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7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.6 2004/04/28 07:52:30 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.23 2004/11/20 22:23:30 neysx Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<version>1.19</version>
12<date>2004-11-02</date>
13
10<section> 14<section>
11<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title> 15<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
12<subsection> 16<subsection>
13<title>Block Devices</title> 17<title>Block Devices</title>
14<body> 18<body>
66 70
67<table> 71<table>
68<tr> 72<tr>
69 <th>Partition NewWorld</th> 73 <th>Partition NewWorld</th>
70 <th>Partition OldWorld</th> 74 <th>Partition OldWorld</th>
75 <th>Partition Pegasos</th>
71 <th>Filesystem</th> 76 <th>Filesystem</th>
72 <th>Size</th> 77 <th>Size</th>
73 <th>Description</th> 78 <th>Description</th>
74</tr> 79</tr>
75<tr> 80<tr>
76 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 81 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
82 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
83 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
84 <ti>(Partition Map)</ti>
85 <ti>32k</ti>
86 <ti>Apple_partition_map</ti>
87</tr>
88<tr>
89 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
77 <ti>(Not needed)</ti> 90 <ti>(Not needed)</ti>
91 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
78 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti> 92 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti>
79 <ti>800k</ti> 93 <ti>800k</ti>
80 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti> 94 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti>
81</tr> 95</tr>
82<tr> 96<tr>
97 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
83 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 98 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
84 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 99 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
85 <ti>(swap)</ti> 100 <ti>(swap)</ti>
86 <ti>512M</ti> 101 <ti>512M</ti>
87 <ti>Swap partition</ti> 102 <ti>Swap partition</ti>
88</tr> 103</tr>
89<tr> 104<tr>
105 <ti><path>/dev/hda4</path></ti>
90 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti> 106 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
91 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 107 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
92 <ti>ext3</ti> 108 <ti>ext3</ti>
93 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti> 109 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti>
94 <ti>Root partition</ti> 110 <ti>Root partition</ti>
95</tr> 111</tr>
96</table> 112</table>
97 113
114<note>
115There are some partitions named like this: <path>Apple_Driver43,
116Apple_Driver_ATA, Apple_FWDriver, Apple_Driver_IOKit,
117Apple_Patches</path>. If you are not planning to use MacOS 9 you can
118delete them, because MacOS X and Linux don't need them.
119You might have to use parted in order to delete them, as mac-fdisk can't delete them yet.
120</note>
121
98<p> 122<p>
99If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how 123If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how many
100many partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with 124partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with <uri
101<uri link="#fdisk">Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple/IBM) to Partition your 125link="#fdisk">Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple/IBM) to Partition your Disk</uri>
102Disk</uri> or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (Pegasos) to 126or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (especially Pegasos) to
103Partition your Disk</uri>. 127Partition your Disk</uri>.
104</p> 128</p>
105 129
106</body> 130</body>
107</subsection> 131</subsection>
111 135
112<p> 136<p>
113The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance, 137The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
114if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your 138if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
115<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier. 139<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
116If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your 140If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
117<path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside 141should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good
118<path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your 142choice of filesystem will then maximise your performance. Gameservers will have
119performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming 143a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The
120servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: 144reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups.
121security and backups.
122</p> 145</p>
123 146
124<p> 147<p>
125As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate 148As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
126partitions or volumes have the following advantages: 149partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
127</p> 150</p>
128 151
129<ul> 152<ul>
130<li> 153<li>
131 You can choose the most performant filesystem for each partition or volume 154 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
132</li> 155</li>
133<li> 156<li>
134 Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is 157 Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
135 continuously writing files to a partition or volume 158 continuously writing files to a partition or volume
136</li> 159</li>
146</ul> 169</ul>
147 170
148<p> 171<p>
149However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured 172However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
150properly, you might result in having a system with lots 173properly, you might result in having a system with lots
151of free space on one partition and none on another. 174of free space on one partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition
175limit for SCSI and SATA.
152</p> 176</p>
153 177
154</body> 178</body>
155</subsection> 179</subsection>
156</section> 180</section>
167</pre> 191</pre>
168 192
169<p> 193<p>
170First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your 194First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your
171Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s). 195Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s).
172It will ask for the partition number to delete. 196It will ask for the partition number to delete. Usually the first partition on
197NewWorld machines (Apple_partition_map) could not be deleted.
173</p> 198</p>
174 199
175<p> 200<p>
176Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will 201Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will
177ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free 202ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free
178partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>1p</c>. 203partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>.
179</p> 204</p>
180 205
181<note> 206<note>
182This partition is <e>not</e> a "boot" partition. It is not used by Linux at all; 207This partition is <e>not</e> a "boot" partition. It is not used by Linux at all;
183you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never mount it. PPC 208you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never mount it. PPC
184users don't need a an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>. 209users don't need an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>.
185</note> 210</note>
186 211
187<p> 212<p>
188Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will 213Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
189ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>1</c> 214ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c>
190before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter 215before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
191<c>2p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size 216<c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
192you want -- 512MB is recommended though). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c> 217you want -- 512MB is recommended though). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c>
193(mandatory). 218(mandatory).
194</p> 219</p>
195 220
196<p> 221<p>
197To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>3p</c> to select 222To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select
198from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter 223from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
199<c>3p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available 224<c>4p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available
200space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory). 225space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory).
201</p> 226</p>
202 227
203<p> 228<p>
204To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to 229To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to
205quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>. 230quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>.
206</p> 231</p>
207 232
233<note>
234To make sure everything is ok, you should run mac-fdisk once more and check
235whether all the partitions are there. If you don't see any of the partitions
236you created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions
237by pressing "i" in mac-fdisk. Note that this will recreate the partition map
238and thus remove all your partitions.
239</note>
240
208<p> 241<p>
209Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri 242Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
210link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>. 243link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
211</p> 244</p>
212 245
213</body> 246</body>
214</section> 247</section>
215<section id="parted"> 248<section id="parted">
216<title>Using parted (Pegasos) to Partition your Disk</title> 249<title>Using parted (especially Pegasos) to Partition your Disk</title>
217<body> 250<body>
251
252<p>
253<c>parted</c>, the Partition Editor, can now handle HFS+ partitions used by
254Mac OS and Mac OS X. With this tool you can shrink your Mac-partitions and
255create space for your Linux partitions. Nevertheless, the example below
256describes partitioning for Pegasos machines only.
257</p>
218 258
219<p> 259<p>
220To begin let's fire up <c>parted</c>: 260To begin let's fire up <c>parted</c>:
221</p> 261</p>
222 262
237</p> 277</p>
238 278
239<p> 279<p>
240If you intend to also install MorphOS on your Pegasos create an affs1 filesystem 280If you intend to also install MorphOS on your Pegasos create an affs1 filesystem
241named "BI0" (BI zero) at the start of the drive. 50MB should be more than enough 281named "BI0" (BI zero) at the start of the drive. 50MB should be more than enough
242to store the MorphOS kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use reiserfs, 282to store the MorphOS kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use reiserfs or
243xfs or jfs you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the 283xfs, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the
244Pegasos II can boot from ext2/ext3 drives). To create the partition run 284Pegasos II can boot from ext2/ext3 drives). To create the partition run
245<c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> should 285<c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> should
246be replaced with the megabyte range (f.i. <c>5 55</c> creates a 50 MB partition 286be replaced with the megabyte range (e.g. <c>5 55</c> creates a 50 MB partition
247starting at 5MB and ending at 55MB. 287starting at 5MB and ending at 55MB.
248</p> 288</p>
249 289
250<p> 290<p>
251You need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem for all your 291You need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem for all your
252program files etc, and one swap partition. To create the root filesystem you 292program files etc, and one swap partition. To create the root filesystem you
253must first decide which filesystem to use. Possible options are ext2, ext3, 293must first decide which filesystem to use. Possible options are ext2, ext3,
254reiserfs, jfs and xfs. Unless you know what you are doing use ext3. Run 294reiserfs and xfs. Unless you know what you are doing, use ext3. Run
255<c>mkpart primary ext3 START END</c> to create an ext3 partition. Again, replace 295<c>mkpart primary ext3 START END</c> to create an ext3 partition. Again, replace
256<c>START</c> and <c>END</c> with the megabyte start and stop marks for the 296<c>START</c> and <c>END</c> with the megabyte start and stop marks for the
257partition. 297partition.
258</p> 298</p>
259 299
265partition, run <c>mkpart primary linux-swap START END</c>. 305partition, run <c>mkpart primary linux-swap START END</c>.
266</p> 306</p>
267 307
268<p> 308<p>
269Write down the partition minor numbers as they are required during the 309Write down the partition minor numbers as they are required during the
270installation process. To dislay the minor numbers run <c>print</c>. Your drives 310installation process. To display the minor numbers run <c>print</c>. Your drives
271are accessed as <path>/dev/hdaX</path> where X is replaced with the minor number 311are accessed as <path>/dev/hdaX</path> where X is replaced with the minor number
272of the partition. 312of the partition.
273</p> 313</p>
274 314
275<p> 315<p>
297<subsection> 337<subsection>
298<title>Filesystems?</title> 338<title>Filesystems?</title>
299<body> 339<body>
300 340
301<p> 341<p>
302Several filesystems are available. Ext2 and ext3 are found stable on the 342Several filesystems are available. ext2, ext3, ReiserFS and XFS are found stable
303PPC architecture, reiserfs and xfs are in experimental stage. jfs is 343on the PPC architecture. jfs is unsupported.
304unsupported.
305</p> 344</p>
306 345
307<p> 346<p>
308<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata 347<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
309journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can 348journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
332as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large 371as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large
333files and directories containing tens of thousands of files. 372files and directories containing tens of thousands of files.
334</p> 373</p>
335 374
336<p> 375<p>
337<b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported 376<b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling which comes with a robust
338under Gentoo Linux's xfs-sources kernel. It comes with a robust feature-set and
339is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this filesystem on Linux 377feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
340systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and a uninterruptible 378filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
341power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data in RAM, improperly 379an uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
342designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions when writing files 380in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
343to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good deal of data if the 381when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
344system goes down unexpectedly. 382deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
345</p>
346
347<p>
348<b>JFS</b> is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
349become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
350comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this point.
351</p> 383</p>
352 384
353</body> 385</body>
354</subsection> 386</subsection>
355<subsection id="filesystems-apply"> 387<subsection id="filesystems-apply">
380</tr> 412</tr>
381<tr> 413<tr>
382 <ti>xfs</ti> 414 <ti>xfs</ti>
383 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti> 415 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
384</tr> 416</tr>
385<tr>
386 <ti>jfs</ti>
387 <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
388</tr>
389</table> 417</table>
390 418
391<p> 419<p>
392For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/hda3</path> in our example) 420For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/hda4</path> in our example)
393in ext3 (as in our example), you would use: 421in ext3 (as in our example), you would use:
394</p> 422</p>
395 423
396<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition"> 424<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
397# <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</i> 425# <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda4</i>
398</pre> 426</pre>
399 427
400<p> 428<p>
401Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical 429Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
402volumes). 430volumes).
403</p> 431</p>
404 432
433<note>
434On OldWorld machines and the PegasosII your partition which holds the kernel must
435be ext2 or ext3. NewWorld machines can boot from any of ext2, ext3, XFS,
436ReiserFS or even HFS/HFS+ filesystems.
437</note>
438
405</body> 439</body>
406</subsection> 440</subsection>
407<subsection> 441<subsection>
408<title>Activating the Swap Partition</title> 442<title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
409<body> 443<body>
411<p> 445<p>
412<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions: 446<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
413</p> 447</p>
414 448
415<pre caption="Creating a Swap signature"> 449<pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
416# <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i> 450# <i>mkswap /dev/hda3</i>
417</pre> 451</pre>
418 452
419<p> 453<p>
420To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>: 454To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
421</p> 455</p>
422 456
423<pre caption="Activating the swap partition"> 457<pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
424# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i> 458# <i>swapon /dev/hda3</i>
425</pre> 459</pre>
426 460
427<p> 461<p>
428Create and activate the swap now. 462Create and activate the swap now.
429</p> 463</p>
437 471
438<p> 472<p>
439Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is 473Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
440time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to 474time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
441create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an 475create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
442example we create a mount-point and mount the root and boot partition: 476example we create a mount-point and mount the root partition:
443</p> 477</p>
444 478
445<pre caption="Mounting partitions"> 479<pre caption="Mounting partitions">
446# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i> 480# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
447# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i> 481# <i>mount /dev/hda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
448</pre> 482</pre>
449 483
450<note> 484<note>
451If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to 485If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
452change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This 486change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
453also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>. 487also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
454</note> 488</note>
455 489
456<p> 490<p>
457We also need to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the kernel)
458on <path>/proc</path>. We first create the <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path>
459mountpoint and then mount the filesystem:
460</p>
461
462<pre caption="Creating the /mnt/gentoo/proc mountpoint">
463# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
464# <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
465</pre>
466
467<p>
468Finally we have to create the <path>/dev</path> files in our new home, which is 491Finally we have to create the <path>/dev</path> files in our new home, which is
469needed during the bootloader installation. This could be done by "bind"-mapping 492needed during the bootloader installation. This could be done by "bind"-mapping
470the <path>/dev</path>-filesystem from the LiveCD: 493the <path>/dev</path>-filesystem from the LiveCD:
471</p> 494</p>
472 495
474# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i> 497# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
475# <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i> 498# <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
476</pre> 499</pre>
477 500
478<p> 501<p>
502We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
503kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the
504partitions.
505</p>
506
507<p>
479Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo 508Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
480Installation Files</uri>. 509Installation Files</uri>.
481</p> 510</p>
482 511
483</body> 512</body>
484</section> 513</section>

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