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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
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6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.2 2004/04/02 22:15:29 neysx Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.34 2006/02/27 00:55:34 fox2mike Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<version>2.5</version>
12<date>2006-02-27</date>
13
10<section> 14<section>
11<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title> 15<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
12<subsection> 16<subsection>
13<title>Block Devices</title> 17<title>Block Devices</title>
14<body> 18<body>
20you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems 24you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
21for your Gentoo Linux installation. 25for your Gentoo Linux installation.
22</p> 26</p>
23 27
24<p> 28<p>
25To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is 29To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most common block device is
26probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system, namely 30the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system, namely
27<path>/dev/hda</path>. If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard 31<path>/dev/hda</path>. If you are installing onto SCSI, FireWire, USB or SATA
28drive would be <path>/dev/sda</path>. 32drives, then your first hard drive would be <path>/dev/sda</path>.
29</p> 33</p>
30 34
31<p> 35<p>
32The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User 36The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
33programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying 37programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
37</p> 41</p>
38 42
39</body> 43</body>
40</subsection> 44</subsection>
41<subsection> 45<subsection>
42<title>Partitions and Slices</title> 46<title>Partitions</title>
43<body> 47<body>
44 48
45<p> 49<p>
46Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux 50Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
47system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices 51system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
48are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems, 52are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems,
49these are called <e>partitions</e>. Other architectures use a similar technique, 53these are called <e>partitions</e>.
50called <e>slices</e>.
51</p> 54</p>
52 55
53</body> 56</body>
54</subsection> 57</subsection>
55</section> 58</section>
66 69
67<table> 70<table>
68<tr> 71<tr>
69 <th>Partition NewWorld</th> 72 <th>Partition NewWorld</th>
70 <th>Partition OldWorld</th> 73 <th>Partition OldWorld</th>
74 <th>Partition Pegasos</th>
75 <th>Partition RS/6000</th>
71 <th>Filesystem</th> 76 <th>Filesystem</th>
72 <th>Size</th> 77 <th>Size</th>
73 <th>Description</th> 78 <th>Description</th>
74</tr> 79</tr>
75<tr> 80<tr>
76 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 81 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
77 <ti>(Not needed)</ti> 82 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
83 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
84 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
85 <ti>(Partition Map)</ti>
86 <ti>32k</ti>
87 <ti>Apple_partition_map</ti>
88</tr>
89<tr>
90 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
91 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
92 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
93 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
78 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti> 94 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti>
79 <ti>800k</ti> 95 <ti>800k</ti>
80 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti> 96 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti>
81</tr> 97</tr>
82<tr> 98<tr>
99 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
100 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
101 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
102 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
103 <ti>(PReP Boot)</ti>
104 <ti>800k</ti>
105 <ti>Type 0x41</ti>
106</tr>
107<tr>
108 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
109 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path> (If using quik)</ti>
110 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
111 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
112 <ti>ext2</ti>
113 <ti>32MB</ti>
114 <ti>Boot partition</ti>
115</tr>
116<tr>
117 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
118 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path>(<path>/dev/hda3</path> if using quik)</ti>
83 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 119 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
84 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 120 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
85 <ti>(swap)</ti> 121 <ti>(swap)</ti>
86 <ti>512M</ti> 122 <ti>512M</ti>
87 <ti>Swap partition</ti> 123 <ti>Swap partition, Type 0x82</ti>
88</tr>
89<tr> 124</tr>
125<tr>
126 <ti><path>/dev/hda4</path></ti>
127 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path> (<path>/dev/hda4</path> if using quik)</ti>
90 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti> 128 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
91 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 129 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
92 <ti>ext3</ti> 130 <ti>ext3, xfs</ti>
93 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti> 131 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti>
94 <ti>Root partition</ti> 132 <ti>Root partition, Type 0x83</ti>
95</tr> 133</tr>
96</table> 134</table>
97 135
136<note>
137There are some partitions named: <path>Apple_Driver43, Apple_Driver_ATA,
138Apple_FWDriver, Apple_Driver_IOKit, Apple_Patches</path>. If you are not
139planning to use MacOS 9 you can delete them, because MacOS X and Linux don't
140need them. To delete them, either use parted or erase the whole disk by
141initializing the partition map.
142</note>
143
144<warn>
145<c>parted</c> is able to resize partitions including HFS+. Unfortunately it is
146not possible to resize HFS+ journaled filesystems, so switch off journaling in
147Mac OS X before resizing. Remeber that any resizing operation is dangerous,
148so attempt at your own risk! Be sure to always have a backup of your data
149before resizing!
150</warn>
151
98<p> 152<p>
99If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how 153If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how many
100many partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with 154partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
101<uri link="#fdisk">Using fdisk to Partition your Disk</uri>. 155<uri link="#mac-fdisk"> Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple) to Partition your Disk
156</uri> or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (IBM/Pegasos) to
157Partition your Disk</uri>.
102</p> 158</p>
103 159
104</body> 160</body>
105</subsection> 161</subsection>
106<subsection> 162<subsection>
109 165
110<p> 166<p>
111The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance, 167The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
112if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your 168if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
113<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier. 169<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
114If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your 170If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
115<path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside 171should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good
116<path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your 172choice of filesystem will then maximize your performance. Gameservers will have
117performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming 173a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The
118servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: 174reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. You will
119security and backups. 175definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big: not only will it contain the
176majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes around 500 MB
177excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
120</p> 178</p>
121 179
122<p> 180<p>
123As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate 181As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
124partitions or volumes have the following advantages: 182partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
125</p> 183</p>
126 184
127<ul> 185<ul>
128<li> 186<li>
129 You can choose the most performant filesystem for each partition or volume 187 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
130</li> 188</li>
131<li> 189<li>
132 Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is 190 Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
133 continuously writing files to a partition or volume 191 continuously writing files to a partition or volume
134</li> 192</li>
136 If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can 194 If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
137 be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than 195 be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
138 it is with multiple partitions) 196 it is with multiple partitions)
139</li> 197</li>
140<li> 198<li>
141 Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only, 199 Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
142 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc. 200 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
143</li> 201</li>
144</ul> 202</ul>
145 203
146<p> 204<p>
147However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured 205However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
148properly, you might result in having a system with lots 206properly, you might result in having a system with lots of free space on one
149of free space on one partition and none on another. 207partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and
208SATA.
150</p> 209</p>
151 210
152</body> 211</body>
153</subsection> 212</subsection>
154</section> 213</section>
155<section id="fdisk"> 214<section id="mac-fdisk">
156<title>Using mac-fdisk on PPC to Partition your Disk</title> 215<title>Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple) Partition your Disk</title>
157<body> 216<body>
158 217
159<p> 218<p>
160At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>: 219At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>:
161</p> 220</p>
165</pre> 224</pre>
166 225
167<p> 226<p>
168First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your 227First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your
169Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s). 228Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s).
170It will ask for the partition number to delete. 229It will ask for the partition number to delete. The first partition on Apple
171</p> 230machines (Apple_partition_map) can not be deleted.
172
173<p> 231</p>
232
233<p>
174Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will 234On NewWorld Macs, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>.
175ask for what block you want to start. If you previously selected <c>3</c> as 235It will ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first
176partition number, enter <c>3p</c>. 236free partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>.
177</p> 237</p>
178 238
179<note> 239<note>
180This partition is <e>not</e> a "boot" partition. It is not used by Linux at all; 240This partition is <e>not</e> a <path>/boot</path> partition. It is not used by
181you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never mount it. PPC 241Linux at all; you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never
182users don't need a boot partition. 242mount it. Apple users don't need an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>.
183</note> 243</note>
184 244
185<p> 245<p>
186Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will 246Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
187ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>3</c> 247ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c>
188before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter 248before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
189<c>4p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size 249<c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
190you want -- 512 is recommended though). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c> 250you want -- 512MB is recommended though). When asked for a name, enter
191(mandatory). 251<c>swap</c> (mandatory).
192</p>
193
194<p> 252</p>
253
254<p>
195To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>5p</c> to select 255To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select
196from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter 256from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
197<c>5p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available 257<c>4p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available
198space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory). 258space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory).
199</p> 259</p>
200 260
201<p> 261<p>
202To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to 262To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to
203quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>. 263quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>.
204</p> 264</p>
205 265
266<note>
267To make sure everything is ok, you should run mac-fdisk once more and check
268whether all the partitions are there. If you don't see any of the partitions
269you created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions
270by pressing "i" in mac-fdisk. Note that this will recreate the partition map
271and thus remove all your partitions.
272</note>
273
206<p> 274<p>
207Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri 275Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
208link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>. 276link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
277</p>
278
279</body>
280</section>
281<section id="parted">
282<title>Using parted (Mostly Pegasos) to Partition your Disk</title>
283<body>
284
285<p>
286<c>parted</c>, the Partition Editor, can now handle HFS+ partitions used by
287Mac OS and Mac OS X. With this tool you can resize your Mac-partitions and
288create space for your Linux partitions. Nevertheless, the example below
289describes partitioning for Pegasos machines only.
290</p>
291
292<p>
293To begin let's fire up <c>parted</c>:
294</p>
295
296<pre caption="Starting parted">
297# <i>parted /dev/hda</i>
298</pre>
299
300<p>
301If the drive isn't partitioned, run <c>mklabel amiga</c> to create a new
302disklabel for the drive.
303</p>
304
305<p>
306You can type <c>print</c> at any time in parted to display the current partition
307table. If at any time you change your mind or made a mistake you can press
308<c>Ctrl-c</c> to abort parted.
309</p>
310
311<p>
312If you intend to also install MorphOS on your Pegasos create an affs1 filesystem
313named "BI0" (BI zero) at the start of the drive. 32MB should be more than enough
314to store the MorphOS kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use reiserfs
315or xfs, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the
316Pegasos II can only boot from ext2/ext3 or affs1 partitions). To create the partition run
317<c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> should
318be replaced with the megabyte range (e.g. <c>0 32</c> creates a 32 MB partition
319starting at 0MB and ending at 32MB.
320</p>
321
322<p>
323You need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem for all your
324program files etc, and one swap partition. To create the root filesystem you
325must first decide which filesystem to use. Possible options are ext2, ext3,
326reiserfs and xfs. Unless you know what you are doing, use ext3. Run
327<c>mkpart primary ext3 START END</c> to create an ext3 partition. Again, replace
328<c>START</c> and <c>END</c> with the megabyte start and stop marks for the
329partition.
330</p>
331
332<p>
333It is generally recommended that you create a swap partition the same size as
334the amount of RAM in your computer times two. You will probably get away with a
335smaller swap partition unless you intend to run a lot of applications at the
336same time (although at least 512MB is recommended). To create the swap
337partition, run <c>mkpart primary linux-swap START END</c>.
338</p>
339
340<p>
341Write down the partition minor numbers as they are required during the
342installation process. To display the minor numbers run <c>print</c>. Your drives
343are accessed as <path>/dev/hdaX</path> where X is replaced with the minor number
344of the partition.
345</p>
346
347<p>
348When you are done in parted simply run <c>quit</c>.
209</p> 349</p>
210 350
211</body> 351</body>
212</section> 352</section>
213<section id="filesystems"> 353<section id="filesystems">
215<subsection> 355<subsection>
216<title>Introduction</title> 356<title>Introduction</title>
217<body> 357<body>
218 358
219<p> 359<p>
220Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them. 360Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
221If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use 361If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
222as default in this handbook, continue with <uri 362as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
223link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>. 363 link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
224Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems... 364Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
225</p> 365</p>
226 366
227</body> 367</body>
228</subsection> 368</subsection>
229<subsection> 369<subsection>
230<title>Filesystems?</title> 370<title>Filesystems?</title>
231<body> 371<body>
232 372
233<p> 373<p>
234Several filesystems are available. Ext2 and ext3 are found stable on the 374Several filesystems are available. ext2, ext3, ReiserFS and XFS have been found
235PPC architecture, reiserfs and xfs are in experimental stage. jfs is 375stable on the PPC architecture.
236unsupported.
237</p> 376</p>
238 377
239<p> 378<p>
240<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata 379<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
241journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can 380journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
249<p> 388<p>
250<b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata 389<b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
251journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like 390journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like
252full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable 391full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
253filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables 392filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables
254high performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is an excellent 393high performance in almost all situations. You can enable this indexing by
255filesystem. 394adding <c>-O dir_index</c> to the <c>mke2fs</c> command. In short, ext3 is an
395excellent filesystem.
256</p> 396</p>
257 397
258<p> 398<p>
259<b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall 399<b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
260performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small 400performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
264as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large 404as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large
265files and directories containing tens of thousands of files. 405files and directories containing tens of thousands of files.
266</p> 406</p>
267 407
268<p> 408<p>
269<b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported 409<b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling which comes with a robust
270under Gentoo Linux's xfs-sources kernel. It comes with a robust feature-set and
271is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this filesystem on Linux 410feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
272systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and a uninterruptible 411filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
273power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data in RAM, improperly 412an uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
274designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions when writing files 413in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
275to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good deal of data if the 414when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
276system goes down unexpectedly. 415deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
277</p>
278
279<p>
280<b>JFS</b> is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
281become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
282comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this point.
283</p> 416</p>
284 417
285</body> 418</body>
286</subsection> 419</subsection>
287<subsection id="filesystems-apply"> 420<subsection id="filesystems-apply">
298 <th>Filesystem</th> 431 <th>Filesystem</th>
299 <th>Creation Command</th> 432 <th>Creation Command</th>
300</tr> 433</tr>
301<tr> 434<tr>
302 <ti>ext2</ti> 435 <ti>ext2</ti>
303 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti> 436 <ti><c>mkfs.ext2</c></ti>
304</tr> 437</tr>
305<tr> 438<tr>
306 <ti>ext3</ti> 439 <ti>ext3</ti>
307 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti> 440 <ti><c>mkfs.ext3</c></ti>
308</tr> 441</tr>
309<tr> 442<tr>
310 <ti>reiserfs</ti> 443 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
311 <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti> 444 <ti><c>mkfs.reiserfs</c></ti>
312</tr> 445</tr>
313<tr> 446<tr>
314 <ti>xfs</ti> 447 <ti>xfs</ti>
315 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti> 448 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
316</tr> 449</tr>
317<tr>
318 <ti>jfs</ti>
319 <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
320</tr>
321</table> 450</table>
322 451
323<p> 452<p>
324For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/hda3</path> in our example) 453For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/hda4</path> in our example)
325in ext3 (as in our example), you would use: 454in ext3 (as in our example), you would use:
326</p> 455</p>
327 456
328<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition"> 457<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
329# <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</i> 458# <i>mkfs.ext3 /dev/hda4</i>
330</pre> 459</pre>
331 460
332<p> 461<p>
333Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical 462Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
334volumes). 463volumes).
335</p> 464</p>
336 465
466<note>
467On the PegasosII your partition which holds the kernel must be ext2 or ext3.
468NewWorld machines can boot from any of ext2, ext3, XFS, ReiserFS or even
469HFS/HFS+ filesystems. On OldWorld machines booting with BootX, the kernel must
470be placed on an HFS partition, but this will be completed when you configure
471your bootloader.
472</note>
473
337</body> 474</body>
338</subsection> 475</subsection>
339<subsection> 476<subsection>
340<title>Activating the Swap Partition</title> 477<title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
341<body> 478<body>
343<p> 480<p>
344<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions: 481<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
345</p> 482</p>
346 483
347<pre caption="Creating a Swap signature"> 484<pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
348# <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i> 485# <i>mkswap /dev/hda3</i>
349</pre> 486</pre>
350 487
351<p> 488<p>
352To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>: 489To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
353</p> 490</p>
354 491
355<pre caption="Activating the swap partition"> 492<pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
356# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i> 493# <i>swapon /dev/hda3</i>
357</pre> 494</pre>
358 495
359<p> 496<p>
360Create and activate the swap now. 497Create and activate the swap now.
361</p> 498</p>
369 506
370<p> 507<p>
371Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is 508Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
372time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to 509time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
373create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an 510create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
374example we mount the root and boot partition: 511example we create a mount-point and mount the root partition:
375</p> 512</p>
376 513
377<pre caption="Mounting partitions"> 514<pre caption="Mounting partitions">
515# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
378# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i> 516# <i>mount /dev/hda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
379</pre> 517</pre>
380 518
381<note> 519<note>
382If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to 520If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
383change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This 521change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
384also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>. 522also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
385</note> 523</note>
386 524
387<p> 525<p>
388We also need to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the kernel) 526We will have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
389on <path>/proc</path>. We first create the <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> 527kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the
390mountpoint and then mount the filesystem: 528partitions.
391</p>
392
393<pre caption="Creating the /mnt/gentoo/proc mountpoint">
394# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
395# <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
396</pre>
397
398<p> 529</p>
530
531<p>
399Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo 532Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
400Installation Files</uri>. 533Installation Files</uri>.
401</p> 534</p>
402 535
403</body> 536</body>
404</section> 537</section>

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