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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
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6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.23 2004/11/20 22:23:30 neysx Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.35 2006/07/25 18:01:45 josejx Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<version>1.19</version> 11<version>2.6</version>
12<date>2004-11-02</date> 12<date>2006-07-25</date>
13 13
14<section> 14<section>
15<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title> 15<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16<subsection> 16<subsection>
17<title>Block Devices</title> 17<title>Block Devices</title>
24you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems 24you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
25for your Gentoo Linux installation. 25for your Gentoo Linux installation.
26</p> 26</p>
27 27
28<p> 28<p>
29To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is 29To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most common block device is
30probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system, namely 30the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system, namely
31<path>/dev/hda</path>. If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard 31<path>/dev/hda</path>. If you are installing onto SCSI, FireWire, USB or SATA
32drive would be <path>/dev/sda</path>. 32drives, then your first hard drive would be <path>/dev/sda</path>.
33</p> 33</p>
34 34
35<p> 35<p>
36The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User 36The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
37programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying 37programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
41</p> 41</p>
42 42
43</body> 43</body>
44</subsection> 44</subsection>
45<subsection> 45<subsection>
46<title>Partitions and Slices</title> 46<title>Partitions</title>
47<body> 47<body>
48 48
49<p> 49<p>
50Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux 50Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
51system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices 51system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
52are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems, 52are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems,
53these are called <e>partitions</e>. Other architectures use a similar technique, 53these are called <e>partitions</e>.
54called <e>slices</e>.
55</p> 54</p>
56 55
57</body> 56</body>
58</subsection> 57</subsection>
59</section> 58</section>
66<p> 65<p>
67If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system, 66If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system,
68you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book: 67you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book:
69</p> 68</p>
70 69
70<note>
71If you are using an OldWorld machine, you will need to keep MacOS available.
72The layout here assumes MacOS is installed on a separate drive.
73</note>
74
71<table> 75<table>
72<tr> 76<tr>
73 <th>Partition NewWorld</th> 77 <th>Partition NewWorld</th>
74 <th>Partition OldWorld</th> 78 <th>Partition OldWorld</th>
75 <th>Partition Pegasos</th> 79 <th>Partition Pegasos</th>
80 <th>Partition RS/6000</th>
76 <th>Filesystem</th> 81 <th>Filesystem</th>
77 <th>Size</th> 82 <th>Size</th>
78 <th>Description</th> 83 <th>Description</th>
79</tr> 84</tr>
80<tr> 85<tr>
81 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 86 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
82 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti> 87 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
88 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
83 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti> 89 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
84 <ti>(Partition Map)</ti> 90 <ti>(Partition Map)</ti>
85 <ti>32k</ti> 91 <ti>32k</ti>
86 <ti>Apple_partition_map</ti> 92 <ti>Apple_partition_map</ti>
87</tr> 93</tr>
88<tr> 94<tr>
89 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 95 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
90 <ti>(Not needed)</ti> 96 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
97 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
91 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti> 98 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
92 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti> 99 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti>
93 <ti>800k</ti> 100 <ti>800k</ti>
94 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti> 101 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti>
95</tr> 102</tr>
96<tr> 103<tr>
104 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
105 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
106 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
107 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
108 <ti>(PReP Boot)</ti>
109 <ti>800k</ti>
110 <ti>Type 0x41</ti>
111</tr>
112<tr>
113 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
114 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path> (If using quik)</ti>
115 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
116 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
117 <ti>ext2</ti>
118 <ti>32MB</ti>
119 <ti>Boot partition</ti>
120</tr>
121<tr>
97 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti> 122 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
123 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path>(<path>/dev/hda3</path> if using quik)</ti>
98 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 124 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
99 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 125 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
100 <ti>(swap)</ti> 126 <ti>(swap)</ti>
101 <ti>512M</ti> 127 <ti>512M</ti>
102 <ti>Swap partition</ti> 128 <ti>Swap partition, Type 0x82</ti>
103</tr> 129</tr>
104<tr> 130<tr>
105 <ti><path>/dev/hda4</path></ti> 131 <ti><path>/dev/hda4</path></ti>
132 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path> (<path>/dev/hda4</path> if using quik)</ti>
106 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti> 133 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
107 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 134 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
108 <ti>ext3</ti> 135 <ti>ext3, xfs</ti>
109 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti> 136 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti>
110 <ti>Root partition</ti> 137 <ti>Root partition, Type 0x83</ti>
111</tr> 138</tr>
112</table> 139</table>
113 140
114<note> 141<note>
115There are some partitions named like this: <path>Apple_Driver43, 142There are some partitions named: <path>Apple_Driver43, Apple_Driver_ATA,
116Apple_Driver_ATA, Apple_FWDriver, Apple_Driver_IOKit, 143Apple_FWDriver, Apple_Driver_IOKit, Apple_Patches</path>. If you are not
117Apple_Patches</path>. If you are not planning to use MacOS 9 you can 144planning to use MacOS 9 you can delete them, because MacOS X and Linux don't
118delete them, because MacOS X and Linux don't need them. 145need them. To delete them, either use parted or erase the whole disk by
119You might have to use parted in order to delete them, as mac-fdisk can't delete them yet. 146initializing the partition map.
120</note> 147</note>
121 148
149<warn>
150<c>parted</c> is able to resize partitions including HFS+. Unfortunately it is
151not possible to resize HFS+ journaled filesystems, so switch off journaling in
152Mac OS X before resizing. Remeber that any resizing operation is dangerous,
153so attempt at your own risk! Be sure to always have a backup of your data
154before resizing!
155</warn>
156
122<p> 157<p>
123If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how many 158If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how many
124partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with <uri 159partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
125link="#fdisk">Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple/IBM) to Partition your Disk</uri> 160<uri link="#mac-fdisk"> Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple) to Partition your Disk
126or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (especially Pegasos) to 161</uri> or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (IBM/Pegasos) to
127Partition your Disk</uri>. 162Partition your Disk</uri>.
128</p> 163</p>
129 164
130</body> 165</body>
131</subsection> 166</subsection>
137The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance, 172The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
138if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your 173if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
139<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier. 174<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
140If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path> 175If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
141should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good 176should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good
142choice of filesystem will then maximise your performance. Gameservers will have 177choice of filesystem will then maximize your performance. Gameservers will have
143a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The 178a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The
144reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. 179reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. You will
180definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big: not only will it contain the
181majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes around 500 MB
182excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
145</p> 183</p>
146 184
147<p> 185<p>
148As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate 186As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
149partitions or volumes have the following advantages: 187partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
161 If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can 199 If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
162 be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than 200 be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
163 it is with multiple partitions) 201 it is with multiple partitions)
164</li> 202</li>
165<li> 203<li>
166 Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only, 204 Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
167 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc. 205 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
168</li> 206</li>
169</ul> 207</ul>
170 208
171<p> 209<p>
172However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured 210However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
173properly, you might result in having a system with lots 211properly, you might result in having a system with lots of free space on one
174of free space on one partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition 212partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and
175limit for SCSI and SATA. 213SATA.
176</p> 214</p>
177 215
178</body> 216</body>
179</subsection> 217</subsection>
180</section> 218</section>
181<section id="fdisk"> 219<section id="mac-fdisk">
182<title>Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple/IBM) Partition your Disk</title> 220<title>Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple) Partition your Disk</title>
183<body> 221<body>
184 222
185<p> 223<p>
186At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>: 224At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>:
187</p> 225</p>
191</pre> 229</pre>
192 230
193<p> 231<p>
194First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your 232First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your
195Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s). 233Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s).
196It will ask for the partition number to delete. Usually the first partition on 234It will ask for the partition number to delete. The first partition on Apple
197NewWorld machines (Apple_partition_map) could not be deleted. 235machines (Apple_partition_map) can not be deleted.
198</p>
199
200<p> 236</p>
237
238<p>
201Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will 239On NewWorld Macs, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>.
202ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free 240It will ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first
203partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>. 241free partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>.
204</p> 242</p>
205 243
206<note> 244<note>
207This partition is <e>not</e> a "boot" partition. It is not used by Linux at all; 245This partition is <e>not</e> a <path>/boot</path> partition. It is not used by
208you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never mount it. PPC 246Linux at all; you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never
209users don't need an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>. 247mount it. Apple users don't need an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>.
210</note> 248</note>
211 249
212<p> 250<p>
213Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will 251Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
214ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c> 252ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c>
215before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter 253before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
216<c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size 254<c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
217you want -- 512MB is recommended though). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c> 255you want -- 512MB is recommended though). When asked for a name, enter
218(mandatory). 256<c>swap</c> (mandatory).
219</p> 257</p>
220 258
221<p> 259<p>
222To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select 260To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select
223from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter 261from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
244</p> 282</p>
245 283
246</body> 284</body>
247</section> 285</section>
248<section id="parted"> 286<section id="parted">
249<title>Using parted (especially Pegasos) to Partition your Disk</title> 287<title>Using parted (Mostly Pegasos) to Partition your Disk</title>
250<body> 288<body>
251 289
252<p> 290<p>
253<c>parted</c>, the Partition Editor, can now handle HFS+ partitions used by 291<c>parted</c>, the Partition Editor, can now handle HFS+ partitions used by
254Mac OS and Mac OS X. With this tool you can shrink your Mac-partitions and 292Mac OS and Mac OS X. With this tool you can resize your Mac-partitions and
255create space for your Linux partitions. Nevertheless, the example below 293create space for your Linux partitions. Nevertheless, the example below
256describes partitioning for Pegasos machines only. 294describes partitioning for Pegasos machines only.
257</p> 295</p>
258 296
259<p> 297<p>
263<pre caption="Starting parted"> 301<pre caption="Starting parted">
264# <i>parted /dev/hda</i> 302# <i>parted /dev/hda</i>
265</pre> 303</pre>
266 304
267<p> 305<p>
268If the drive is unpartitioned, run <c>mklabel amiga</c> to create a new 306If the drive isn't partitioned, run <c>mklabel amiga</c> to create a new
269disklabel for the drive. 307disklabel for the drive.
270</p> 308</p>
271 309
272<p> 310<p>
273You can type <c>print</c> at any time in parted to display the current partition 311You can type <c>print</c> at any time in parted to display the current partition
274table. Your changes aren't saved until you quit the application; if at any time 312table. If at any time you change your mind or made a mistake you can press
275you change your mind or made a mistake you can press <c>Ctrl-c</c> to abort 313<c>Ctrl-c</c> to abort parted.
276parted.
277</p> 314</p>
278 315
279<p> 316<p>
280If you intend to also install MorphOS on your Pegasos create an affs1 filesystem 317If you intend to also install MorphOS on your Pegasos create an affs1 filesystem
281named "BI0" (BI zero) at the start of the drive. 50MB should be more than enough 318named "BI0" (BI zero) at the start of the drive. 32MB should be more than enough
282to store the MorphOS kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use reiserfs or 319to store the MorphOS kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use reiserfs
283xfs, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the 320or xfs, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the
284Pegasos II can boot from ext2/ext3 drives). To create the partition run 321Pegasos II can only boot from ext2/ext3 or affs1 partitions). To create the partition run
285<c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> should 322<c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> should
286be replaced with the megabyte range (e.g. <c>5 55</c> creates a 50 MB partition 323be replaced with the megabyte range (e.g. <c>0 32</c> creates a 32 MB partition
287starting at 5MB and ending at 55MB. 324starting at 0MB and ending at 32MB.
288</p> 325</p>
289 326
290<p> 327<p>
291You need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem for all your 328You need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem for all your
292program files etc, and one swap partition. To create the root filesystem you 329program files etc, and one swap partition. To create the root filesystem you
323<subsection> 360<subsection>
324<title>Introduction</title> 361<title>Introduction</title>
325<body> 362<body>
326 363
327<p> 364<p>
328Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them. 365Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
329If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use 366If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
330as default in this handbook, continue with <uri 367as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
331link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>. 368 link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
332Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems... 369Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
333</p> 370</p>
334 371
335</body> 372</body>
336</subsection> 373</subsection>
337<subsection> 374<subsection>
338<title>Filesystems?</title> 375<title>Filesystems?</title>
339<body> 376<body>
340 377
341<p> 378<p>
342Several filesystems are available. ext2, ext3, ReiserFS and XFS are found stable 379Several filesystems are available. ext2, ext3, ReiserFS and XFS have been found
343on the PPC architecture. jfs is unsupported. 380stable on the PPC architecture.
344</p> 381</p>
345 382
346<p> 383<p>
347<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata 384<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
348journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can 385journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
356<p> 393<p>
357<b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata 394<b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
358journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like 395journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like
359full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable 396full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
360filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables 397filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables
361high performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is an excellent 398high performance in almost all situations. You can enable this indexing by
362filesystem. 399adding <c>-O dir_index</c> to the <c>mke2fs</c> command. In short, ext3 is an
400excellent filesystem.
363</p> 401</p>
364 402
365<p> 403<p>
366<b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall 404<b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
367performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small 405performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
398 <th>Filesystem</th> 436 <th>Filesystem</th>
399 <th>Creation Command</th> 437 <th>Creation Command</th>
400</tr> 438</tr>
401<tr> 439<tr>
402 <ti>ext2</ti> 440 <ti>ext2</ti>
403 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti> 441 <ti><c>mkfs.ext2</c></ti>
404</tr> 442</tr>
405<tr> 443<tr>
406 <ti>ext3</ti> 444 <ti>ext3</ti>
407 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti> 445 <ti><c>mkfs.ext3</c></ti>
408</tr> 446</tr>
409<tr> 447<tr>
410 <ti>reiserfs</ti> 448 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
411 <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti> 449 <ti><c>mkfs.reiserfs</c></ti>
412</tr> 450</tr>
413<tr> 451<tr>
414 <ti>xfs</ti> 452 <ti>xfs</ti>
415 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti> 453 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
416</tr> 454</tr>
420For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/hda4</path> in our example) 458For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/hda4</path> in our example)
421in ext3 (as in our example), you would use: 459in ext3 (as in our example), you would use:
422</p> 460</p>
423 461
424<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition"> 462<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
425# <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda4</i> 463# <i>mkfs.ext3 /dev/hda4</i>
426</pre> 464</pre>
427 465
428<p> 466<p>
429Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical 467Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
430volumes). 468volumes).
431</p> 469</p>
432 470
433<note> 471<note>
434On OldWorld machines and the PegasosII your partition which holds the kernel must 472On the PegasosII your partition which holds the kernel must be ext2 or ext3.
435be ext2 or ext3. NewWorld machines can boot from any of ext2, ext3, XFS, 473NewWorld machines can boot from any of ext2, ext3, XFS, ReiserFS or even
436ReiserFS or even HFS/HFS+ filesystems. 474HFS/HFS+ filesystems. On OldWorld machines booting with BootX, the kernel must
475be placed on an HFS partition, but this will be completed when you configure
476your bootloader.
437</note> 477</note>
438 478
439</body> 479</body>
440</subsection> 480</subsection>
441<subsection> 481<subsection>
486change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This 526change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
487also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>. 527also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
488</note> 528</note>
489 529
490<p> 530<p>
491Finally we have to create the <path>/dev</path> files in our new home, which is
492needed during the bootloader installation. This could be done by "bind"-mapping
493the <path>/dev</path>-filesystem from the LiveCD:
494</p>
495
496<pre caption="Bind-mounting the /dev-filesystem">
497# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
498# <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
499</pre>
500
501<p>
502We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the 531We will have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
503kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the 532kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the
504partitions. 533partitions.
505</p> 534</p>
506 535
507<p> 536<p>

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