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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
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6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.21 2004/11/14 08:35:27 dertobi123 Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.34 2006/02/27 00:55:34 fox2mike Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<version>1.19</version> 11<version>2.5</version>
12<date>November 2, 2004</date> 12<date>2006-02-27</date>
13 13
14<section> 14<section>
15<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title> 15<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16<subsection> 16<subsection>
17<title>Block Devices</title> 17<title>Block Devices</title>
24you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems 24you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
25for your Gentoo Linux installation. 25for your Gentoo Linux installation.
26</p> 26</p>
27 27
28<p> 28<p>
29To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is 29To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most common block device is
30probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system, namely 30the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system, namely
31<path>/dev/hda</path>. If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard 31<path>/dev/hda</path>. If you are installing onto SCSI, FireWire, USB or SATA
32drive would be <path>/dev/sda</path>. 32drives, then your first hard drive would be <path>/dev/sda</path>.
33</p> 33</p>
34 34
35<p> 35<p>
36The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User 36The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
37programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying 37programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
41</p> 41</p>
42 42
43</body> 43</body>
44</subsection> 44</subsection>
45<subsection> 45<subsection>
46<title>Partitions and Slices</title> 46<title>Partitions</title>
47<body> 47<body>
48 48
49<p> 49<p>
50Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux 50Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
51system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices 51system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
52are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems, 52are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems,
53these are called <e>partitions</e>. Other architectures use a similar technique, 53these are called <e>partitions</e>.
54called <e>slices</e>.
55</p> 54</p>
56 55
57</body> 56</body>
58</subsection> 57</subsection>
59</section> 58</section>
71<table> 70<table>
72<tr> 71<tr>
73 <th>Partition NewWorld</th> 72 <th>Partition NewWorld</th>
74 <th>Partition OldWorld</th> 73 <th>Partition OldWorld</th>
75 <th>Partition Pegasos</th> 74 <th>Partition Pegasos</th>
75 <th>Partition RS/6000</th>
76 <th>Filesystem</th> 76 <th>Filesystem</th>
77 <th>Size</th> 77 <th>Size</th>
78 <th>Description</th> 78 <th>Description</th>
79</tr> 79</tr>
80<tr> 80<tr>
81 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 81 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
82 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti> 82 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
83 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
83 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti> 84 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
84 <ti>(Partition Map)</ti> 85 <ti>(Partition Map)</ti>
85 <ti>32k</ti> 86 <ti>32k</ti>
86 <ti>Apple_partition_map</ti> 87 <ti>Apple_partition_map</ti>
87</tr> 88</tr>
88<tr> 89<tr>
89 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 90 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
90 <ti>(Not needed)</ti> 91 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
92 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
91 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti> 93 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
92 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti> 94 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti>
93 <ti>800k</ti> 95 <ti>800k</ti>
94 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti> 96 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti>
95</tr> 97</tr>
96<tr> 98<tr>
99 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
100 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
101 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
102 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
103 <ti>(PReP Boot)</ti>
104 <ti>800k</ti>
105 <ti>Type 0x41</ti>
106</tr>
107<tr>
108 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
109 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path> (If using quik)</ti>
110 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
111 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
112 <ti>ext2</ti>
113 <ti>32MB</ti>
114 <ti>Boot partition</ti>
115</tr>
116<tr>
97 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti> 117 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
118 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path>(<path>/dev/hda3</path> if using quik)</ti>
98 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 119 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
99 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 120 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
100 <ti>(swap)</ti> 121 <ti>(swap)</ti>
101 <ti>512M</ti> 122 <ti>512M</ti>
102 <ti>Swap partition</ti> 123 <ti>Swap partition, Type 0x82</ti>
103</tr> 124</tr>
104<tr> 125<tr>
105 <ti><path>/dev/hda4</path></ti> 126 <ti><path>/dev/hda4</path></ti>
127 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path> (<path>/dev/hda4</path> if using quik)</ti>
106 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti> 128 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
107 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 129 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
108 <ti>ext3</ti> 130 <ti>ext3, xfs</ti>
109 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti> 131 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti>
110 <ti>Root partition</ti> 132 <ti>Root partition, Type 0x83</ti>
111</tr> 133</tr>
112</table> 134</table>
113 135
114<note> 136<note>
115There are some partitions named like this: <path>Apple_Driver43, 137There are some partitions named: <path>Apple_Driver43, Apple_Driver_ATA,
116Apple_Driver_ATA, Apple_FWDriver, Apple_Driver_IOKit, 138Apple_FWDriver, Apple_Driver_IOKit, Apple_Patches</path>. If you are not
117Apple_Patches</path>. If you are not planning to use MacOS 9 you can 139planning to use MacOS 9 you can delete them, because MacOS X and Linux don't
118delete them, because MacOS X and Linux don't need them. 140need them. To delete them, either use parted or erase the whole disk by
119You might have to use parted in order to delete them, as mac-fdisk can't 141initializing the partition map.
120delete them yet.
121</note> 142</note>
122 143
144<warn>
145<c>parted</c> is able to resize partitions including HFS+. Unfortunately it is
146not possible to resize HFS+ journaled filesystems, so switch off journaling in
147Mac OS X before resizing. Remeber that any resizing operation is dangerous,
148so attempt at your own risk! Be sure to always have a backup of your data
149before resizing!
150</warn>
151
123<p> 152<p>
124If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how 153If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how many
125many partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with 154partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
126<uri link="#fdisk">Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple/IBM) to Partition your 155<uri link="#mac-fdisk"> Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple) to Partition your Disk
127Disk</uri> or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (especially Pegasos) to 156</uri> or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (IBM/Pegasos) to
128Partition your Disk</uri>. 157Partition your Disk</uri>.
129</p> 158</p>
130 159
131</body> 160</body>
132</subsection> 161</subsection>
136 165
137<p> 166<p>
138The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance, 167The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
139if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your 168if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
140<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier. 169<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
141If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your 170If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
142<path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside 171should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good
143<path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your 172choice of filesystem will then maximize your performance. Gameservers will have
144performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming 173a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The
145servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: 174reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. You will
146security and backups. 175definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big: not only will it contain the
176majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes around 500 MB
177excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
147</p> 178</p>
148 179
149<p> 180<p>
150As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate 181As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
151partitions or volumes have the following advantages: 182partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
163 If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can 194 If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
164 be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than 195 be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
165 it is with multiple partitions) 196 it is with multiple partitions)
166</li> 197</li>
167<li> 198<li>
168 Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only, 199 Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
169 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc. 200 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
170</li> 201</li>
171</ul> 202</ul>
172 203
173<p> 204<p>
174However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured 205However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
175properly, you might result in having a system with lots 206properly, you might result in having a system with lots of free space on one
176of free space on one partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition 207partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and
177limit for SCSI and SATA. 208SATA.
178</p> 209</p>
179 210
180</body> 211</body>
181</subsection> 212</subsection>
182</section> 213</section>
183<section id="fdisk"> 214<section id="mac-fdisk">
184<title>Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple/IBM) Partition your Disk</title> 215<title>Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple) Partition your Disk</title>
185<body> 216<body>
186 217
187<p> 218<p>
188At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>: 219At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>:
189</p> 220</p>
193</pre> 224</pre>
194 225
195<p> 226<p>
196First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your 227First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your
197Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s). 228Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s).
198It will ask for the partition number to delete. 229It will ask for the partition number to delete. The first partition on Apple
199</p> 230machines (Apple_partition_map) can not be deleted.
200
201<p> 231</p>
232
233<p>
202Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will 234On NewWorld Macs, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>.
203ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free 235It will ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first
204partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>1p</c>. 236free partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>.
205</p> 237</p>
206 238
207<note> 239<note>
208This partition is <e>not</e> a "boot" partition. It is not used by Linux at all; 240This partition is <e>not</e> a <path>/boot</path> partition. It is not used by
209you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never mount it. PPC 241Linux at all; you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never
210users don't need a an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>. 242mount it. Apple users don't need an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>.
211</note> 243</note>
212 244
213<p> 245<p>
214Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will 246Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
215ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>1</c> 247ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c>
216before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter 248before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
217<c>2p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size 249<c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
218you want -- 512MB is recommended though). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c> 250you want -- 512MB is recommended though). When asked for a name, enter
219(mandatory). 251<c>swap</c> (mandatory).
220</p>
221
222<p> 252</p>
253
254<p>
223To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>3p</c> to select 255To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select
224from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter 256from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
225<c>3p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available 257<c>4p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available
226space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory). 258space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory).
227</p> 259</p>
228 260
229<p> 261<p>
230To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to 262To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to
238by pressing "i" in mac-fdisk. Note that this will recreate the partition map 270by pressing "i" in mac-fdisk. Note that this will recreate the partition map
239and thus remove all your partitions. 271and thus remove all your partitions.
240</note> 272</note>
241 273
242<p> 274<p>
243Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri 275Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
244link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>. 276link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
245</p> 277</p>
246 278
247</body> 279</body>
248</section> 280</section>
249<section id="parted"> 281<section id="parted">
250<title>Using parted (especially Pegasos) to Partition your Disk</title> 282<title>Using parted (Mostly Pegasos) to Partition your Disk</title>
251<body> 283<body>
252 284
253<p> 285<p>
254<c>parted</c>, the Partition Editor, can now handle HFS+ partitions used by 286<c>parted</c>, the Partition Editor, can now handle HFS+ partitions used by
255Mac OS and Mac OS X. With this tool you can shrink your Mac-partitions and 287Mac OS and Mac OS X. With this tool you can resize your Mac-partitions and
256create space for your Linux partitions. Nevertheless, the example below 288create space for your Linux partitions. Nevertheless, the example below
257describes partitioning for Pegasos machines only. 289describes partitioning for Pegasos machines only.
258</p> 290</p>
259 291
260<p> 292<p>
264<pre caption="Starting parted"> 296<pre caption="Starting parted">
265# <i>parted /dev/hda</i> 297# <i>parted /dev/hda</i>
266</pre> 298</pre>
267 299
268<p> 300<p>
269If the drive is unpartitioned, run <c>mklabel amiga</c> to create a new 301If the drive isn't partitioned, run <c>mklabel amiga</c> to create a new
270disklabel for the drive. 302disklabel for the drive.
271</p> 303</p>
272 304
273<p> 305<p>
274You can type <c>print</c> at any time in parted to display the current partition 306You can type <c>print</c> at any time in parted to display the current partition
275table. Your changes aren't saved until you quit the application; if at any time 307table. If at any time you change your mind or made a mistake you can press
276you change your mind or made a mistake you can press <c>Ctrl-c</c> to abort 308<c>Ctrl-c</c> to abort parted.
277parted.
278</p> 309</p>
279 310
280<p> 311<p>
281If you intend to also install MorphOS on your Pegasos create an affs1 filesystem 312If you intend to also install MorphOS on your Pegasos create an affs1 filesystem
282named "BI0" (BI zero) at the start of the drive. 50MB should be more than enough 313named "BI0" (BI zero) at the start of the drive. 32MB should be more than enough
283to store the MorphOS kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use reiserfs or 314to store the MorphOS kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use reiserfs
284xfs, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the 315or xfs, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the
285Pegasos II can boot from ext2/ext3 drives). To create the partition run 316Pegasos II can only boot from ext2/ext3 or affs1 partitions). To create the partition run
286<c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> should 317<c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> should
287be replaced with the megabyte range (f.i. <c>5 55</c> creates a 50 MB partition 318be replaced with the megabyte range (e.g. <c>0 32</c> creates a 32 MB partition
288starting at 5MB and ending at 55MB. 319starting at 0MB and ending at 32MB.
289</p> 320</p>
290 321
291<p> 322<p>
292You need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem for all your 323You need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem for all your
293program files etc, and one swap partition. To create the root filesystem you 324program files etc, and one swap partition. To create the root filesystem you
306partition, run <c>mkpart primary linux-swap START END</c>. 337partition, run <c>mkpart primary linux-swap START END</c>.
307</p> 338</p>
308 339
309<p> 340<p>
310Write down the partition minor numbers as they are required during the 341Write down the partition minor numbers as they are required during the
311installation process. To dislay the minor numbers run <c>print</c>. Your drives 342installation process. To display the minor numbers run <c>print</c>. Your drives
312are accessed as <path>/dev/hdaX</path> where X is replaced with the minor number 343are accessed as <path>/dev/hdaX</path> where X is replaced with the minor number
313of the partition. 344of the partition.
314</p> 345</p>
315 346
316<p> 347<p>
324<subsection> 355<subsection>
325<title>Introduction</title> 356<title>Introduction</title>
326<body> 357<body>
327 358
328<p> 359<p>
329Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them. 360Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
330If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use 361If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
331as default in this handbook, continue with <uri 362as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
332link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>. 363 link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
333Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems... 364Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
334</p> 365</p>
335 366
336</body> 367</body>
337</subsection> 368</subsection>
338<subsection> 369<subsection>
339<title>Filesystems?</title> 370<title>Filesystems?</title>
340<body> 371<body>
341 372
342<p> 373<p>
343Several filesystems are available. ext2, ext3, reiserfs and xfs are found stable 374Several filesystems are available. ext2, ext3, ReiserFS and XFS have been found
344on the PPC architecture. jfs is unsupported. 375stable on the PPC architecture.
345</p> 376</p>
346 377
347<p> 378<p>
348<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata 379<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
349journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can 380journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
357<p> 388<p>
358<b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata 389<b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
359journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like 390journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like
360full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable 391full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
361filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables 392filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables
362high performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is an excellent 393high performance in almost all situations. You can enable this indexing by
363filesystem. 394adding <c>-O dir_index</c> to the <c>mke2fs</c> command. In short, ext3 is an
395excellent filesystem.
364</p> 396</p>
365 397
366<p> 398<p>
367<b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall 399<b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
368performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small 400performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
399 <th>Filesystem</th> 431 <th>Filesystem</th>
400 <th>Creation Command</th> 432 <th>Creation Command</th>
401</tr> 433</tr>
402<tr> 434<tr>
403 <ti>ext2</ti> 435 <ti>ext2</ti>
404 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti> 436 <ti><c>mkfs.ext2</c></ti>
405</tr> 437</tr>
406<tr> 438<tr>
407 <ti>ext3</ti> 439 <ti>ext3</ti>
408 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti> 440 <ti><c>mkfs.ext3</c></ti>
409</tr> 441</tr>
410<tr> 442<tr>
411 <ti>reiserfs</ti> 443 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
412 <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti> 444 <ti><c>mkfs.reiserfs</c></ti>
413</tr> 445</tr>
414<tr> 446<tr>
415 <ti>xfs</ti> 447 <ti>xfs</ti>
416 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti> 448 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
417</tr> 449</tr>
418</table> 450</table>
419 451
420<p> 452<p>
421For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/hda3</path> in our example) 453For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/hda4</path> in our example)
422in ext3 (as in our example), you would use: 454in ext3 (as in our example), you would use:
423</p> 455</p>
424 456
425<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition"> 457<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
426# <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</i> 458# <i>mkfs.ext3 /dev/hda4</i>
427</pre> 459</pre>
428 460
429<p> 461<p>
430Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical 462Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
431volumes). 463volumes).
432</p> 464</p>
433 465
434<note> 466<note>
435Be sure that the partition which will host your kernel (the 467On the PegasosII your partition which holds the kernel must be ext2 or ext3.
436<path>/boot</path>-path) must be ext2 or ext3. The bootloader can only handle 468NewWorld machines can boot from any of ext2, ext3, XFS, ReiserFS or even
437this filesystem. 469HFS/HFS+ filesystems. On OldWorld machines booting with BootX, the kernel must
470be placed on an HFS partition, but this will be completed when you configure
471your bootloader.
438</note> 472</note>
439 473
440</body> 474</body>
441</subsection> 475</subsection>
442<subsection> 476<subsection>
446<p> 480<p>
447<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions: 481<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
448</p> 482</p>
449 483
450<pre caption="Creating a Swap signature"> 484<pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
451# <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i> 485# <i>mkswap /dev/hda3</i>
452</pre> 486</pre>
453 487
454<p> 488<p>
455To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>: 489To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
456</p> 490</p>
457 491
458<pre caption="Activating the swap partition"> 492<pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
459# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i> 493# <i>swapon /dev/hda3</i>
460</pre> 494</pre>
461 495
462<p> 496<p>
463Create and activate the swap now. 497Create and activate the swap now.
464</p> 498</p>
472 506
473<p> 507<p>
474Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is 508Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
475time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to 509time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
476create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an 510create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
477example we create a mount-point and mount the root and boot partition: 511example we create a mount-point and mount the root partition:
478</p> 512</p>
479 513
480<pre caption="Mounting partitions"> 514<pre caption="Mounting partitions">
481# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i> 515# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
482# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i> 516# <i>mount /dev/hda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
483</pre> 517</pre>
484 518
485<note> 519<note>
486If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to 520If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
487change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This 521change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
488also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>. 522also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
489</note> 523</note>
490 524
491<p> 525<p>
492Finally we have to create the <path>/dev</path> files in our new home, which is
493needed during the bootloader installation. This could be done by "bind"-mapping
494the <path>/dev</path>-filesystem from the LiveCD:
495</p>
496
497<pre caption="Bind-mounting the /dev-filesystem">
498# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
499# <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
500</pre>
501
502<p>
503We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the 526We will have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
504kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions. 527kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the
528partitions.
505</p> 529</p>
506 530
507<p> 531<p>
508Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo 532Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
509Installation Files</uri>. 533Installation Files</uri>.

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