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7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.30 2005/08/02 08:03:53 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.31 2005/08/09 09:43:58 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<version>2.2</version> 11<version>2.3</version>
12<date>2005-08-02</date> 12<date>2005-08-09</date>
13 13
14<section> 14<section>
15<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title> 15<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16<subsection> 16<subsection>
17<title>Block Devices</title> 17<title>Block Devices</title>
41</p> 41</p>
42 42
43</body> 43</body>
44</subsection> 44</subsection>
45<subsection> 45<subsection>
46<title>Partitions and Slices</title> 46<title>Partitions</title>
47<body> 47<body>
48 48
49<p> 49<p>
50Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux 50Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
51system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices 51system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
52are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems, 52are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems,
53these are called <e>partitions</e>. Other architectures use a similar technique, 53these are called <e>partitions</e>.
54called <e>slices</e>.
55</p> 54</p>
56 55
57</body> 56</body>
58</subsection> 57</subsection>
59</section> 58</section>
87 <ti>32k</ti> 86 <ti>32k</ti>
88 <ti>Apple_partition_map</ti> 87 <ti>Apple_partition_map</ti>
89</tr> 88</tr>
90<tr> 89<tr>
91 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 90 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
92 <ti>(Not needed)</ti> 91 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
93 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti> 92 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
94 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti> 93 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
95 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti> 94 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti>
96 <ti>800k</ti> 95 <ti>800k</ti>
97 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti> 96 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti>
104 <ti>(PReP Boot)</ti> 103 <ti>(PReP Boot)</ti>
105 <ti>800k</ti> 104 <ti>800k</ti>
106 <ti>Type 0x41</ti> 105 <ti>Type 0x41</ti>
107</tr> 106</tr>
108<tr> 107<tr>
109 <ti>(Not needed)</ti> 108 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
110 <ti>(Not needed)</ti> 109 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path> (If using quik)</ti>
111 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 110 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
112 <ti>(Not needed)</ti> 111 <ti>(Not needed)</ti>
113 <ti>ext2</ti> 112 <ti>ext2</ti>
114 <ti>32MB</ti> 113 <ti>32MB</ti>
115 <ti>Boot partition</ti> 114 <ti>Boot partition</ti>
116</tr> 115</tr>
117<tr> 116<tr>
118 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti> 117 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
119 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 118 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path>(<path>/dev/hda3</path> if using quik)</ti>
120 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 119 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
121 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti> 120 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
122 <ti>(swap)</ti> 121 <ti>(swap)</ti>
123 <ti>512M</ti> 122 <ti>512M</ti>
124 <ti>Swap partition, Type 0x82</ti> 123 <ti>Swap partition, Type 0x82</ti>
125</tr> 124</tr>
126<tr> 125<tr>
127 <ti><path>/dev/hda4</path></ti> 126 <ti><path>/dev/hda4</path></ti>
128 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti> 127 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path> (<path>/dev/hda4</path> if using quik)</ti>
129 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti> 128 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
130 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti> 129 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
131 <ti>ext3, xfs</ti> 130 <ti>ext3, xfs</ti>
132 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti> 131 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti>
133 <ti>Root partition, Type 0x83</ti> 132 <ti>Root partition, Type 0x83</ti>
134</tr> 133</tr>
135</table> 134</table>
136 135
137<note> 136<note>
138There are some partitions named like this: <path>Apple_Driver43, 137There are some partitions named: <path>Apple_Driver43, Apple_Driver_ATA,
139Apple_Driver_ATA, Apple_FWDriver, Apple_Driver_IOKit, Apple_Patches</path>. If 138Apple_FWDriver, Apple_Driver_IOKit, Apple_Patches</path>. If you are not
140you are not planning to use MacOS 9 you can delete them, because MacOS X and 139planning to use MacOS 9 you can delete them, because MacOS X and Linux don't
141Linux don't need them. You might have to use <c>parted</c> in order to delete 140need them. To delete them, either use parted or erase the whole disk by
142them, as mac-fdisk can't delete them yet. 141initialing the partition map.
143</note> 142</note>
144 143
145<warn> 144<warn>
146<c>parted</c> is able to resize partitions. On the Installation CD there 145<c>parted</c> is able to resize partitions. On the Installation CD there
147are patches included to resize HFS+ filesystem. Unfortunately it is not 146are patches included to resize HFS+ filesystem. Unfortunately it is risky to
148possible to resize HFS+ journaled filesystems, even if the journaling has been 147resize HFS+ journaled filesystems, be sure to switch off journaling in Mac OS X
149switchedoff in Mac OS X. Everything you do with resizing in parted you do it 148first and make sure to run a disk checking tool after the resize. Everything
150on your own risk! Be sure to have a backup of your data! 149you do with resizing in parted you do it at your own risk! Be sure to have a
150backup of your data!
151</warn> 151</warn>
152 152
153<p> 153<p>
154If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how many 154If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how many
155partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with <uri 155partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
156link="#fdisk">Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple/IBM) to Partition your Disk</uri> 156<uri link="#mac-fdisk"> Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple) to Partition your Disk
157or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (especially Pegasos) to 157</uri> or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (IBM/Pegasos) to
158Partition your Disk</uri>. 158Partition your Disk</uri>.
159</p> 159</p>
160 160
161</body> 161</body>
162</subsection> 162</subsection>
168The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance, 168The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
169if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your 169if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
170<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier. 170<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
171If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path> 171If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
172should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good 172should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good
173choice of filesystem will then maximise your performance. Gameservers will have 173choice of filesystem will then maximize your performance. Gameservers will have
174a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The 174a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The
175reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. You will 175reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. You will
176definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big: not only will it contain the 176definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big: not only will it contain the
177majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes around 500 Mbyte 177majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes around 500 MB
178excluding the various sources that are stored in it. 178excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
179</p> 179</p>
180 180
181<p> 181<p>
182As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate 182As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
210</p> 210</p>
211 211
212</body> 212</body>
213</subsection> 213</subsection>
214</section> 214</section>
215<section id="fdisk"> 215<section id="mac-fdisk">
216<title>Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple) Partition your Disk</title> 216<title>Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple) Partition your Disk</title>
217<body> 217<body>
218 218
219<p> 219<p>
220At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>: 220At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>:
225</pre> 225</pre>
226 226
227<p> 227<p>
228First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your 228First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your
229Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s). 229Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s).
230It will ask for the partition number to delete. Usually the first partition on 230It will ask for the partition number to delete. The first partition on Apple
231NewWorld machines (Apple_partition_map) could not be deleted. 231machines (Apple_partition_map) can not be deleted.
232</p>
233
234<p> 232</p>
233
234<p>
235Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will 235On NewWorld Macs, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>.
236ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free 236It will ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first
237partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>. 237free partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>.
238</p> 238</p>
239 239
240<note> 240<note>
241This partition is <e>not</e> a <path>/boot</path> partition. It is not used by 241This partition is <e>not</e> a <path>/boot</path> partition. It is not used by
242Linux at all; you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never 242Linux at all; you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never
246<p> 246<p>
247Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will 247Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
248ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c> 248ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c>
249before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter 249before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
250<c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size 250<c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
251you want -- 512MB is recommended though). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c> 251you want -- 512MB is recommended though). When asked for a name, enter
252(mandatory). 252<c>swap</c> (mandatory).
253</p> 253</p>
254 254
255<p> 255<p>
256To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select 256To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select
257from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter 257from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
278</p> 278</p>
279 279
280</body> 280</body>
281</section> 281</section>
282<section id="parted"> 282<section id="parted">
283<title>Using parted (especially Pegasos) to Partition your Disk</title> 283<title>Using parted (Mostly Pegasos) to Partition your Disk</title>
284<body> 284<body>
285 285
286<p> 286<p>
287<c>parted</c>, the Partition Editor, can now handle HFS+ partitions used by 287<c>parted</c>, the Partition Editor, can now handle HFS+ partitions used by
288Mac OS and Mac OS X. With this tool you can resize your Mac-partitions and 288Mac OS and Mac OS X. With this tool you can resize your Mac-partitions and
297<pre caption="Starting parted"> 297<pre caption="Starting parted">
298# <i>parted /dev/hda</i> 298# <i>parted /dev/hda</i>
299</pre> 299</pre>
300 300
301<p> 301<p>
302If the drive is unpartitioned, run <c>mklabel amiga</c> to create a new 302If the drive isn't partitioned, run <c>mklabel amiga</c> to create a new
303disklabel for the drive. 303disklabel for the drive.
304</p> 304</p>
305 305
306<p> 306<p>
307You can type <c>print</c> at any time in parted to display the current partition 307You can type <c>print</c> at any time in parted to display the current partition
310</p> 310</p>
311 311
312<p> 312<p>
313If you intend to also install MorphOS on your Pegasos create an affs1 filesystem 313If you intend to also install MorphOS on your Pegasos create an affs1 filesystem
314named "BI0" (BI zero) at the start of the drive. 32MB should be more than enough 314named "BI0" (BI zero) at the start of the drive. 32MB should be more than enough
315to store the MorphOS kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use reiserfs or 315to store the MorphOS kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use reiserfs
316xfs, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the 316or xfs, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the
317Pegasos II can only boot from ext2/ext3 or affs1 partitions). To create the partition run 317Pegasos II can only boot from ext2/ext3 or affs1 partitions). To create the partition run
318<c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> should 318<c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> should
319be replaced with the megabyte range (e.g. <c>0 32</c> creates a 32 MB partition 319be replaced with the megabyte range (e.g. <c>0 32</c> creates a 32 MB partition
320starting at 0MB and ending at 32MB. 320starting at 0MB and ending at 32MB.
321</p> 321</p>
370<subsection> 370<subsection>
371<title>Filesystems?</title> 371<title>Filesystems?</title>
372<body> 372<body>
373 373
374<p> 374<p>
375Several filesystems are available. ext2, ext3 and XFS are found stable on the 375Several filesystems are available. ext2, ext3, ReiserFS and XFS have been found
376PPC architecture. jfs is unsupported, ReiserFS still has some problems on ppc 376stable on the PPC architecture.
377and is not supported.
378</p> 377</p>
379 378
380<p> 379<p>
381<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata 380<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
382journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can 381journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
402performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small 401performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
403files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales 402files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
404extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is 403extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
405solid and usable as both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such 404solid and usable as both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such
406as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large 405as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large
407files and directories containing tens of thousands of files. Unfortunately we still have some 406files and directories containing tens of thousands of files.
408issues with ReiserFS on ppc. We do not encourage people to use this filesystem.
409</p> 407</p>
410 408
411<p> 409<p>
412<b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling which comes with a robust 410<b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling which comes with a robust
413feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this 411feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
465Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical 463Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
466volumes). 464volumes).
467</p> 465</p>
468 466
469<note> 467<note>
470On OldWorld machines and the PegasosII your partition which holds the kernel must 468On the PegasosII your partition which holds the kernel must be ext2 or ext3.
471be ext2 or ext3. NewWorld machines can boot from any of ext2, ext3, XFS, 469NewWorld machines can boot from any of ext2, ext3, XFS, ReiserFS or even
472ReiserFS or even HFS/HFS+ filesystems. 470HFS/HFS+ filesystems. On OldWorld machines booting with BootX, the kernel must
471be placed on an HFS partition, but this will be completed when you configure
472your bootloader.
473</note> 473</note>
474 474
475</body> 475</body>
476</subsection> 476</subsection>
477<subsection> 477<subsection>

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