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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
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6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.17 2004/10/02 16:35:23 sejo Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.34 2006/02/27 00:55:34 fox2mike Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<version>2.5</version>
12<date>2006-02-27</date>
13
10<section> 14<section>
11<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title> 15<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
12<subsection> 16<subsection>
13<title>Block Devices</title> 17<title>Block Devices</title>
14<body> 18<body>
20you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems 24you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
21for your Gentoo Linux installation. 25for your Gentoo Linux installation.
22</p> 26</p>
23 27
24<p> 28<p>
25To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is 29To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most common block device is
26probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system, namely 30the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system, namely
27<path>/dev/hda</path>. If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard 31<path>/dev/hda</path>. If you are installing onto SCSI, FireWire, USB or SATA
28drive would be <path>/dev/sda</path>. 32drives, then your first hard drive would be <path>/dev/sda</path>.
29</p> 33</p>
30 34
31<p> 35<p>
32The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User 36The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
33programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying 37programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
37</p> 41</p>
38 42
39</body> 43</body>
40</subsection> 44</subsection>
41<subsection> 45<subsection>
42<title>Partitions and Slices</title> 46<title>Partitions</title>
43<body> 47<body>
44 48
45<p> 49<p>
46Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux 50Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
47system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices 51system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
48are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems, 52are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems,
49these are called <e>partitions</e>. Other architectures use a similar technique, 53these are called <e>partitions</e>.
50called <e>slices</e>.
51</p> 54</p>
52 55
53</body> 56</body>
54</subsection> 57</subsection>
55</section> 58</section>
67<table> 70<table>
68<tr> 71<tr>
69 <th>Partition NewWorld</th> 72 <th>Partition NewWorld</th>
70 <th>Partition OldWorld</th> 73 <th>Partition OldWorld</th>
71 <th>Partition Pegasos</th> 74 <th>Partition Pegasos</th>
75 <th>Partition RS/6000</th>
72 <th>Filesystem</th> 76 <th>Filesystem</th>
73 <th>Size</th> 77 <th>Size</th>
74 <th>Description</th> 78 <th>Description</th>
75</tr> 79</tr>
76<tr> 80<tr>
77 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 81 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
78 <ti>(Not needed)</ti> 82 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
79 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti> 83 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
80 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti> 84 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
85 <ti>(Partition Map)</ti>
81 <ti>32k</ti> 86 <ti>32k</ti>
82 <ti>Apple_partition_map</ti> 87 <ti>Apple_partition_map</ti>
83</tr> 88</tr>
84<tr> 89<tr>
85 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 90 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
86 <ti>(Not needed)</ti> 91 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
92 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
87 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti> 93 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
88 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti> 94 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti>
89 <ti>800k</ti> 95 <ti>800k</ti>
90 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti> 96 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti>
91</tr> 97</tr>
92<tr> 98<tr>
99 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
100 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
101 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
102 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
103 <ti>(PReP Boot)</ti>
104 <ti>800k</ti>
105 <ti>Type 0x41</ti>
106</tr>
107<tr>
108 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
109 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path> (If using quik)</ti>
110 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
111 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
112 <ti>ext2</ti>
113 <ti>32MB</ti>
114 <ti>Boot partition</ti>
115</tr>
116<tr>
93 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti> 117 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
118 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path>(<path>/dev/hda3</path> if using quik)</ti>
94 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 119 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
95 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 120 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
96 <ti>(swap)</ti> 121 <ti>(swap)</ti>
97 <ti>512M</ti> 122 <ti>512M</ti>
98 <ti>Swap partition</ti> 123 <ti>Swap partition, Type 0x82</ti>
99</tr> 124</tr>
100<tr> 125<tr>
101 <ti><path>/dev/hda4</path></ti> 126 <ti><path>/dev/hda4</path></ti>
127 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path> (<path>/dev/hda4</path> if using quik)</ti>
102 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 128 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
103 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 129 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
104 <ti>ext3</ti> 130 <ti>ext3, xfs</ti>
105 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti> 131 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti>
106 <ti>Root partition</ti> 132 <ti>Root partition, Type 0x83</ti>
107</tr> 133</tr>
108</table> 134</table>
109 135
136<note>
137There are some partitions named: <path>Apple_Driver43, Apple_Driver_ATA,
138Apple_FWDriver, Apple_Driver_IOKit, Apple_Patches</path>. If you are not
139planning to use MacOS 9 you can delete them, because MacOS X and Linux don't
140need them. To delete them, either use parted or erase the whole disk by
141initializing the partition map.
142</note>
143
144<warn>
145<c>parted</c> is able to resize partitions including HFS+. Unfortunately it is
146not possible to resize HFS+ journaled filesystems, so switch off journaling in
147Mac OS X before resizing. Remeber that any resizing operation is dangerous,
148so attempt at your own risk! Be sure to always have a backup of your data
149before resizing!
150</warn>
151
110<p> 152<p>
111If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how 153If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how many
112many partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with 154partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
113<uri link="#fdisk">Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple/IBM) to Partition your 155<uri link="#mac-fdisk"> Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple) to Partition your Disk
114Disk</uri> or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (especially Pegasos) to 156</uri> or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (IBM/Pegasos) to
115Partition your Disk</uri>. 157Partition your Disk</uri>.
116</p> 158</p>
117 159
118</body> 160</body>
119</subsection> 161</subsection>
123 165
124<p> 166<p>
125The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance, 167The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
126if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your 168if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
127<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier. 169<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
128If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your 170If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
129<path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside 171should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good
130<path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your 172choice of filesystem will then maximize your performance. Gameservers will have
131performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming 173a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The
132servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: 174reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. You will
133security and backups. 175definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big: not only will it contain the
176majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes around 500 MB
177excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
134</p> 178</p>
135 179
136<p> 180<p>
137As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate 181As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
138partitions or volumes have the following advantages: 182partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
150 If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can 194 If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
151 be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than 195 be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
152 it is with multiple partitions) 196 it is with multiple partitions)
153</li> 197</li>
154<li> 198<li>
155 Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only, 199 Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
156 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc. 200 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
157</li> 201</li>
158</ul> 202</ul>
159 203
160<p> 204<p>
161However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured 205However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
162properly, you might result in having a system with lots 206properly, you might result in having a system with lots of free space on one
163of free space on one partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition 207partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and
164limit for SCSI and SATA. 208SATA.
165</p> 209</p>
166 210
167</body> 211</body>
168</subsection> 212</subsection>
169</section> 213</section>
170<section id="fdisk"> 214<section id="mac-fdisk">
171<title>Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple/IBM) Partition your Disk</title> 215<title>Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple) Partition your Disk</title>
172<body> 216<body>
173 217
174<p> 218<p>
175At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>: 219At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>:
176</p> 220</p>
180</pre> 224</pre>
181 225
182<p> 226<p>
183First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your 227First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your
184Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s). 228Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s).
185It will ask for the partition number to delete. 229It will ask for the partition number to delete. The first partition on Apple
186</p> 230machines (Apple_partition_map) can not be deleted.
187
188<p> 231</p>
232
233<p>
189Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will 234On NewWorld Macs, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>.
190ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free 235It will ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first
191partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>1p</c>. 236free partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>.
192</p> 237</p>
193 238
194<note> 239<note>
195This partition is <e>not</e> a "boot" partition. It is not used by Linux at all; 240This partition is <e>not</e> a <path>/boot</path> partition. It is not used by
196you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never mount it. PPC 241Linux at all; you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never
197users don't need a an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>. 242mount it. Apple users don't need an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>.
198</note> 243</note>
199 244
200<p> 245<p>
201Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will 246Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
202ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>1</c> 247ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c>
203before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter 248before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
204<c>2p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size 249<c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
205you want -- 512MB is recommended though). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c> 250you want -- 512MB is recommended though). When asked for a name, enter
206(mandatory). 251<c>swap</c> (mandatory).
207</p>
208
209<p> 252</p>
253
254<p>
210To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>3p</c> to select 255To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select
211from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter 256from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
212<c>3p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available 257<c>4p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available
213space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory). 258space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory).
214</p> 259</p>
215 260
216<p> 261<p>
217To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to 262To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to
218quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>. 263quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>.
219</p> 264</p>
220 265
266<note>
267To make sure everything is ok, you should run mac-fdisk once more and check
268whether all the partitions are there. If you don't see any of the partitions
269you created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions
270by pressing "i" in mac-fdisk. Note that this will recreate the partition map
271and thus remove all your partitions.
272</note>
273
221<p> 274<p>
222Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri 275Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
223link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>. 276link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
224</p> 277</p>
225 278
226</body> 279</body>
227</section> 280</section>
228<section id="parted"> 281<section id="parted">
229<title>Using parted (especially Pegasos) to Partition your Disk</title> 282<title>Using parted (Mostly Pegasos) to Partition your Disk</title>
230<body> 283<body>
231 284
232<p> 285<p>
233<c>parted</c>, the Partition Editor, can now handle HFS+ partitions used by 286<c>parted</c>, the Partition Editor, can now handle HFS+ partitions used by
234Mac OS and Mac OS X. With this tool you can shrink your Mac-partitions and 287Mac OS and Mac OS X. With this tool you can resize your Mac-partitions and
235create space for your Linux partitions. Nevertheless, the example below 288create space for your Linux partitions. Nevertheless, the example below
236describes partitioning for Pegasos machines only. 289describes partitioning for Pegasos machines only.
237</p> 290</p>
238 291
239<p> 292<p>
243<pre caption="Starting parted"> 296<pre caption="Starting parted">
244# <i>parted /dev/hda</i> 297# <i>parted /dev/hda</i>
245</pre> 298</pre>
246 299
247<p> 300<p>
248If the drive is unpartitioned, run <c>mklabel amiga</c> to create a new 301If the drive isn't partitioned, run <c>mklabel amiga</c> to create a new
249disklabel for the drive. 302disklabel for the drive.
250</p> 303</p>
251 304
252<p> 305<p>
253You can type <c>print</c> at any time in parted to display the current partition 306You can type <c>print</c> at any time in parted to display the current partition
254table. Your changes aren't saved until you quit the application; if at any time 307table. If at any time you change your mind or made a mistake you can press
255you change your mind or made a mistake you can press <c>Ctrl-c</c> to abort 308<c>Ctrl-c</c> to abort parted.
256parted.
257</p> 309</p>
258 310
259<p> 311<p>
260If you intend to also install MorphOS on your Pegasos create an affs1 filesystem 312If you intend to also install MorphOS on your Pegasos create an affs1 filesystem
261named "BI0" (BI zero) at the start of the drive. 50MB should be more than enough 313named "BI0" (BI zero) at the start of the drive. 32MB should be more than enough
262to store the MorphOS kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use reiserfs or 314to store the MorphOS kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use reiserfs
263xfs, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the 315or xfs, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the
264Pegasos II can boot from ext2/ext3 drives). To create the partition run 316Pegasos II can only boot from ext2/ext3 or affs1 partitions). To create the partition run
265<c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> should 317<c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> should
266be replaced with the megabyte range (f.i. <c>5 55</c> creates a 50 MB partition 318be replaced with the megabyte range (e.g. <c>0 32</c> creates a 32 MB partition
267starting at 5MB and ending at 55MB. 319starting at 0MB and ending at 32MB.
268</p> 320</p>
269 321
270<p> 322<p>
271You need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem for all your 323You need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem for all your
272program files etc, and one swap partition. To create the root filesystem you 324program files etc, and one swap partition. To create the root filesystem you
285partition, run <c>mkpart primary linux-swap START END</c>. 337partition, run <c>mkpart primary linux-swap START END</c>.
286</p> 338</p>
287 339
288<p> 340<p>
289Write down the partition minor numbers as they are required during the 341Write down the partition minor numbers as they are required during the
290installation process. To dislay the minor numbers run <c>print</c>. Your drives 342installation process. To display the minor numbers run <c>print</c>. Your drives
291are accessed as <path>/dev/hdaX</path> where X is replaced with the minor number 343are accessed as <path>/dev/hdaX</path> where X is replaced with the minor number
292of the partition. 344of the partition.
293</p> 345</p>
294 346
295<p> 347<p>
303<subsection> 355<subsection>
304<title>Introduction</title> 356<title>Introduction</title>
305<body> 357<body>
306 358
307<p> 359<p>
308Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them. 360Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
309If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use 361If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
310as default in this handbook, continue with <uri 362as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
311link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>. 363 link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
312Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems... 364Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
313</p> 365</p>
314 366
315</body> 367</body>
316</subsection> 368</subsection>
317<subsection> 369<subsection>
318<title>Filesystems?</title> 370<title>Filesystems?</title>
319<body> 371<body>
320 372
321<p> 373<p>
322Several filesystems are available. ext2, ext3, reiserfs and xfs are found stable 374Several filesystems are available. ext2, ext3, ReiserFS and XFS have been found
323on the PPC architecture. jfs is unsupported. 375stable on the PPC architecture.
324</p> 376</p>
325 377
326<p> 378<p>
327<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata 379<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
328journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can 380journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
336<p> 388<p>
337<b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata 389<b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
338journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like 390journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like
339full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable 391full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
340filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables 392filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables
341high performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is an excellent 393high performance in almost all situations. You can enable this indexing by
342filesystem. 394adding <c>-O dir_index</c> to the <c>mke2fs</c> command. In short, ext3 is an
395excellent filesystem.
343</p> 396</p>
344 397
345<p> 398<p>
346<b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall 399<b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
347performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small 400performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
378 <th>Filesystem</th> 431 <th>Filesystem</th>
379 <th>Creation Command</th> 432 <th>Creation Command</th>
380</tr> 433</tr>
381<tr> 434<tr>
382 <ti>ext2</ti> 435 <ti>ext2</ti>
383 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti> 436 <ti><c>mkfs.ext2</c></ti>
384</tr> 437</tr>
385<tr> 438<tr>
386 <ti>ext3</ti> 439 <ti>ext3</ti>
387 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti> 440 <ti><c>mkfs.ext3</c></ti>
388</tr> 441</tr>
389<tr> 442<tr>
390 <ti>reiserfs</ti> 443 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
391 <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti> 444 <ti><c>mkfs.reiserfs</c></ti>
392</tr> 445</tr>
393<tr> 446<tr>
394 <ti>xfs</ti> 447 <ti>xfs</ti>
395 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti> 448 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
396</tr> 449</tr>
397</table> 450</table>
398 451
399<p> 452<p>
400For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/hda3</path> in our example) 453For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/hda4</path> in our example)
401in ext3 (as in our example), you would use: 454in ext3 (as in our example), you would use:
402</p> 455</p>
403 456
404<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition"> 457<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
405# <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</i> 458# <i>mkfs.ext3 /dev/hda4</i>
406</pre> 459</pre>
407 460
408<p> 461<p>
409Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical 462Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
410volumes). 463volumes).
411</p> 464</p>
412 465
413<note> 466<note>
414Be sure that the partition which will host your kernel (the 467On the PegasosII your partition which holds the kernel must be ext2 or ext3.
415<path>/boot</path>-path) must be ext2 or ext3. The bootloader can only handle 468NewWorld machines can boot from any of ext2, ext3, XFS, ReiserFS or even
416this filesystem. 469HFS/HFS+ filesystems. On OldWorld machines booting with BootX, the kernel must
470be placed on an HFS partition, but this will be completed when you configure
471your bootloader.
417</note> 472</note>
418 473
419</body> 474</body>
420</subsection> 475</subsection>
421<subsection> 476<subsection>
425<p> 480<p>
426<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions: 481<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
427</p> 482</p>
428 483
429<pre caption="Creating a Swap signature"> 484<pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
430# <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i> 485# <i>mkswap /dev/hda3</i>
431</pre> 486</pre>
432 487
433<p> 488<p>
434To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>: 489To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
435</p> 490</p>
436 491
437<pre caption="Activating the swap partition"> 492<pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
438# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i> 493# <i>swapon /dev/hda3</i>
439</pre> 494</pre>
440 495
441<p> 496<p>
442Create and activate the swap now. 497Create and activate the swap now.
443</p> 498</p>
451 506
452<p> 507<p>
453Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is 508Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
454time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to 509time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
455create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an 510create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
456example we create a mount-point and mount the root and boot partition: 511example we create a mount-point and mount the root partition:
457</p> 512</p>
458 513
459<pre caption="Mounting partitions"> 514<pre caption="Mounting partitions">
460# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i> 515# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
461# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i> 516# <i>mount /dev/hda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
462</pre> 517</pre>
463 518
464<note> 519<note>
465If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to 520If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
466change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This 521change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
467also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>. 522also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
468</note> 523</note>
469 524
470<p> 525<p>
471Finally we have to create the <path>/dev</path> files in our new home, which is
472needed during the bootloader installation. This could be done by "bind"-mapping
473the <path>/dev</path>-filesystem from the LiveCD:
474</p>
475
476<pre caption="Bind-mounting the /dev-filesystem">
477# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
478# <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
479</pre>
480
481<p>
482We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the 526We will have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
483kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions. 527kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the
528partitions.
484</p> 529</p>
485 530
486<p> 531<p>
487Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo 532Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
488Installation Files</uri>. 533Installation Files</uri>.

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