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3 3
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7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.16 2004/09/14 11:55:12 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.23 2004/11/20 22:23:30 neysx Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<version>1.19</version>
12<date>2004-11-02</date>
13
10<section> 14<section>
11<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title> 15<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
12<subsection> 16<subsection>
13<title>Block Devices</title> 17<title>Block Devices</title>
14<body> 18<body>
73 <th>Size</th> 77 <th>Size</th>
74 <th>Description</th> 78 <th>Description</th>
75</tr> 79</tr>
76<tr> 80<tr>
77 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 81 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
82 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
83 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
84 <ti>(Partition Map)</ti>
85 <ti>32k</ti>
86 <ti>Apple_partition_map</ti>
87</tr>
88<tr>
89 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
78 <ti>(Not needed)</ti> 90 <ti>(Not needed)</ti>
79 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti> 91 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
80 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti> 92 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti>
81 <ti>800k</ti> 93 <ti>800k</ti>
82 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti> 94 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti>
83</tr> 95</tr>
84<tr> 96<tr>
97 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
85 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 98 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
86 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
87 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 99 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
88 <ti>(swap)</ti> 100 <ti>(swap)</ti>
89 <ti>512M</ti> 101 <ti>512M</ti>
90 <ti>Swap partition</ti> 102 <ti>Swap partition</ti>
91</tr> 103</tr>
92<tr> 104<tr>
105 <ti><path>/dev/hda4</path></ti>
93 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti> 106 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
94 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
95 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 107 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
96 <ti>ext3</ti> 108 <ti>ext3</ti>
97 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti> 109 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti>
98 <ti>Root partition</ti> 110 <ti>Root partition</ti>
99</tr> 111</tr>
100</table> 112</table>
101 113
114<note>
115There are some partitions named like this: <path>Apple_Driver43,
116Apple_Driver_ATA, Apple_FWDriver, Apple_Driver_IOKit,
117Apple_Patches</path>. If you are not planning to use MacOS 9 you can
118delete them, because MacOS X and Linux don't need them.
119You might have to use parted in order to delete them, as mac-fdisk can't delete them yet.
120</note>
121
102<p> 122<p>
103If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how 123If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how many
104many partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with 124partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with <uri
105<uri link="#fdisk">Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple/IBM) to Partition your 125link="#fdisk">Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple/IBM) to Partition your Disk</uri>
106Disk</uri> or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (especially Pegasos) to 126or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (especially Pegasos) to
107Partition your Disk</uri>. 127Partition your Disk</uri>.
108</p> 128</p>
109 129
110</body> 130</body>
111</subsection> 131</subsection>
115 135
116<p> 136<p>
117The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance, 137The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
118if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your 138if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
119<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier. 139<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
120If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your 140If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
121<path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside 141should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good
122<path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your 142choice of filesystem will then maximise your performance. Gameservers will have
123performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming 143a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The
124servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: 144reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups.
125security and backups.
126</p> 145</p>
127 146
128<p> 147<p>
129As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate 148As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
130partitions or volumes have the following advantages: 149partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
172</pre> 191</pre>
173 192
174<p> 193<p>
175First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your 194First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your
176Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s). 195Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s).
177It will ask for the partition number to delete. 196It will ask for the partition number to delete. Usually the first partition on
197NewWorld machines (Apple_partition_map) could not be deleted.
178</p> 198</p>
179 199
180<p> 200<p>
181Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will 201Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will
182ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free 202ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free
183partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>1p</c>. 203partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>.
184</p> 204</p>
185 205
186<note> 206<note>
187This partition is <e>not</e> a "boot" partition. It is not used by Linux at all; 207This partition is <e>not</e> a "boot" partition. It is not used by Linux at all;
188you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never mount it. PPC 208you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never mount it. PPC
189users don't need a an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>. 209users don't need an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>.
190</note> 210</note>
191 211
192<p> 212<p>
193Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will 213Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
194ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>1</c> 214ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c>
195before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter 215before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
196<c>2p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size 216<c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
197you want -- 512MB is recommended though). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c> 217you want -- 512MB is recommended though). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c>
198(mandatory). 218(mandatory).
199</p> 219</p>
200 220
201<p> 221<p>
202To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>3p</c> to select 222To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select
203from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter 223from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
204<c>3p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available 224<c>4p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available
205space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory). 225space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory).
206</p> 226</p>
207 227
208<p> 228<p>
209To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to 229To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to
210quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>. 230quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>.
211</p> 231</p>
212 232
233<note>
234To make sure everything is ok, you should run mac-fdisk once more and check
235whether all the partitions are there. If you don't see any of the partitions
236you created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions
237by pressing "i" in mac-fdisk. Note that this will recreate the partition map
238and thus remove all your partitions.
239</note>
240
213<p> 241<p>
214Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri 242Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
215link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>. 243link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
216</p> 244</p>
217 245
218</body> 246</body>
219</section> 247</section>
253named "BI0" (BI zero) at the start of the drive. 50MB should be more than enough 281named "BI0" (BI zero) at the start of the drive. 50MB should be more than enough
254to store the MorphOS kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use reiserfs or 282to store the MorphOS kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use reiserfs or
255xfs, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the 283xfs, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the
256Pegasos II can boot from ext2/ext3 drives). To create the partition run 284Pegasos II can boot from ext2/ext3 drives). To create the partition run
257<c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> should 285<c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> should
258be replaced with the megabyte range (f.i. <c>5 55</c> creates a 50 MB partition 286be replaced with the megabyte range (e.g. <c>5 55</c> creates a 50 MB partition
259starting at 5MB and ending at 55MB. 287starting at 5MB and ending at 55MB.
260</p> 288</p>
261 289
262<p> 290<p>
263You need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem for all your 291You need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem for all your
277partition, run <c>mkpart primary linux-swap START END</c>. 305partition, run <c>mkpart primary linux-swap START END</c>.
278</p> 306</p>
279 307
280<p> 308<p>
281Write down the partition minor numbers as they are required during the 309Write down the partition minor numbers as they are required during the
282installation process. To dislay the minor numbers run <c>print</c>. Your drives 310installation process. To display the minor numbers run <c>print</c>. Your drives
283are accessed as <path>/dev/hdaX</path> where X is replaced with the minor number 311are accessed as <path>/dev/hdaX</path> where X is replaced with the minor number
284of the partition. 312of the partition.
285</p> 313</p>
286 314
287<p> 315<p>
309<subsection> 337<subsection>
310<title>Filesystems?</title> 338<title>Filesystems?</title>
311<body> 339<body>
312 340
313<p> 341<p>
314Several filesystems are available. ext2, ext3, reiserfs and xfs are found stable 342Several filesystems are available. ext2, ext3, ReiserFS and XFS are found stable
315on the PPC architecture. jfs is unsupported. 343on the PPC architecture. jfs is unsupported.
316</p> 344</p>
317 345
318<p> 346<p>
319<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata 347<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
387 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti> 415 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
388</tr> 416</tr>
389</table> 417</table>
390 418
391<p> 419<p>
392For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/hda3</path> in our example) 420For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/hda4</path> in our example)
393in ext3 (as in our example), you would use: 421in ext3 (as in our example), you would use:
394</p> 422</p>
395 423
396<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition"> 424<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
397# <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</i> 425# <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda4</i>
398</pre> 426</pre>
399 427
400<p> 428<p>
401Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical 429Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
402volumes). 430volumes).
403</p> 431</p>
404 432
405<note> 433<note>
406Be sure that the partition which will host your kernel (the 434On OldWorld machines and the PegasosII your partition which holds the kernel must
407<path>/boot</path>-path) must be ext2 or ext3. The bootloader can only handle 435be ext2 or ext3. NewWorld machines can boot from any of ext2, ext3, XFS,
408this filesystem. 436ReiserFS or even HFS/HFS+ filesystems.
409</note> 437</note>
410 438
411</body> 439</body>
412</subsection> 440</subsection>
413<subsection> 441<subsection>
417<p> 445<p>
418<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions: 446<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
419</p> 447</p>
420 448
421<pre caption="Creating a Swap signature"> 449<pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
422# <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i> 450# <i>mkswap /dev/hda3</i>
423</pre> 451</pre>
424 452
425<p> 453<p>
426To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>: 454To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
427</p> 455</p>
428 456
429<pre caption="Activating the swap partition"> 457<pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
430# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i> 458# <i>swapon /dev/hda3</i>
431</pre> 459</pre>
432 460
433<p> 461<p>
434Create and activate the swap now. 462Create and activate the swap now.
435</p> 463</p>
443 471
444<p> 472<p>
445Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is 473Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
446time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to 474time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
447create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an 475create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
448example we create a mount-point and mount the root and boot partition: 476example we create a mount-point and mount the root partition:
449</p> 477</p>
450 478
451<pre caption="Mounting partitions"> 479<pre caption="Mounting partitions">
452# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i> 480# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
453# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i> 481# <i>mount /dev/hda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
454</pre> 482</pre>
455 483
456<note> 484<note>
457If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to 485If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
458change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This 486change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
469# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i> 497# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
470# <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i> 498# <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
471</pre> 499</pre>
472 500
473<p> 501<p>
474We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the 502We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
475kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions. 503kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the
504partitions.
476</p> 505</p>
477 506
478<p> 507<p>
479Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo 508Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
480Installation Files</uri>. 509Installation Files</uri>.

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