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7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.17 2004/10/02 16:35:23 sejo Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.23 2004/11/20 22:23:30 neysx Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<version>1.19</version>
12<date>2004-11-02</date>
13
10<section> 14<section>
11<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title> 15<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
12<subsection> 16<subsection>
13<title>Block Devices</title> 17<title>Block Devices</title>
14<body> 18<body>
73 <th>Size</th> 77 <th>Size</th>
74 <th>Description</th> 78 <th>Description</th>
75</tr> 79</tr>
76<tr> 80<tr>
77 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 81 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
78 <ti>(Not needed)</ti> 82 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
79 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti> 83 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
80 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti> 84 <ti>(Partition Map)</ti>
81 <ti>32k</ti> 85 <ti>32k</ti>
82 <ti>Apple_partition_map</ti> 86 <ti>Apple_partition_map</ti>
83</tr> 87</tr>
84<tr> 88<tr>
85 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 89 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
89 <ti>800k</ti> 93 <ti>800k</ti>
90 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti> 94 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti>
91</tr> 95</tr>
92<tr> 96<tr>
93 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti> 97 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
94 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 98 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
95 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 99 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
96 <ti>(swap)</ti> 100 <ti>(swap)</ti>
97 <ti>512M</ti> 101 <ti>512M</ti>
98 <ti>Swap partition</ti> 102 <ti>Swap partition</ti>
99</tr> 103</tr>
100<tr> 104<tr>
101 <ti><path>/dev/hda4</path></ti> 105 <ti><path>/dev/hda4</path></ti>
102 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 106 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
103 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 107 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
104 <ti>ext3</ti> 108 <ti>ext3</ti>
105 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti> 109 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti>
106 <ti>Root partition</ti> 110 <ti>Root partition</ti>
107</tr> 111</tr>
108</table> 112</table>
109 113
114<note>
115There are some partitions named like this: <path>Apple_Driver43,
116Apple_Driver_ATA, Apple_FWDriver, Apple_Driver_IOKit,
117Apple_Patches</path>. If you are not planning to use MacOS 9 you can
118delete them, because MacOS X and Linux don't need them.
119You might have to use parted in order to delete them, as mac-fdisk can't delete them yet.
120</note>
121
110<p> 122<p>
111If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how 123If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how many
112many partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with 124partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with <uri
113<uri link="#fdisk">Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple/IBM) to Partition your 125link="#fdisk">Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple/IBM) to Partition your Disk</uri>
114Disk</uri> or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (especially Pegasos) to 126or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (especially Pegasos) to
115Partition your Disk</uri>. 127Partition your Disk</uri>.
116</p> 128</p>
117 129
118</body> 130</body>
119</subsection> 131</subsection>
123 135
124<p> 136<p>
125The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance, 137The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
126if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your 138if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
127<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier. 139<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
128If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your 140If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
129<path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside 141should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good
130<path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your 142choice of filesystem will then maximise your performance. Gameservers will have
131performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming 143a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The
132servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: 144reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups.
133security and backups.
134</p> 145</p>
135 146
136<p> 147<p>
137As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate 148As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
138partitions or volumes have the following advantages: 149partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
180</pre> 191</pre>
181 192
182<p> 193<p>
183First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your 194First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your
184Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s). 195Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s).
185It will ask for the partition number to delete. 196It will ask for the partition number to delete. Usually the first partition on
197NewWorld machines (Apple_partition_map) could not be deleted.
186</p> 198</p>
187 199
188<p> 200<p>
189Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will 201Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will
190ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free 202ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free
191partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>1p</c>. 203partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>.
192</p> 204</p>
193 205
194<note> 206<note>
195This partition is <e>not</e> a "boot" partition. It is not used by Linux at all; 207This partition is <e>not</e> a "boot" partition. It is not used by Linux at all;
196you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never mount it. PPC 208you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never mount it. PPC
197users don't need a an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>. 209users don't need an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>.
198</note> 210</note>
199 211
200<p> 212<p>
201Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will 213Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
202ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>1</c> 214ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c>
203before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter 215before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
204<c>2p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size 216<c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
205you want -- 512MB is recommended though). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c> 217you want -- 512MB is recommended though). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c>
206(mandatory). 218(mandatory).
207</p> 219</p>
208 220
209<p> 221<p>
210To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>3p</c> to select 222To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select
211from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter 223from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
212<c>3p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available 224<c>4p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available
213space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory). 225space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory).
214</p> 226</p>
215 227
216<p> 228<p>
217To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to 229To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to
218quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>. 230quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>.
219</p> 231</p>
220 232
233<note>
234To make sure everything is ok, you should run mac-fdisk once more and check
235whether all the partitions are there. If you don't see any of the partitions
236you created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions
237by pressing "i" in mac-fdisk. Note that this will recreate the partition map
238and thus remove all your partitions.
239</note>
240
221<p> 241<p>
222Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri 242Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
223link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>. 243link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
224</p> 244</p>
225 245
226</body> 246</body>
227</section> 247</section>
261named "BI0" (BI zero) at the start of the drive. 50MB should be more than enough 281named "BI0" (BI zero) at the start of the drive. 50MB should be more than enough
262to store the MorphOS kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use reiserfs or 282to store the MorphOS kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use reiserfs or
263xfs, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the 283xfs, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the
264Pegasos II can boot from ext2/ext3 drives). To create the partition run 284Pegasos II can boot from ext2/ext3 drives). To create the partition run
265<c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> should 285<c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> should
266be replaced with the megabyte range (f.i. <c>5 55</c> creates a 50 MB partition 286be replaced with the megabyte range (e.g. <c>5 55</c> creates a 50 MB partition
267starting at 5MB and ending at 55MB. 287starting at 5MB and ending at 55MB.
268</p> 288</p>
269 289
270<p> 290<p>
271You need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem for all your 291You need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem for all your
285partition, run <c>mkpart primary linux-swap START END</c>. 305partition, run <c>mkpart primary linux-swap START END</c>.
286</p> 306</p>
287 307
288<p> 308<p>
289Write down the partition minor numbers as they are required during the 309Write down the partition minor numbers as they are required during the
290installation process. To dislay the minor numbers run <c>print</c>. Your drives 310installation process. To display the minor numbers run <c>print</c>. Your drives
291are accessed as <path>/dev/hdaX</path> where X is replaced with the minor number 311are accessed as <path>/dev/hdaX</path> where X is replaced with the minor number
292of the partition. 312of the partition.
293</p> 313</p>
294 314
295<p> 315<p>
317<subsection> 337<subsection>
318<title>Filesystems?</title> 338<title>Filesystems?</title>
319<body> 339<body>
320 340
321<p> 341<p>
322Several filesystems are available. ext2, ext3, reiserfs and xfs are found stable 342Several filesystems are available. ext2, ext3, ReiserFS and XFS are found stable
323on the PPC architecture. jfs is unsupported. 343on the PPC architecture. jfs is unsupported.
324</p> 344</p>
325 345
326<p> 346<p>
327<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata 347<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
395 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti> 415 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
396</tr> 416</tr>
397</table> 417</table>
398 418
399<p> 419<p>
400For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/hda3</path> in our example) 420For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/hda4</path> in our example)
401in ext3 (as in our example), you would use: 421in ext3 (as in our example), you would use:
402</p> 422</p>
403 423
404<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition"> 424<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
405# <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</i> 425# <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda4</i>
406</pre> 426</pre>
407 427
408<p> 428<p>
409Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical 429Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
410volumes). 430volumes).
411</p> 431</p>
412 432
413<note> 433<note>
414Be sure that the partition which will host your kernel (the 434On OldWorld machines and the PegasosII your partition which holds the kernel must
415<path>/boot</path>-path) must be ext2 or ext3. The bootloader can only handle 435be ext2 or ext3. NewWorld machines can boot from any of ext2, ext3, XFS,
416this filesystem. 436ReiserFS or even HFS/HFS+ filesystems.
417</note> 437</note>
418 438
419</body> 439</body>
420</subsection> 440</subsection>
421<subsection> 441<subsection>
425<p> 445<p>
426<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions: 446<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
427</p> 447</p>
428 448
429<pre caption="Creating a Swap signature"> 449<pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
430# <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i> 450# <i>mkswap /dev/hda3</i>
431</pre> 451</pre>
432 452
433<p> 453<p>
434To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>: 454To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
435</p> 455</p>
436 456
437<pre caption="Activating the swap partition"> 457<pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
438# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i> 458# <i>swapon /dev/hda3</i>
439</pre> 459</pre>
440 460
441<p> 461<p>
442Create and activate the swap now. 462Create and activate the swap now.
443</p> 463</p>
451 471
452<p> 472<p>
453Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is 473Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
454time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to 474time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
455create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an 475create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
456example we create a mount-point and mount the root and boot partition: 476example we create a mount-point and mount the root partition:
457</p> 477</p>
458 478
459<pre caption="Mounting partitions"> 479<pre caption="Mounting partitions">
460# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i> 480# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
461# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i> 481# <i>mount /dev/hda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
462</pre> 482</pre>
463 483
464<note> 484<note>
465If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to 485If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
466change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This 486change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
477# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i> 497# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
478# <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i> 498# <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
479</pre> 499</pre>
480 500
481<p> 501<p>
482We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the 502We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
483kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions. 503kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the
504partitions.
484</p> 505</p>
485 506
486<p> 507<p>
487Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo 508Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
488Installation Files</uri>. 509Installation Files</uri>.

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