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7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.34 2006/02/27 00:55:34 fox2mike Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.39 2007/05/08 21:14:30 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<version>2.5</version> 11<version>8.0</version>
12<date>2006-02-27</date> 12<date>2007-05-07</date>
13 13
14<section> 14<section>
15<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title> 15<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16<subsection> 16<subsection>
17<title>Block Devices</title> 17<title>Block Devices</title>
18<body> 18<body>
19 19
20<p> 20<p>
21We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux 21We'll start by taking a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
22and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. 22and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices.
23Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems, 23Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems,
24you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems 24you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
25for your Gentoo Linux installation. 25for your Gentoo Linux installation.
26</p> 26</p>
27 27
28<p> 28<p>
29To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most common block device is 29To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most common block device is
30the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system, namely 30the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system, namely
31<path>/dev/hda</path>. If you are installing onto SCSI, FireWire, USB or SATA 31<path>/dev/hda</path>. If you are installing onto SCSI, FireWire, USB or SATA
32drives, then your first hard drive would be <path>/dev/sda</path>. 32drives, then your first hard drive would be <path>/dev/sda</path>. Additional
33drives are enumerated by the next letter in the alphabet. As an example, the
34third IDE disk could be found at <path>/dev/hdc</path>.
33</p> 35</p>
34 36
35<p> 37<p>
36The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User 38The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
37programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying 39programs can use these block devices to interact with the disk without worrying
38about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program can 40about whether the drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program can
39simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous, 41simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
40randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks. 42randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
41</p> 43</p>
42 44
43</body> 45</body>
62<title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title> 64<title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
63<body> 65<body>
64 66
65<p> 67<p>
66If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system, 68If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system,
67you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book: 69you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book. Choose the
70filesystem layout that best matches the type of PowerPC system you are
71installing on.
72</p>
73
74</body>
75</subsection>
76<subsection>
77<title>Apple New World</title>
78<body>
79
68</p> 80<p>
81Apple New World machines are fairly straightforward to configure. The first
82partition is always an <e>Apple Partition Map</e>. This partition keeps track
83of the layout of the disk. You cannot remove this partition. The next
84partition should always be a bootstrap partition. This partition contains a
85small (800k) HFS filesystem that holds a copy of the bootloader Yaboot and its
86configuration file. This partition is <e>not</e> the same as a
87<path>/boot</path> partition as found on other architectures. After the boot
88partition, the usual Linux filesystems are placed, according to the scheme
89below. The swap partition is a temporary storage place for when your system
90runs out of physical memory. The root partition will contain the filesystem
91that Gentoo is installed on. If you wish to dual boot, the OSX partition
92can go anywhere after the bootstrap partition to insure that yaboot starts
93first.
94</p>
95
96<note>
97There may be "Disk Driver" partitions on your disk such as
98<path>Apple_Driver63</path>, <path>Apple_Driver_ATA</path>,
99<path>Apple_FWDriver</path>, <path>Apple_Driver_IOKit</path>, and
100<path>Apple_Patches</path>. These are used to boot MacOS, so if you have no
101need for this, you can remove them by initializing the disk with mac-fdisk's
102<c>i</c> option. This will completely erase the disk! If you are in doubt,
103just let them be.
104</note>
105
106<note>
107If you partitioned this disk with Apple's Disk Utility, there may be
108128Mb spaces between partitions which Apple reserves for "future use". You
109can safely remove these.
110</note>
69 111
70<table> 112<table>
71<tr> 113<tr>
72 <th>Partition NewWorld</th>
73 <th>Partition OldWorld</th>
74 <th>Partition Pegasos</th> 114 <th>Partition</th>
75 <th>Partition RS/6000</th> 115 <th>Size</th>
76 <th>Filesystem</th> 116 <th>Filesystem</th>
117 <th>Description</th>
118</tr>
119<tr>
120 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
121 <ti>32k</ti>
122 <ti>None</ti>
123 <ti>Apple Partition Map</ti>
124</tr>
125<tr>
126 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
127 <ti>800k</ti>
128 <ti>HFS</ti>
129 <ti>Apple Bootstrap</ti>
130</tr>
131<tr>
132 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
133 <ti>512Mb</ti>
134 <ti>Swap</ti>
135 <ti>Linux Swap</ti>
136</tr>
137<tr>
138 <ti><path>/dev/hda4</path></ti>
139 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
140 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
141 <ti>Linux Root</ti>
142</tr>
143</table>
144
145</body>
146</subsection>
147<subsection>
148<title>Apple Old World</title>
149<body>
150
151<p>
152Apple Old World machines are a bit more complicated to configure. The first
153partition is always an <e>Apple Partition Map</e>. This partition keeps track
154of the layout of the disk. You cannot remove this partition. If you are using
155BootX, the configuration below assumes that MacOS is installed on a seperate
156disk. If this is not the case, there will be additional partitions for "Apple
157Disk Drivers" such as <path>Apple_Driver63, Apple_Driver_ATA, Apple_FWDriver,
158Apple_Driver_IOKit, Apple_Patches</path> and the MacOS install. If you are
159using Quik, you will need to create a boot partition to hold the kernel, unlike
160other Apple boot methods. After the boot partition, the usual Linux filesystems
161are placed, according to the scheme below. The swap partition is a temporary
162storage place for when your system runs out of physical memory. The root
163partition will contain the filesystem that Gentoo is installed on.
164</p>
165
166<note>
167If you are using an OldWorld machine, you will need to keep MacOS available.
168The layout here assumes MacOS is installed on a separate drive.
169</note>
170
171<table>
172<tr>
173 <th>Partition</th>
77 <th>Size</th> 174 <th>Size</th>
175 <th>Filesystem</th>
78 <th>Description</th> 176 <th>Description</th>
79</tr> 177</tr>
80<tr> 178<tr>
81 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 179 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
180 <ti>32k</ti>
181 <ti>None</ti>
182 <ti>Apple Partition Map</ti>
183</tr>
184<tr>
185 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
186 <ti>32Mb</ti>
187 <ti>ext2</ti>
188 <ti>Quik Boot Partition (quik only)</ti>
189</tr>
190<tr>
191 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
192 <ti>512Mb</ti>
193 <ti>Swap</ti>
194 <ti>Linux Swap</ti>
195</tr>
196<tr>
197 <ti><path>/dev/hda4</path></ti>
198 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
199 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
200 <ti>Linux Root</ti>
201</tr>
202</table>
203
204</body>
205</subsection>
206<subsection>
207<title>Pegasos</title>
208<body>
209
210<p>
211The Pegaos partition layout is quite simple compared to the Apple layouts.
212The first partition is a Boot Partition, which contains kernels to be booted,
213along with an OpenFirmware script that presents a menu on boot. After the boot
214partition, the usual Linux filesystems are placed, according to the scheme
215below. The swap partition is a temporary storage place for when your system
216runs out of physical memory. The root partition will contain the filesystem
217that Gentoo is installed on.
218</p>
219
220<table>
221<tr>
222 <th>Partition</th>
223 <th>Size</th>
224 <th>Filesystem</th>
225 <th>Description</th>
226</tr>
227<tr>
82 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 228 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
83 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
84 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
85 <ti>(Partition Map)</ti>
86 <ti>32k</ti> 229 <ti>32Mb</ti>
87 <ti>Apple_partition_map</ti> 230 <ti>affs1 or ext2</ti>
231 <ti>Boot Partition</ti>
88</tr> 232</tr>
89<tr> 233<tr>
90 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 234 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
91 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti> 235 <ti>512Mb</ti>
92 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti> 236 <ti>Swap</ti>
93 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti> 237 <ti>Linux Swap</ti>
94 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti> 238</tr>
239<tr>
240 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
241 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
242 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
243 <ti>Linux Root</ti>
244</tr>
245</table>
246
247</body>
248</subsection>
249<subsection>
250<title>IBM PReP (RS/6000)</title>
251<body>
252
253<p>
254The Pegaos partition layout is quite simple compared to the Apple layouts.
255The first partition is a Boot Partition, which contains kernels to be booted,
256along with an OpenFirmware script that presents a menu on boot. After the boot
257partition, the usual Linux filesystems are placed, according to the scheme
258below. The swap partition is a temporary storage place for when your system
259runs out of physical memory. The root partition will contain the filesystem
260that Gentoo is installed on.
261</p>
262
263<table>
264<tr>
265 <th>Partition</th>
266 <th>Size</th>
267 <th>Filesystem</th>
268 <th>Description</th>
269</tr>
270<tr>
271 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
95 <ti>800k</ti> 272 <ti>800k</ti>
96 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti> 273 <ti>None</ti>
97</tr> 274 <ti>PReP Boot Partition (Type 0x41)</ti>
98<tr> 275</tr>
99 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
100 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
101 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
102 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
103 <ti>(PReP Boot)</ti>
104 <ti>800k</ti>
105 <ti>Type 0x41</ti>
106</tr> 276<tr>
107<tr>
108 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
109 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path> (If using quik)</ti>
110 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 277 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
111 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
112 <ti>ext2</ti>
113 <ti>32MB</ti> 278 <ti>512Mb</ti>
114 <ti>Boot partition</ti> 279 <ti>Swap</ti>
280 <ti>Linux Swap (Type 0x82)</ti>
115</tr> 281</tr>
116<tr> 282<tr>
117 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti> 283 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
118 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path>(<path>/dev/hda3</path> if using quik)</ti>
119 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
120 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
121 <ti>(swap)</ti>
122 <ti>512M</ti>
123 <ti>Swap partition, Type 0x82</ti>
124</tr>
125<tr>
126 <ti><path>/dev/hda4</path></ti>
127 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path> (<path>/dev/hda4</path> if using quik)</ti>
128 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
129 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
130 <ti>ext3, xfs</ti>
131 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti> 284 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
132 <ti>Root partition, Type 0x83</ti> 285 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
286 <ti>Linux Root (Type 0x83)</ti>
133</tr> 287</tr>
134</table> 288</table>
135 289
136<note>
137There are some partitions named: <path>Apple_Driver43, Apple_Driver_ATA,
138Apple_FWDriver, Apple_Driver_IOKit, Apple_Patches</path>. If you are not
139planning to use MacOS 9 you can delete them, because MacOS X and Linux don't
140need them. To delete them, either use parted or erase the whole disk by
141initializing the partition map.
142</note>
143
144<warn> 290<warn>
145<c>parted</c> is able to resize partitions including HFS+. Unfortunately it is 291<c>parted</c> is able to resize partitions including HFS+. Unfortunately there
146not possible to resize HFS+ journaled filesystems, so switch off journaling in 292may be issues with resizing HFS+ journaled filesystems, so, for the best
147Mac OS X before resizing. Remeber that any resizing operation is dangerous, 293results, switch off journaling in Mac OS X before resizing. Remember that any
148so attempt at your own risk! Be sure to always have a backup of your data 294resizing operation is dangerous, so attempt at your own risk! Be sure to always
149before resizing! 295have a backup of your data before resizing!
150</warn> 296</warn>
151 297
152<p> 298<p>
153If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how many 299If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how many
154partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with 300partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
155<uri link="#mac-fdisk"> Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple) to Partition your Disk 301<uri link="#mac-fdisk"> Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple) to Partition your Disk
156</uri> or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (IBM/Pegasos) to 302</uri> or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (IBM/Pegasos) to
166<p> 312<p>
167The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance, 313The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
168if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your 314if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
169<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier. 315<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
170If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path> 316If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
171should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good 317should be separate as all received mail is stored in <path>/var</path>. A good
172choice of filesystem will then maximize your performance. Gameservers will have 318choice of filesystem will then maximise your performance. Game servers should
173a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The 319have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most game servers are installed there. The
174reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. You will 320reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. Whatever layout
175definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big: not only will it contain the 321you chose, you will definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> large: not only
176majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes around 500 MB 322will it contain the majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes
177excluding the various sources that are stored in it. 323more than 500Mb excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
178</p> 324</p>
179 325
180<p> 326<p>
181As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate 327As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
182partitions or volumes have the following advantages: 328partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
222<pre caption="Starting mac-fdisk"> 368<pre caption="Starting mac-fdisk">
223# <i>mac-fdisk /dev/hda</i> 369# <i>mac-fdisk /dev/hda</i>
224</pre> 370</pre>
225 371
226<p> 372<p>
227First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your 373If you used Apple's Disk Utility to leave space for Linux, first delete the
228Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s). 374partitions you have created previously to make room for your new install. Use
229It will ask for the partition number to delete. The first partition on Apple 375<c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s). It will ask for the
230machines (Apple_partition_map) can not be deleted. 376partition number to delete. Usually the first partition on NewWorld machines
231</p> 377(Apple_partition_map) could not be deleted. If you would like to start with a
232 378clean disk, you can simply initialize the disk by pressing <c>i</c>. This
379will completely erase the disk, so use this with caution.
233<p> 380</p>
381
382<p>
234On NewWorld Macs, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. 383Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will
235It will ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first 384ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free
236free partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>. 385partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>.
237</p> 386</p>
238 387
239<note> 388<note>
240This partition is <e>not</e> a <path>/boot</path> partition. It is not used by 389This partition is <e>not</e> a <path>/boot</path> partition. It is not used by
241Linux at all; you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never 390Linux at all; you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never
245<p> 394<p>
246Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will 395Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
247ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c> 396ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c>
248before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter 397before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
249<c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size 398<c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
250you want -- 512MB is recommended though). When asked for a name, enter 399you want -- a minimum of 512MB is recommended, but 2 times your physical memory
251<c>swap</c> (mandatory). 400is the generally accepted size). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c>.
252</p> 401</p>
253 402
254<p> 403<p>
255To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select 404To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select
256from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter 405from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
257<c>4p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available 406<c>4p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available
258space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory). 407space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c>.
259</p> 408</p>
260 409
261<p> 410<p>
262To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to 411To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to
263quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>. 412quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>.
264</p> 413</p>
265 414
266<note> 415<note>
267To make sure everything is ok, you should run mac-fdisk once more and check 416To make sure everything is ok, you should run <c>mac-fdisk -l</c> and check
268whether all the partitions are there. If you don't see any of the partitions 417whether all the partitions are there. If you don't see any of the partitions
269you created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions 418you created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions
270by pressing "i" in mac-fdisk. Note that this will recreate the partition map 419by pressing "i" in mac-fdisk. Note that this will recreate the partition map
271and thus remove all your partitions. 420and thus remove all your partitions.
272</note> 421</note>
273 422
274<p> 423<p>
275Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri 424Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with
276link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>. 425<uri link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
277</p> 426</p>
278 427
279</body> 428</body>
280</section> 429</section>
281<section id="parted"> 430<section id="parted">
282<title>Using parted (Mostly Pegasos) to Partition your Disk</title> 431<title>Using parted to Partition your Disk (Pegasos and RS/6000)</title>
283<body> 432<body>
284 433
285<p> 434<p>
286<c>parted</c>, the Partition Editor, can now handle HFS+ partitions used by 435<c>parted</c>, the Partition Editor, can now handle HFS+ partitions used by
287Mac OS and Mac OS X. With this tool you can resize your Mac-partitions and 436Mac OS and Mac OS X. With this tool you can resize your Mac-partitions and
296<pre caption="Starting parted"> 445<pre caption="Starting parted">
297# <i>parted /dev/hda</i> 446# <i>parted /dev/hda</i>
298</pre> 447</pre>
299 448
300<p> 449<p>
301If the drive isn't partitioned, run <c>mklabel amiga</c> to create a new 450If the drive is unpartitioned, run <c>mklabel amiga</c> to create a new
302disklabel for the drive. 451disklabel for the drive.
303</p> 452</p>
304 453
305<p> 454<p>
306You can type <c>print</c> at any time in parted to display the current partition 455You can type <c>print</c> at any time in parted to display the current partition
308<c>Ctrl-c</c> to abort parted. 457<c>Ctrl-c</c> to abort parted.
309</p> 458</p>
310 459
311<p> 460<p>
312If you intend to also install MorphOS on your Pegasos create an affs1 filesystem 461If you intend to also install MorphOS on your Pegasos create an affs1 filesystem
313named "BI0" (BI zero) at the start of the drive. 32MB should be more than enough 462at the start of the drive. 32MB should be more than enough to store the MorphOS
314to store the MorphOS kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use reiserfs 463kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use any filesystem besides ext2 or
315or xfs, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the 464ext3, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the
316Pegasos II can only boot from ext2/ext3 or affs1 partitions). To create the partition run 465Pegasos II can only boot from ext2/ext3 or affs1 partitions). To create the
317<c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> should 466partition run <c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and
318be replaced with the megabyte range (e.g. <c>0 32</c> creates a 32 MB partition 467<c>END</c> should be replaced with the megabyte range (e.g. <c>0 32</c> which
319starting at 0MB and ending at 32MB. 468creates a 32 MB partition starting at 0MB and ending at 32MB. If you chose to
320</p> 469create an ext2 or ext3 partition instead, substitute ext2 or ext3 for affs1 in
321 470the mkpart command.
322<p> 471</p>
323You need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem for all your 472
324program files etc, and one swap partition. To create the root filesystem you
325must first decide which filesystem to use. Possible options are ext2, ext3,
326reiserfs and xfs. Unless you know what you are doing, use ext3. Run
327<c>mkpart primary ext3 START END</c> to create an ext3 partition. Again, replace
328<c>START</c> and <c>END</c> with the megabyte start and stop marks for the
329partition.
330</p> 473<p>
331 474You will need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem and one
475swap partition. Run <c>mkpart primary START END</c> to create each partition,
476replacing <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> with the desired megabyte boundries.
332<p> 477</p>
478
479<p>
333It is generally recommended that you create a swap partition the same size as 480It is generally recommended that you create a swap partition that is two times
334the amount of RAM in your computer times two. You will probably get away with a 481bigger than the amount of RAM in your computer, but at least 512Mb is
335smaller swap partition unless you intend to run a lot of applications at the 482recommended. To create the swap partition, run
336same time (although at least 512MB is recommended). To create the swap 483<c>mkpart primary linux-swap START END</c> with START and END again denoting
337partition, run <c>mkpart primary linux-swap START END</c>. 484the partition boundries.
338</p>
339
340<p> 485</p>
341Write down the partition minor numbers as they are required during the 486
342installation process. To display the minor numbers run <c>print</c>. Your drives
343are accessed as <path>/dev/hdaX</path> where X is replaced with the minor number
344of the partition.
345</p> 487<p>
346
347<p>
348When you are done in parted simply run <c>quit</c>. 488When you are done in parted simply type <c>quit</c>.
349</p> 489</p>
350 490
351</body> 491</body>
352</section> 492</section>
353<section id="filesystems"> 493<section id="filesystems">
356<title>Introduction</title> 496<title>Introduction</title>
357<body> 497<body>
358 498
359<p> 499<p>
360Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them. 500Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
361If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use 501If you're not sure which filesystems to choose and are happy with our defaults,
362as default in this handbook, continue with <uri 502continue with
363 link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>. 503<uri link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
364Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems... 504Otherwise, read on to learn about the available filesystems.
365</p> 505</p>
366 506
367</body> 507</body>
368</subsection> 508</subsection>
369<subsection> 509<subsection>
370<title>Filesystems?</title> 510<title>Filesystems?</title>
371<body> 511<body>
372 512
373<p> 513<p>
374Several filesystems are available. ext2, ext3, ReiserFS and XFS have been found 514Several filesystems are available for use on the PowerPC architecture including
375stable on the PPC architecture. 515ext2, ext3, ReiserFS and XFS, each with their strengths and faults.
376</p> 516</p>
377 517
378<p> 518<p>
379<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata 519<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
380journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can 520journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
381be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation 521be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of journaled
382journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are 522filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are thus
383thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled 523generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
384filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
385happens to be in an inconsistent state.
386</p> 524</p>
387 525
388<p> 526<p>
389<b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata 527<b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
390journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like 528journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
391full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable 529like full data and ordered data journaling. It uses a hashed B*-tree index that
392filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables 530enables high performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is a very
393high performance in almost all situations. You can enable this indexing by 531good and reliable filesystem and is highly recommended for most installs.
394adding <c>-O dir_index</c> to the <c>mke2fs</c> command. In short, ext3 is an
395excellent filesystem.
396</p>
397
398<p> 532</p>
533
534<p>
399<b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall 535<b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
400performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small 536performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
401files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales 537files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
402extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is 538extremely well and has metadata journaling. ReiserFS is solid and usable as
403solid and usable as both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such 539both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of
404as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large 540large filesystems, very large files and directories containing tens of
405files and directories containing tens of thousands of files. 541thousands of small files.
406</p> 542</p>
407 543
408<p> 544<p>
409<b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling which comes with a robust 545<b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling which comes with a robust
410feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this 546feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
415deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly. 551deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
416</p> 552</p>
417 553
418</body> 554</body>
419</subsection> 555</subsection>
420<subsection id="filesystems-apply">
421<title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
422<body>
423
424<p>
425To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
426each possible filesystem:
427</p>
428
429<table>
430<tr>
431 <th>Filesystem</th>
432 <th>Creation Command</th>
433</tr>
434<tr>
435 <ti>ext2</ti>
436 <ti><c>mkfs.ext2</c></ti>
437</tr>
438<tr>
439 <ti>ext3</ti>
440 <ti><c>mkfs.ext3</c></ti>
441</tr>
442<tr>
443 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
444 <ti><c>mkfs.reiserfs</c></ti>
445</tr>
446<tr>
447 <ti>xfs</ti>
448 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
449</tr>
450</table>
451
452<p>
453For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/hda4</path> in our example)
454in ext3 (as in our example), you would use:
455</p>
456
457<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
458# <i>mkfs.ext3 /dev/hda4</i>
459</pre>
460
461<p>
462Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
463volumes).
464</p>
465
466<note>
467On the PegasosII your partition which holds the kernel must be ext2 or ext3.
468NewWorld machines can boot from any of ext2, ext3, XFS, ReiserFS or even
469HFS/HFS+ filesystems. On OldWorld machines booting with BootX, the kernel must
470be placed on an HFS partition, but this will be completed when you configure
471your bootloader.
472</note>
473
474</body>
475</subsection>
476<subsection> 556<subsection>
477<title>Activating the Swap Partition</title> 557<title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
478<body> 558<body>
479 559
480<p> 560<p>
481<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions: 561<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
482</p> 562</p>
483 563
484<pre caption="Creating a Swap signature"> 564<pre caption="Creating a swap signature">
485# <i>mkswap /dev/hda3</i> 565# <i>mkswap /dev/hda3</i>
486</pre> 566</pre>
487 567
488<p> 568<p>
489To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>: 569To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
492<pre caption="Activating the swap partition"> 572<pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
493# <i>swapon /dev/hda3</i> 573# <i>swapon /dev/hda3</i>
494</pre> 574</pre>
495 575
496<p> 576<p>
497Create and activate the swap now. 577Create and activate the swap now before creating other filesystems.
578</p>
579
580</body>
581</subsection>
582<subsection id="filesystems-apply">
583<title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
584<body>
585
498</p> 586<p>
587To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
588each possible filesystem:
589</p>
590
591<table>
592<tr>
593 <th>Filesystem</th>
594 <th>Creation Command</th>
595</tr>
596<tr>
597 <ti>ext2</ti>
598 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
599</tr>
600<tr>
601 <ti>ext3</ti>
602 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
603</tr>
604<tr>
605 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
606 <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
607</tr>
608<tr>
609 <ti>xfs</ti>
610 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
611</tr>
612</table>
613
614<p>
615For instance, to make an ext3 filesystem on the root partition
616(<path>/dev/hda4</path> in our example), you would use:
617</p>
618
619<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
620# <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda4</i>
621</pre>
622
623<p>
624Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
625volumes).
626</p>
627
628<note>
629On the PegasosII your partition which holds the kernel must be ext2, ext3 or
630affs1. NewWorld machines can boot from any of ext2, ext3, XFS, ReiserFS or
631even HFS/HFS+ filesystems. On OldWorld machines booting with BootX, the kernel
632must be placed on an HFS partition, but this will be completed when you
633configure your bootloader.
634</note>
499 635
500</body> 636</body>
501</subsection> 637</subsection>
502</section> 638</section>
503<section> 639<section>
504<title>Mounting</title> 640<title>Mounting</title>
505<body> 641<body>
506 642
507<p> 643<p>
508Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is 644Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
509time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to 645time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. As an example we
510create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an 646mount the root partition:
511example we create a mount-point and mount the root partition:
512</p> 647</p>
513 648
514<pre caption="Mounting partitions"> 649<pre caption="Mounting partitions">
515# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
516# <i>mount /dev/hda4 /mnt/gentoo</i> 650# <i>mount /dev/hda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
517</pre> 651</pre>
518 652
519<note> 653<note>
520If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to 654If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
521change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This 655change its permissions after mounting and unpacking with
522also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>. 656<c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This is also true for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
523</note> 657</note>
524
525<p>
526We will have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
527kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the
528partitions.
529</p>
530 658
531<p> 659<p>
532Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo 660Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
533Installation Files</uri>. 661Installation Files</uri>.
534</p> 662</p>

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