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7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.8 2004/05/03 07:53:45 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.23 2004/11/20 22:23:30 neysx Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<version>1.19</version>
12<date>2004-11-02</date>
13
10<section> 14<section>
11<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title> 15<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
12<subsection> 16<subsection>
13<title>Block Devices</title> 17<title>Block Devices</title>
14<body> 18<body>
73 <th>Size</th> 77 <th>Size</th>
74 <th>Description</th> 78 <th>Description</th>
75</tr> 79</tr>
76<tr> 80<tr>
77 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 81 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
82 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
83 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
84 <ti>(Partition Map)</ti>
85 <ti>32k</ti>
86 <ti>Apple_partition_map</ti>
87</tr>
88<tr>
89 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
78 <ti>(Not needed)</ti> 90 <ti>(Not needed)</ti>
79 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti> 91 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
80 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti> 92 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti>
81 <ti>800k</ti> 93 <ti>800k</ti>
82 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti> 94 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti>
83</tr> 95</tr>
84<tr> 96<tr>
97 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
85 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 98 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
86 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
87 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 99 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
88 <ti>(swap)</ti> 100 <ti>(swap)</ti>
89 <ti>512M</ti> 101 <ti>512M</ti>
90 <ti>Swap partition</ti> 102 <ti>Swap partition</ti>
91</tr> 103</tr>
92<tr> 104<tr>
105 <ti><path>/dev/hda4</path></ti>
93 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti> 106 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
94 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
95 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 107 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
96 <ti>ext3</ti> 108 <ti>ext3</ti>
97 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti> 109 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti>
98 <ti>Root partition</ti> 110 <ti>Root partition</ti>
99</tr> 111</tr>
100</table> 112</table>
101 113
114<note>
115There are some partitions named like this: <path>Apple_Driver43,
116Apple_Driver_ATA, Apple_FWDriver, Apple_Driver_IOKit,
117Apple_Patches</path>. If you are not planning to use MacOS 9 you can
118delete them, because MacOS X and Linux don't need them.
119You might have to use parted in order to delete them, as mac-fdisk can't delete them yet.
120</note>
121
102<p> 122<p>
103If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how 123If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how many
104many partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with 124partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with <uri
105<uri link="#fdisk">Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple/IBM) to Partition your 125link="#fdisk">Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple/IBM) to Partition your Disk</uri>
106Disk</uri> or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (Pegasos) to 126or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (especially Pegasos) to
107Partition your Disk</uri>. 127Partition your Disk</uri>.
108</p> 128</p>
109 129
110</body> 130</body>
111</subsection> 131</subsection>
115 135
116<p> 136<p>
117The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance, 137The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
118if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your 138if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
119<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier. 139<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
120If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your 140If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
121<path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside 141should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good
122<path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your 142choice of filesystem will then maximise your performance. Gameservers will have
123performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming 143a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The
124servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: 144reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups.
125security and backups.
126</p> 145</p>
127 146
128<p> 147<p>
129As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate 148As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
130partitions or volumes have the following advantages: 149partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
131</p> 150</p>
132 151
133<ul> 152<ul>
134<li> 153<li>
135 You can choose the most performant filesystem for each partition or volume 154 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
136</li> 155</li>
137<li> 156<li>
138 Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is 157 Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
139 continuously writing files to a partition or volume 158 continuously writing files to a partition or volume
140</li> 159</li>
150</ul> 169</ul>
151 170
152<p> 171<p>
153However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured 172However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
154properly, you might result in having a system with lots 173properly, you might result in having a system with lots
155of free space on one partition and none on another. 174of free space on one partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition
175limit for SCSI and SATA.
156</p> 176</p>
157 177
158</body> 178</body>
159</subsection> 179</subsection>
160</section> 180</section>
171</pre> 191</pre>
172 192
173<p> 193<p>
174First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your 194First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your
175Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s). 195Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s).
176It will ask for the partition number to delete. 196It will ask for the partition number to delete. Usually the first partition on
197NewWorld machines (Apple_partition_map) could not be deleted.
177</p> 198</p>
178 199
179<p> 200<p>
180Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will 201Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will
181ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free 202ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free
182partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>1p</c>. 203partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>.
183</p> 204</p>
184 205
185<note> 206<note>
186This partition is <e>not</e> a "boot" partition. It is not used by Linux at all; 207This partition is <e>not</e> a "boot" partition. It is not used by Linux at all;
187you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never mount it. PPC 208you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never mount it. PPC
188users don't need a an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>. 209users don't need an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>.
189</note> 210</note>
190 211
191<p> 212<p>
192Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will 213Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
193ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>1</c> 214ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c>
194before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter 215before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
195<c>2p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size 216<c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
196you want -- 512MB is recommended though). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c> 217you want -- 512MB is recommended though). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c>
197(mandatory). 218(mandatory).
198</p> 219</p>
199 220
200<p> 221<p>
201To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>3p</c> to select 222To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select
202from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter 223from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
203<c>3p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available 224<c>4p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available
204space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory). 225space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory).
205</p> 226</p>
206 227
207<p> 228<p>
208To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to 229To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to
209quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>. 230quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>.
210</p> 231</p>
211 232
233<note>
234To make sure everything is ok, you should run mac-fdisk once more and check
235whether all the partitions are there. If you don't see any of the partitions
236you created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions
237by pressing "i" in mac-fdisk. Note that this will recreate the partition map
238and thus remove all your partitions.
239</note>
240
212<p> 241<p>
213Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri 242Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
214link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>. 243link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
215</p> 244</p>
216 245
217</body> 246</body>
218</section> 247</section>
219<section id="parted"> 248<section id="parted">
220<title>Using parted (Pegasos) to Partition your Disk</title> 249<title>Using parted (especially Pegasos) to Partition your Disk</title>
221<body> 250<body>
251
252<p>
253<c>parted</c>, the Partition Editor, can now handle HFS+ partitions used by
254Mac OS and Mac OS X. With this tool you can shrink your Mac-partitions and
255create space for your Linux partitions. Nevertheless, the example below
256describes partitioning for Pegasos machines only.
257</p>
222 258
223<p> 259<p>
224To begin let's fire up <c>parted</c>: 260To begin let's fire up <c>parted</c>:
225</p> 261</p>
226 262
241</p> 277</p>
242 278
243<p> 279<p>
244If you intend to also install MorphOS on your Pegasos create an affs1 filesystem 280If you intend to also install MorphOS on your Pegasos create an affs1 filesystem
245named "BI0" (BI zero) at the start of the drive. 50MB should be more than enough 281named "BI0" (BI zero) at the start of the drive. 50MB should be more than enough
246to store the MorphOS kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use reiserfs, 282to store the MorphOS kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use reiserfs or
247xfs or jfs you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the 283xfs, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the
248Pegasos II can boot from ext2/ext3 drives). To create the partition run 284Pegasos II can boot from ext2/ext3 drives). To create the partition run
249<c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> should 285<c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> should
250be replaced with the megabyte range (f.i. <c>5 55</c> creates a 50 MB partition 286be replaced with the megabyte range (e.g. <c>5 55</c> creates a 50 MB partition
251starting at 5MB and ending at 55MB. 287starting at 5MB and ending at 55MB.
252</p> 288</p>
253 289
254<p> 290<p>
255You need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem for all your 291You need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem for all your
256program files etc, and one swap partition. To create the root filesystem you 292program files etc, and one swap partition. To create the root filesystem you
257must first decide which filesystem to use. Possible options are ext2, ext3, 293must first decide which filesystem to use. Possible options are ext2, ext3,
258reiserfs, jfs and xfs. Unless you know what you are doing, use ext3. Run 294reiserfs and xfs. Unless you know what you are doing, use ext3. Run
259<c>mkpart primary ext3 START END</c> to create an ext3 partition. Again, replace 295<c>mkpart primary ext3 START END</c> to create an ext3 partition. Again, replace
260<c>START</c> and <c>END</c> with the megabyte start and stop marks for the 296<c>START</c> and <c>END</c> with the megabyte start and stop marks for the
261partition. 297partition.
262</p> 298</p>
263 299
269partition, run <c>mkpart primary linux-swap START END</c>. 305partition, run <c>mkpart primary linux-swap START END</c>.
270</p> 306</p>
271 307
272<p> 308<p>
273Write down the partition minor numbers as they are required during the 309Write down the partition minor numbers as they are required during the
274installation process. To dislay the minor numbers run <c>print</c>. Your drives 310installation process. To display the minor numbers run <c>print</c>. Your drives
275are accessed as <path>/dev/hdaX</path> where X is replaced with the minor number 311are accessed as <path>/dev/hdaX</path> where X is replaced with the minor number
276of the partition. 312of the partition.
277</p> 313</p>
278 314
279<p> 315<p>
301<subsection> 337<subsection>
302<title>Filesystems?</title> 338<title>Filesystems?</title>
303<body> 339<body>
304 340
305<p> 341<p>
306Several filesystems are available. Ext2 and ext3 are found stable on the 342Several filesystems are available. ext2, ext3, ReiserFS and XFS are found stable
307PPC architecture, reiserfs and xfs are in experimental stage. jfs is 343on the PPC architecture. jfs is unsupported.
308unsupported.
309</p> 344</p>
310 345
311<p> 346<p>
312<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata 347<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
313journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can 348journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
336as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large 371as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large
337files and directories containing tens of thousands of files. 372files and directories containing tens of thousands of files.
338</p> 373</p>
339 374
340<p> 375<p>
341<b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported 376<b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling which comes with a robust
342under Gentoo Linux's xfs-sources kernel. It comes with a robust feature-set and
343is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this filesystem on Linux 377feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
344systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and a uninterruptible 378filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
345power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data in RAM, improperly 379an uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
346designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions when writing files 380in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
347to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good deal of data if the 381when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
348system goes down unexpectedly. 382deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
349</p>
350
351<p>
352<b>JFS</b> is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
353become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
354comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this point.
355</p> 383</p>
356 384
357</body> 385</body>
358</subsection> 386</subsection>
359<subsection id="filesystems-apply"> 387<subsection id="filesystems-apply">
384</tr> 412</tr>
385<tr> 413<tr>
386 <ti>xfs</ti> 414 <ti>xfs</ti>
387 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti> 415 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
388</tr> 416</tr>
389<tr>
390 <ti>jfs</ti>
391 <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
392</tr>
393</table> 417</table>
394 418
395<p> 419<p>
396For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/hda3</path> in our example) 420For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/hda4</path> in our example)
397in ext3 (as in our example), you would use: 421in ext3 (as in our example), you would use:
398</p> 422</p>
399 423
400<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition"> 424<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
401# <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</i> 425# <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda4</i>
402</pre> 426</pre>
403 427
404<p> 428<p>
405Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical 429Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
406volumes). 430volumes).
407</p> 431</p>
408 432
433<note>
434On OldWorld machines and the PegasosII your partition which holds the kernel must
435be ext2 or ext3. NewWorld machines can boot from any of ext2, ext3, XFS,
436ReiserFS or even HFS/HFS+ filesystems.
437</note>
438
409</body> 439</body>
410</subsection> 440</subsection>
411<subsection> 441<subsection>
412<title>Activating the Swap Partition</title> 442<title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
413<body> 443<body>
415<p> 445<p>
416<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions: 446<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
417</p> 447</p>
418 448
419<pre caption="Creating a Swap signature"> 449<pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
420# <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i> 450# <i>mkswap /dev/hda3</i>
421</pre> 451</pre>
422 452
423<p> 453<p>
424To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>: 454To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
425</p> 455</p>
426 456
427<pre caption="Activating the swap partition"> 457<pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
428# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i> 458# <i>swapon /dev/hda3</i>
429</pre> 459</pre>
430 460
431<p> 461<p>
432Create and activate the swap now. 462Create and activate the swap now.
433</p> 463</p>
441 471
442<p> 472<p>
443Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is 473Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
444time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to 474time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
445create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an 475create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
446example we create a mount-point and mount the root and boot partition: 476example we create a mount-point and mount the root partition:
447</p> 477</p>
448 478
449<pre caption="Mounting partitions"> 479<pre caption="Mounting partitions">
450# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i> 480# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
451# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i> 481# <i>mount /dev/hda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
452</pre> 482</pre>
453 483
454<note> 484<note>
455If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to 485If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
456change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This 486change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
457also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>. 487also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
458</note> 488</note>
459 489
460<p> 490<p>
461We also need to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the kernel)
462on <path>/proc</path>. We first create the <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path>
463mountpoint and then mount the filesystem:
464</p>
465
466<pre caption="Creating the /mnt/gentoo/proc mountpoint">
467# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
468# <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
469</pre>
470
471<p>
472Finally we have to create the <path>/dev</path> files in our new home, which is 491Finally we have to create the <path>/dev</path> files in our new home, which is
473needed during the bootloader installation. This could be done by "bind"-mapping 492needed during the bootloader installation. This could be done by "bind"-mapping
474the <path>/dev</path>-filesystem from the LiveCD: 493the <path>/dev</path>-filesystem from the LiveCD:
475</p> 494</p>
476 495
478# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i> 497# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
479# <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i> 498# <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
480</pre> 499</pre>
481 500
482<p> 501<p>
502We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
503kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the
504partitions.
505</p>
506
507<p>
483Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo 508Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
484Installation Files</uri>. 509Installation Files</uri>.
485</p> 510</p>
486 511
487</body> 512</body>
488</section> 513</section>

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