaX</path> where X is replaced with the minor number
284 of the partition.
285 </p>
286
287 <p>
288 When you are done in parted simply run <c>quit</c>.
289 </p>
290
291 </body>
292 </section>
293 <section id="filesystems">
294 <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
295 <subsection>
296 <title>Introduction</title>
297 <body>
298
299 <p>
300 Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
301 If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
302 as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
303 link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
304 Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
305 </p>
306
307 </body>
308 </subsection>
309 <subsection>
310 <title>Filesystems?</title>
311 <body>
312
313 <p>
314 Several filesystems are available. ext2, ext3, reiserfs and xfs are found stable
315 on the PPC architecture. jfs is unsupported.
316 </p>
317
318 <p>
319 <b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
320 journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
321 be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
322 journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are
323 thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled
324 filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
325 happens to be in an inconsistent state.
326 </p>
327
328 <p>
329 <b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
330 journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like
331 full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
332 filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables
333 high performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is an excellent
334 filesystem.
335 </p>
336
337 <p>
338 <b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
339 performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
340 files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
341 extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
342 solid and usable as both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such
343 as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large
344 files and directories containing tens of thousands of files.
345 </p>
346
347 <p>
348 <b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling which comes with a robust
349 feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
350 filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
351 an uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
352 in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
353 when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
354 deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
355 </p>
356
357 </body>
358 </subsection>
359 <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
360 <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
361 <body>
362
363 <p>
364 To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
365 each possible filesystem:
366 </p>
367
368 <table>
369 <tr>
370 <th>Filesystem</th>
371 <th>Creation Command</th>
372 </tr>
373 <tr>
374 <ti>ext2</ti>
375 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
376 </tr>
377 <tr>
378 <ti>ext3</ti>
379 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
380 </tr>
381 <tr>
382 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
383 <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
384 </tr>
385 <tr>
386 <ti>xfs</ti>
387 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
388 </tr>
389 </table>
390
391 <p>
392 For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/hda3</path> in our example)
393 in ext3 (as in our example), you would use:
394 </p>
395
396 <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
397 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</i>
398 </pre>
399
400 <p>
401 Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
402 volumes).
403 </p>
404
405 <note>
406 Be sure that the partition which will host your kernel (the
407 <path>/boot</path>-path) must be ext2 or ext3. The bootloader can only handle
408 this filesystem.
409 </note>
410
411 </body>
412 </subsection>
413 <subsection>
414 <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
415 <body>
416
417 <p>
418 <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
419 </p>
420
421 <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
422 # <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i>
423 </pre>
424
425 <p>
426 To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
427 </p>
428
429 <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
430 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
431 </pre>
432
433 <p>
434 Create and activate the swap now.
435 </p>
436
437 </body>
438 </subsection>
439 </section>
440 <section>
441 <title>Mounting</title>
442 <body>
443
444 <p>
445 Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
446 time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
447 create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
448 example we create a mount-point and mount the root and boot partition:
449 </p>
450
451 <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
452 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
453 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
454 </pre>
455
456 <note>
457 If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
458 change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
459 also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
460 </note>
461
462 <p>
463 Finally we have to create the <path>/dev</path> files in our new home, which is
464 needed during the bootloader installation. This could be done by "bind"-mapping
465 the <path>/dev</path>-filesystem from the LiveCD:
466 </p>
467
468 <pre caption="Bind-mounting the /dev-filesystem">
469 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
470 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
471 </pre>
472
473 <p>
474 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
475 kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
476 </p>
477
478 <p>
479 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
480 Installation Files</uri>.
481 </p>
482
483 </body>
484 </section>
485 </sections>

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